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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049996, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether engagement in COVID-19-related work was associated with an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms among the staff members working in a designated medical institution for COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were obtained from a health survey conducted in July 2020 among the staff members of a designated medical institution for COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1228 hospital workers. EXPOSURE OF INTEREST: Engagement in COVID-19-related work (qualitatively (ie, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at work or affiliation to related departments) as well as quantitatively (ie, working hours)) and job categories. OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms. RESULTS: There was no significant association between depressive symptoms and engagement in work with potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or affiliation to COVID-19-related departments. However, working for longer hours in March/April, when Japan witnessed a large number of infected cases, was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (≥11 hours/day: prevalence ratio (PR)=1.45, 95% CI=1.06 to 1.99, compared with ≤8 hours/day). Nurses were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms than did doctors (PR=1.70, 95% CI=1.14 to 2.54). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at work or having an affiliation to related departments might not be linked with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among Japanese hospital workers; contrarily, long working hours appeared to increase the prevalence of depressive symptoms.

2.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While it is essential to understand how long is sufficient for return-to-work when designing paid sick-leave systems, little attempt has been done to collect cause-specific information on when and how many of sickness absentees returned to work, became unemployed, or passed away. METHODS: We studied the first sick-leave episode of ≥30 consecutive days in those ≤55 years of age during 2012-2013 among 11 Japanese private companies (n = 1209), which were followed until 2017. Overall and disease-specific cumulative incidences of return-to-work, resignations, and deaths were estimated using competing risk analysis. RESULTS: During the 3.5-year period (follow-up rate: 99.9%), 1014 returned to work, 167 became unemployed, and 27 died. Overall, return-to-work occurred within 1 year in 74.9% of all absentees and in 89.3% of those who successfully returned to work. Resignation occurred within 1 year in 8.7% of all absentees and in 62.9% of all subjects who resigned. According to ICD-10 chapters, the cumulative incidence of return-to-work ranged from 82.1% for mental disorders (F00-F99) to 95.3% for circulatory diseases (I00-I99). The cumulative incidence of return-to-work due to mental disorders ranged from 66.7% in schizophrenia (F20) to 95.8% in bipolar affective disorders (F31). Death was rarely observed except for cases of neoplasms (C00-D48), of which the cumulative incidence of death reached 14.2% by 1.5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Return-to-work and resignations occurred commonly within 1 year of sick leave among long-term sickness absentees in the Japanese private companies. Our findings may assist occupational physicians and employers in developing effective social protection schemes.

3.
Cancer Med ; 10(6): 2153-2163, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650323

RESUMO

Prior studies reported the association of reproductive factors with breast cancer (BC), but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the impact of six reproductive factors (age at menarche/age at first birth/number of births/age at menopause/use of female hormones/breastfeeding) on BC incidence. We conducted analyses according to menopausal status at the baseline or at the diagnosis. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by applying Cox proportional-hazards model in each study. These hazard ratios were integrated using a random-effects model. Among 187,999 women (premenopausal: 61,113, postmenopausal: 126,886), we observed 873 premenopausal and 1,456 postmenopausal cases. Among premenopausal women, use of female hormones significantly increased BC incidence (HR: 1.53 [1.04-2.25]). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and number of births (P for trend: 0.15 and 0.30, respectively), women giving first birth at ages ≥36 experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women who had ≥2 births experienced significantly lower BC incidence than nulliparous women. Among postmenopausal women, more births significantly decreased BC incidence (P for trend: 0.03). Although P value for trend was not significant for age at first birth and age at menopause (P for trend: 0.30 and 0.37, respectively), women giving first birth at ages 26-35 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than at ages 21-25 years, and women with age at menopause: ≥50 years experienced significantly higher BC incidence than age at menopause: ≤44 years. BC incidence was similar according to age at menarche or breastfeeding history among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, among Japanese women, use of female hormones increased BC incidence in premenopausal women, and more births decreased BC incidence in postmenopausal women.

5.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous research has focused on the association between long working hours and several mental health outcomes, little is known about the association in relation to mental health-related sickness absence, which is a measure of productive loss. We aimed to investigate the association between overtime work and the incidence of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders. METHODS: Data came from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study (J-ECOH). A total of 47,422 subjects were followed-up in the period between April 2012 and March 2017. Information on long-term sickness absence (LTSA) was obtained via a study-specific registry. Baseline information was obtained at an annual health checkup in 2011; overtime working hours were categorized into <45; 45-79; 80-99; and ≥100 hours/month. RESULTS: During a total follow-up period of 211,443 person-years, 536 people took LTSA due to mental disorders. A Cox proportional hazards model was revealed that compared to those with less than 45 hours/month of overtime work, those with 45-79 hours/month were at a lower risk of LTSA due to mental health problems (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55-0.72) while those with overtime work of ≥100 hours/month had a 2.11 times (95%CI = 1.10-4.07) higher risk of LTSA due to mental health problems. CONCLUSION: Engaging in excessive overtime work was linked with a higher risk of LTSA due to mental health problems while the lower risk observed among individuals working 45-79 hours/month of overtime work might have been due to a healthy worker effect.

7.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 757-764, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes has been suggested to increase risk for death; however, the definitions of prediabetes that can predict death remain elusive. We prospectively investigated the association of multiple definitions of prediabetes with the risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in Japanese workers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 62,785 workers who underwent a health checkup in 2010 or 2011 and were followed up for death from 2012 to March 2019. Prediabetes was defined according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values or a combination of both using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) or World Health Organization (WHO)/International Expert Committee (IEC) criteria. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to investigate the associations. RESULTS: Over a 7-year follow-up, 229 deaths were documented. Compared with normoglycemia, prediabetes defined according to ADA criteria was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53; 95% CI 1.12-2.09) and death due to cancer (HR 2.37; 95% CI 1.45-3.89) but not with death due to CVD. The results were materially unchanged when prediabetes was defined according to ADA FPG, ADA HbA1c, WHO FPG, or combined WHO/IEC criteria. Diabetes was associated with the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer deaths. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of Japanese workers, FPG- and HbA1c-defined prediabetes, according to ADA or WHO/IEC, were associated with a significantly increased risk of death from all causes and cancer but not CVD.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2736-2747, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497475

RESUMO

Although alcohol consumption is reported to increase the incidence of breast cancer in European studies, evidence for an association between alcohol and breast cancer in Asian populations is insufficient. We conducted a pooled analysis of eight large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies in Japan to evaluate the association between alcohol (both frequency and amount) and breast cancer risk with categorization by menopausal status at baseline and at diagnosis. Estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in the individual cohorts and combined using random-effects models. Among 158 164 subjects with 2 369 252 person-years of follow-up, 2208 breast cancer cases were newly diagnosed. Alcohol consumption had a significant association with a higher risk of breast cancer in both women who were premenopausal at baseline (regular drinker compared to nondrinker: HR 1.37, 1.04-1.81, ≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.74, 1.25-2.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .017) and those who were premenopausal at diagnosis (≥23 g/d compared to 0 g/d: HR 1.89, 1.04-3.43, P for trend per frequency category: P = .032). In contrast, no significant association was seen in women who were postmenopausal at baseline or at diagnosis, despite a substantial number of subjects and long follow-up period. Our results revealed that frequent and high alcohol consumption are both risk factors for Asian premenopausal breast cancer, similarly to previous studies in Western countries. The lack of a clear association in postmenopausal women in our study warrants larger investigation in Asia.

9.
Nutrition ; 81: 110860, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Consumption of soft drinks has become a serious public health issue worldwide. However, prospective evidence is limited regarding the relationship between soft drink consumption and depression, especially in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective association between soft drink consumption and the development of depressive symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated an occupational cohort of 935 adults in Japan (2012-2016), who were free from depressive symptoms at baseline and attended a 3-y follow-up assessment. Soft drink consumption was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, dietary, and occupational covariates. RESULTS: Over the 3-y study period, 16.9% (158 cases) of the study participants reported depressive symptoms. Higher soft drink consumption was associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted OR was 1.91 (95% CI, 1.11-3.29; Ptrend = 0.015) when comparing soft drink consumption of ≥4 cups/wk with consumption of <1 cup/wk. CONCLUSION: The present results suggested that greater consumption of soft drinks would increase the likelihood of exhibiting depressive symptoms.

10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276988

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional associations between frequency of eating with others and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees while accounting for lifestyle and dietary factors. We also examined the relationship with stratification by living arrangement. Participants were 1876 workers aged 18-74 years who participated in a health survey at a periodic checkup. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Frequency of eating with others was categorized into ranges between daily and <1 day/week. Associations between frequency of eating with others and depressive symptoms were assessed using logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 32.9%. The prevalence of depressive symptoms tended to increase with decreasing frequency of eating with others, with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest through lowest frequency groups of eating meals with others being 1.00 (reference), 1.27 (0.92-1.74), 1.56 (1.11-2.21), 1.86 (1.29-2.67), and 2.22 (1.53-3.22), respectively (P for trend<0.001). In analysis stratified by living arrangement, a significant association was found with those living with others but not those living alone (P for interaction <0.001). Lower frequency of eating with others may be associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms among Japanese workers living with others, even after controlling for lifestyle and dietary factors.

12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139853

RESUMO

This study examined the association of green tea consumption with influenza among Japanese workers in the Kanto and Tokai areas. We conducted a case-control study in a cohort of 4302 workers. Consumption frequency of green tea in 2011 and physician-diagnosed influenza that occurred over the winter season from November 2011 through April 2012 were ascertained using a self-administered questionnaire. Two controls matched by company, sex, and age (and checkup date in one company) were randomly selected for each case. Odds ratio of influenza were estimated by conditional logistic regression. One hundred and seventy-nine cases and 353 controls with complete data were included in the analysis. Green tea consumption was significantly associated with decreased odds of developing influenza; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for green tea consumption of ≥5 cups/week was 0.61 (95% CI 0.39-0.95) compared with <1 cup/week (P for trend = 0.028). When analysis was restricted to cases confirmed using a diagnostic kit, the corresponding value was 0.68 (95% CI 0.39-1.18; P for trend = 0.16). Our data suggest that green tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of influenza. The present findings require confirmation in large-scale prospective studies using diagnostic tool for influenza infection.

13.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 3214676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195702

RESUMO

Introduction: The relationship between HbA1c and diabetic retinopathy is expected to differ between different races. This study was designed to verify whether HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is more effective in detecting diabetic retinopathy in a Japanese population. Materials and Methods: The study subjects underwent health examinations between 2008 and 2009 with fasting. Of these participants, we analyzed the data for 2,921 Japanese men who had undergone an ophthalmologic examination. Retinopathy was classified into 7 categories according to a simplified diabetic retinopathy scale. The odds ratios of retinopathy according to the eight groups of FPG and HbA1c were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to evaluate each value associated with the presence or absence of retinopathy. Results and Discussion. The odds ratios (95% CI) of retinopathy for HbA1c level categories, in ascending order, were 1.0 (ref.), 0.88 (0.28-2.75), 1.27 (0.44-3.69), 1.52 (0.48-4.79), 1.89 (0.52-6.85), 2.70 (0.66-11.10), 4.10 (0.80-21.00), and 6.34 (2.37-16.97) where the odds ratios significantly increased with HbA1c ≥ 6.8%. The area under the curve (SE) for FPG and HbA1c was almost the same, at 0.668 (0.043) and 0.680 (0.043), respectively. Conclusions: It was clarified that the higher the level of HbA1c, the higher the prevalence of retinopathy, and there was no clear threshold. The detection ability of retinopathy was almost the same, suggesting that it is possible to detect the risk of retinopathy by HbA1c only.

15.
J Psychosom Res ; 138: 110246, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of diabetes and prediabetes with suicide deaths in a Japanese working population. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted using data from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. During 8 years of follow-up, we identified 56 registered cases of suicide death that had information on fasting plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c at any health check-up during the past 3 years prior to suicide. For each case, we randomly selected five controls matched for age, sex, and worksite. We used the latest health check-up data for analysis. We defined diabetes status based on the American Diabetes Association criteria and used a conditional logistic regression model to investigate the association. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicide death were 0.67 (0.32-1.41) and 3.53 (1.05-11.91) for prediabetes and diabetes, respectively, compared to normoglycemia. Similar results were obtained when diabetes status was exclusively defined by the fasting plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c level. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, but not prediabetes, was associated with a higher risk of suicide death, compared with normoglycemia, among a Japanese working population.

16.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score and mortality among Asians, a population that consumes a large amount of carbohydrates. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) score (based on percentage of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein) and the risk of total and cause-specific mortality among Asians. DESIGN: This study was a prospective cohort study in Japan with follow-up for a median of 16.9 years involving 43008 men and 50646 women aged 45-75 years. Association of LCD score, LCD score based on animal sources of protein and fat, and LCD score based on plant sources of protein and fat with risk of mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: A U-shaped association was observed between LCD score and total mortality: the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) of total mortality for lowest through highest scores were 1.00, 0.95 (0.91, 1.01), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), and 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) (P-non-linearity <0.01). A similar association was found for mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease. LCD score based on carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat also showed a U-shaped association for total mortality (P-non-linearity <0.01). In contrast, LCD score based on carbohydrate, plant protein, and plant fat was linearly associated with lower total (HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile), CVD [0.82 (0.73, 0.92)], heart disease [0.83 (0.71, 0.98)], and cerebrovascular disease [0.75 (0.62, 0.91) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Both LCD with high animal protein and fat and high-carbohydrate diet with low animal protein and fat were associated with higher risk of mortality. Meanwhile, LCD high in plant-based sources of protein and fat was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality.

17.
Nutrition ; 78: 110962, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866899

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence from prospective studies on the association between eating speed and metabolic syndrome is limited. We prospectively investigated the association between eating speed and metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population. METHODS: Participants were 1018 workers (ages 19-68 y) without metabolic syndrome at baseline who completed both baseline and 3-y follow-up surveys. Eating speed was self-reported and categorized as slow, medium, or fast. Metabolic syndrome was defined using criteria recommended in a joint interim statement from several international societies. A multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome according to eating speed with adjustment for covariates, including total energy intake. RESULTS: At the 3-y follow-up, 67 workers (6.6%) were newly identified as having metabolic syndrome. Fast eating speed was significantly associated with increased odds of developing metabolic syndrome, with multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for eating fast of 2.13 (95% confidence intervals, 1.23-3.68) compared with medium eating speed with an adjustment for covariates, including total energy intake. The association remained statistically significant after an additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and BMI change between baseline and follow-up surveys (odds ratio: 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-3.56). CONCLUSIONS: Fast eating speed was associated with an increased likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome independently of total energy intake, BMI at baseline, and BMI change during the follow-up period.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761607

RESUMO

Smoking has been consistently associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations; however, evidence is limited and inconsistent in Asian people. To assess the association of smoking status, smoking intensity and smoking cessation with colorectal risk in the Japanese population, we performed a pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohort studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox's proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random-effects model. Among 363 409 participants followed up for 2 666 004 person-years, 9232 incident CRCs were identified. In men, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed higher risk of CRC. The HRs (95% CI) were 1.19 (1.10-1.29) for CRC, 1.19 (1.09-1.30) for colon cancer, 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for distal colon cancer and 1.21 (1.07-1.36) for rectal cancer. Smoking was associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. In women, compared with never smokers, ever smokers showed increased risk of distal colon cancer (1.47 [1.19-1.82]). There was no evidence of a significant gender difference in the association of smoking and CRC risk. Our results confirm that smoking is associated with an increased risk of CRC, both overall and subsites, in Japanese men and distal colon cancer in Japanese women.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764504

RESUMO

Calcium and phosphate may play an important role in cardio-metabolic abnormalities, including type 2 diabetes; however, epidemiological evidence of the association of calcium and phosphate status with glucose metabolism among Asians is limited. In the current study, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of the association of serum calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product concentrations with glucose metabolism markers among Japanese individuals. Overall, 1701 workers (aged 18-78 years) who participated in a health survey were enrolled in this study. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate means of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function (HOMA-ß), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum calcium concentration was positively associated with HOMA-IR and HbA1c (p for trend < 0.01). Multivariable-adjusted means (95% confidence interval (CI)) of HOMA-IR for the lowest and highest quartiles of serum calcium were 0.78 (0.75-0.82) and 1.01 (0.96-1.07), respectively. The corresponding values for HbA1c were 5.24 (5.22-5.27) and 5.29 (5.26-5.32), respectively. Serum phosphate and calcium-phosphate product concentrations were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (p for trend < 0.01). Multivariable-adjusted means (95% CI) of HOMA-IR for the lowest and highest quartiles of serum phosphate were 1.04 (0.99-1.09) and 0.72 (0.69-0.76), respectively. The corresponding values for calcium-phosphate product were 1.04 (0.99-1.09) and 0.73 (0.69-0.77), respectively. The current findings suggest that higher serum calcium and lower serum phosphate concentrations are associated with IR among apparently healthy adults.

20.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While much effort has focused on quantifying disease burden in occupational health, no study has simultaneously assessed disease burden in terms of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to propose a new comprehensive method of quantifying the disease burden in the workplace. METHOD: The data were obtained from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health (J-ECOH) Study, a large-scale prospective study of approximately 80,000 workers. We defined disease burden in the workplace as the number of working years lost among the working population during a 6-year period (April 2012 to March 2018). We calculated the disease burden according to consequences of health problems (i.e., mortality, sickness absence [SA], and ill-health retirement) and disease category. We also calculated the age-group- (20-39 and 40-59 years old) and sex-specific disease burden. RESULTS: The largest contributors to disease burden in the workplace were mental and behavioural disorders (47.0 person-years lost per 10,000 person-years of working years, i.e., per myriad [proportion]), followed by neoplasms (10.8 per myriad) and diseases of the circulatory system (7.1 per myriad). While mental and behavioural disorders made a greater contribution to SA and ill-health retirement compared to mortality, the latter two disorders were the largest contributors to the disease burden in the workplace due to mortality. The number of working years lost was greater among younger vs. older female participants, whereas the opposite trend was observed in males. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach is in contrast to those in previous studies that focused exclusively on mortality or morbidity.

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