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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639103

RESUMO

Various pathogens, such as Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2, are threatening human health worldwide. The natural hosts of these pathogens are thought to be bats. The rousette bat, a megabat, is thought to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses. Additionally, the rousette bat showed a transient infection in the experimental inoculation of SARS-CoV-2. In the current study, we established and characterized intestinal organoids from Leschenault's rousette, Rousettus leschenaultii. The established organoids successfully recapitulated the characteristics of intestinal epithelial structure and morphology, and the appropriate supplements necessary for long-term stable culture were identified. The organoid showed susceptibility to Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) but not to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental inoculation. This is the first report of the establishment of an expandable organoid culture system of the rousette bat intestinal organoid and its sensitivity to bat-associated viruses, PRV and SARS-CoV-2. This organoid is a useful tool for the elucidation of tolerance mechanisms of the emerging rousette bat-associated viruses such as Ebola and Marburg virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Organoides/virologia , Orthoreovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/virologia , Organoides/citologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
2.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 68: 126865, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascites is associated with the poor prognosis of malignant tumors. The biological importance of the changes in the content of trace elements in the ascitic fluid is unknown. Herein, we analyzed trace elements in the ascitic fluid of patients with ovarian tumors and used cultured cells to determine the copper (Cu)-induced changes in gene expression in ovarian cancer. METHODS: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to compare ascitic fluid trace element levels in patients with benign ovarian tumors (n = 22) and borderline/malignant tumors (n = 5) for primary screening. Cu levels were validated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in 88 benign, 11 borderline, and 25 malignant ovarian tumor patients. To confirm Cu-induced gene expression changes, microarray analysis was performed for Cu-treated OVCAR3, A2780, and Met5A cells. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in the cell supernatant or ascitic fluid (ovarian cancer samples) was measured using ELISA. RESULTS: ICP-MS showed that Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Mo levels significantly increased in patients with malignant/borderline ovarian tumors compared to those in patients with benign ovarian tumors. AAS showed that malignant ovarian tumors were independently associated with elevated levels of Cu in ascites adjusted for age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, and supplement use (p < 0.001). Microarray analysis of both Cu-treated ovarian cancer cell lines OVCAR3 and A2780 and the mesothelial cell line Met-5A revealed the upregulation of the angiogenesis biological process. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA demonstrated that an increased Cu content significantly enhanced VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion in OVCAR3, A2780, and Met-5A cells. VEGF levels and clinical stages of the tumors correlated with the ascitic fluid Cu content in patients with malignant ovarian tumors (correlation coefficient 0.445, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.069-0.710, p = 0.023 and correlation coefficient 0.406, 95 % CI: 0.022-0.686, p = 0.040, respectively). CONCLUSION: Cu levels significantly increased in patients with malignant ovarian cancer. Cu induced angiogenic effects in ovarian cancer and mesothelial cells, which affected ascites fluid production. This study clarifies the link between elevated Cu in ascites and malignant ovarian tumor progression. Strategies to decrease Cu levels in the ascitic fluid may help downregulate VEGF expression, thereby improving the prognosis of ovarian malignancies.

3.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(1): 101834, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656945

RESUMO

The species Keterah orthonairovirus is a member of the genus Orthonairovirus. Few studies have focused on this species, and there remains no treatment for Issyk-Kul fever, an infectious disease caused by a Keterah orthonairovirus. This study was performed to characterize this species using two viruses, Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) and Soft tick bunyavirus (STBV), in cell culture and type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice and to evaluate the efficacy of serum transfusion using a mouse model of ISKV infection. The two viruses replicated in many kinds of mammal- and tick-derived cell lines but showed few different characteristics in tropism and antigenicity against anti-viral sera in cell culture. Neither virus caused clinical signs in wild-type mice, but both caused lethal infection in IFNAR-/- mice. ISKV caused more acute death than STBV in IFNAR-/- mice. In both viral infections in IFNAR-/- mice, macroscopic abnormalities were prominent in the liver. Similar levels of viral genome between ISKV- and STBV-infected IFNAR-/- mice were observed in blood, liver, lymphoid tissues and adrenal gland at moribund stages. Hematologic abnormalities in IFNAR-/- mice infected with these viruses, including leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, and biochemical abnormalities indicating liver damage were prominent. In addition, blood levels of many kinds of cytokines and chemokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were elevated. ISKV-immunized serum transfusion after infection delayed the time to death of IFNAR-/- mice. Thus, the present study showed that the species Keterah orthonairovirus could proliferate in most mammal-derived cell lines and cause severe liver lesions and death in IFNAR-/- mice and that serum transfusion might be effective in treatment against Issyk-Kul fever.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18820, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545119

RESUMO

Coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB), Oryctes rhinoceros, is a pest of palm trees in the Pacific. Recently, a remarkable degree of palm damage reported in Guam, Hawaii, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands has been associated with a particular haplotype (clade I), known as "CRB-G". In the Palau Archipelago, both CRB-G and another haplotype (clade IV) belonging to the CRB-S cluster coexist in the field. In this study, more than 75% of pheromone trap-captured adults of both haplotypes were Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV)-positive by PCR. No significant difference in OrNV prevalence between the haplotypes was detected. In PCR-positive CRB-G tissue specimens from Palau, viral particles were observed by electron microscopy. Hemocoel injection of CRB larvae with crude virus homogenates from these tissues resulted in viral infection and mortality. OrNV isolated from Palauan-sourced CRB was designated as OrNV-Palau1. Both OrNV-Palau1 and OrNV-X2B, a CRB biological control isolate released in the Pacific, were propagated using the FRI-AnCu-35 cell line for production of inoculum. However, the OrNV-Palau1 isolate exhibited lower viral production levels and longer larval survival times compared to OrNV-X2B in O. rhinoceros larvae. Full genome sequences of the OrNV-Palau1 and -X2B isolates were determined and found to be closely related to each other. Altogether these results suggest CRB adults in Palau are infected with a less virulent virus, which may affect the nature and extent of OrNV-induced pathology in Palauan populations of CRB.

5.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372492

RESUMO

The discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) in multiple species of shrews, moles and bats has revealed a complex evolutionary history involving cross-species transmission. Seewis virus (SWSV) is widely distributed throughout the geographic ranges of its soricid hosts, including the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis) and Siberian large-toothed shrew (Sorex daphaenodon), suggesting host sharing. In addition, genetic variants of SWSV, previously named Artybash virus (ARTV) and Amga virus, have been detected in the Laxmann's shrew (Sorex caecutiens). Here, we describe the geographic distribution and phylogeny of SWSV and Altai virus (ALTV) in Asian Russia. The complete genomic sequence analysis showed that ALTV, also harbored by the Eurasian common shrew, is a new hantavirus species, distantly related to SWSV. Moreover, Lena River virus (LENV) appears to be a distinct hantavirus species, harbored by Laxmann's shrews and flat-skulled shrews (Sorex roboratus) in Eastern Siberia and far-eastern Russia. Another ALTV-related virus, which is more closely related to Camp Ripley virus from the United States, has been identified in the Eurasian least shrew (Sorex minutissimus) from far-eastern Russia. Two highly divergent viruses, ALTV and SWSV co-circulate among common shrews in Western Siberia, while LENV and the ARTV variant of SWSV co-circulate among Laxmann's shrews in Eastern Siberia and far-eastern Russia. ALTV and ALTV-related viruses appear to belong to the Mobatvirus genus, while SWSV is a member of the Orthohantavirus genus. These findings suggest that ALTV and ALTV-related hantaviruses might have emerged from ancient cross-species transmission with subsequent diversification within Sorex shrews in Eurasia.

6.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372549

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are harbored by multiple small mammal species in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. To ascertain the geographic distribution and virus-host relationships of rodent-borne hantaviruses in Japan, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Madagascar, RNAlater™-preserved lung tissues of 981 rodents representing 40 species, collected in 2011-2017, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Our data showed Hantaan orthohantavirus Da Bie Shan strain in the Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventer confucianus) in Vietnam, Thailand; orthohantavirus Anjo strain in the black rat (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar; and Puumala orthohantavirus Hokkaido strain in the grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) in Japan. The Hokkaido strain of Puumala virus was also detected in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and small Japanese field mouse (Apodemus argenteus), with evidence of host-switching as determined by co-phylogeny mapping.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , Arvicolinae/virologia , Hantavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Japão , Madagáscar , Camundongos , Murinae/virologia , Filogenia , Virus Puumala/patogenicidade , Ratos , Roedores/virologia , Vietnã
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 570: 21-25, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271432

RESUMO

Natto, a traditional Japanese fermented soybean food, is well known to be nutritious and beneficial for health. In this study, we examined whether natto impairs infection by viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). Interestingly, our results show that both SARS-CoV-2 and BHV-1 treated with a natto extract were fully inhibited infection to the cells. We also found that the glycoprotein D of BHV-1 was shown to be degraded by Western blot analysis and that a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) was proteolytically degraded when incubated with the natto extract. In addition, RBD protein carrying a point mutation (UK variant N501Y) was also degraded by the natto extract. When the natto extract was heated at 100 °C for 10 min, the ability of both SARS-CoV-2 and BHV-1 to infect to the cells was restored. Consistent with the results of the heat inactivation, a serine protease inhibitor inhibited anti-BHV-1 activity caused by the natto extract. Thus, our findings provide the first evidence that the natto extract contains a protease(s) that inhibits viral infection through the proteolysis of the viral proteins.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos de Soja , Soja/química , Animais , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/patologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
8.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 152-158, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332417

RESUMO

We examined several aspects of African hedgehog adenovirus (AhAdv-1) that was isolated from an African pygmy hedgehog, including: replication kinetics of, virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE), activation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and possible roles of these signaling pathways in virus replication and virus-induced CPE in MDCK cells. AhAdv-1 efficiently replicated and induced CPE in infected cells and caused accumulation of cleaved caspase-3 at 24 h post-infection (p.i.), suggesting apoptosis induction. Analysis of several intracellular signal transduction pathways, which are involved in apoptosis, showed activation of p38 MAPK, Akt and ERK1/2 pathways at 3 h p.i., and upregulation of phosphorylated SAPK/JNK at 24 h p.i. Although p38 MAPK inhibitor and SAPK/JNK inhibitor suppressed activation of the respective pathways in infected cells, they did not inhibit virus-induced CPE. Treatment of infected cells with inhibitor of the Akt pathway, the p38 pathway, the SAPK/JNK pathway or the ERK pathway revealed that inhibitors of p38 pathway inhibited viral replication by real-time PCR and TCID50 assay in infected MDCK cells, suggesting that AhAdv-1 uses p38 pathway for multiplication in infected cells.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Replicação Viral , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Cães , Ouriços-Cacheiros/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(7): 1068-1074, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994419

RESUMO

Here, we performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) on six large flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) collected in Indonesia. Seventy-five virus species in the liver tissue of each specimen were listed. Viral homologous sequences in the bat genome were identified from the listed viruses. This finding provides collateral evidence of viral endogenization into the host genome. We found that two of the six specimens bore partial sequences that were homologous to the plant pathogens Geminiviridae and Luteoviridae. These sequences were absent in the P. vampyrus chromosomal sequences. Hence, plant viral homologous sequences were localized to the hepatocytes as extrachromosomal DNA fragments. Therefore, this suggests that the bat is a potential carrier or vector of plant viruses. The present investigation on wild animals offered novel perspectives on viral invasion, variation, and host interaction.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Animais Selvagens , DNA Viral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Indonésia
10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924433

RESUMO

Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria affect human and animal health worldwide. Here, CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from Siberian weasels (Mustela sibirica) that were captured on a veterinary campus. To clarify the source of bacteria in the weasels, we examined the domestic animals reared in seven facilities on the campus. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli were isolated on deoxycholate hydrogen sulfide lactose agar, containing cephalexin (50 µg/mL) or cefotaxime (2 µg/mL), and were characterized with antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), replicon typing, and ß-lactamase typing analyses. Next-generation sequencing of the ESBL-encoding plasmids was also performed. CTX-M-14 producers isolated from both domestic animals and weasels were classified into six clusters with seven PFGE profiles. The PFGE and antimicrobial resistance profiles were characterized by the animal facility. All CTX-M-14 plasmids belonged to the IncI1 type with a similar size (98.9-99.3 kb), except for one plasmid that was 105.5 kb in length. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed that the CTX-M-14 plasmid in the weasel isolates might have the same origin as the CTX-M-14 plasmid in the domestic animals. Our findings shed further light on the association of antimicrobial resistance between wild and domestic animals.

11.
Arch Virol ; 166(6): 1671-1680, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839921

RESUMO

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) have been identified in various mammalian species, including humans, bats, and pigs. However, isolation and complete genome sequences of MRVs from wild boars have not yet been reported. In this study, we isolated, sequenced, and analyzed an MRV from a free-living wild boar in Japan using the porcine-sapelovirus-resistant cell line N1380. Complete and empty virus particles were obtained from the N1380 cell culture supernatants, and complete genome sequences were obtained from complete virus particles. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolated MRV, named TY-14, could be classified as MRV3 and had a close genetic relationship to an MRV2 isolate from a lion in a Japanese zoo (L2, L3, and M3 genes) and a human MRV2 isolate from Japan (S2 gene). Phylogenetic analysis showed that TY-14 clustered only with bat MRVs in the M1 phylogenetic tree but formed a cluster with several animal MRVs in the M2 and S3 phylogenetic trees and branched independently in the L1, S1, and S4 phylogenetic trees, suggesting a genetic relationship to viruses of unknown origin. Recombination events were identified in the M2 gene. These results suggest that TY-14 was generated by reassortment and recombination events involving MRVs circulating in Japan, viruses from bats, and other viruses of unknown origin.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Orthoreovirus/genética , Orthoreovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Japão , Orthoreovirus/classificação , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Suínos
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6856, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767233

RESUMO

After several months of "lockdown" as the sole answer to the COVID-19 pandemic, balancing the re-opening of society against the implementation of non-pharmaceutical measures needed for minimizing interpersonal contacts has become important. Here, we present a stochastic model that examines this problem. In our model, people are allowed to move between discrete positions on a one-dimensional grid with viral infection possible when two people are collocated at the same site. Our model features three sets of adjustable parameters, which characterize (i) viral transmission, (ii) viral detection, and (iii) degree of personal mobility, and as such, it is able to provide a qualitative assessment of the potential for second-wave infection outbreaks based on the timing, extent, and pattern of the lockdown relaxation strategies. Our results suggest that a full lockdown will yield the lowest number of infections (as anticipated) but we also found that when personal mobility exceeded a critical level, infections increased, quickly reaching a plateau that depended solely on the population density. Confinement was not effective if not accompanied by a detection/quarantine capacity surpassing 40% of the symptomatic patients. Finally, taking action to ensure a viral transmission probability of less than 0.4, which, in real life, may mean actions such as social distancing or mask-wearing, could be as effective as a soft lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Movimento , Quarentena , Processos Estocásticos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 633502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633714

RESUMO

Two novel endornaviruses, Phytophthora endornavirus 2 (PEV2) and Phytophthora endornavirus 3 (PEV3) were found in isolates of a Phytophthora pathogen of asparagus collected in Japan. A molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that PEV2 and PEV3 belong to the genus Alphaendornavirus. The PEV2 and PEV3 genomes consist of 14,345 and 13,810 bp, and they contain single open reading frames of 4,640 and 4,603 codons, respectively. Their polyproteins contain the conserved domains of an RNA helicase, a UDP-glycosyltransferase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which are conserved in other alphaendornaviruses. PEV2 is closely related to Brown algae endornavirus 2, whereas PEV3 is closely related to Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1), which infects a Phytophthora sp. specific to Douglas fir. PEV2 and PEV3 were detected at high titers in two original Phytophthora sp. isolates, and we found a sub-isolate with low titers of the viruses during subculture. We used the high- and low-titer isolates to evaluate the effects of the viruses on the growth, development, and fungicide sensitivities of the Phytophthora sp. host. The high-titer isolates produced smaller mycelial colonies and much higher numbers of zoosporangia than the low-titer isolate. These results suggest that PEV2 and PEV3 inhibited hyphal growth and stimulated zoosporangium formation. The high-titer isolates were more sensitive than the low-titer isolate to the fungicides benthiavalicarb-isopropyl, famoxadone, and chlorothalonil. In contrast, the high-titer isolates displayed lower sensitivity to the fungicide metalaxyl (an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I) when compared with the low-titer isolate. These results indicate that persistent infection with PEV2 and PEV3 may potentially affect the fungicide sensitivities of the host oomycete.

14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244006, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444317

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the role of the eastern bent-winged bat (Miniopterus fuliginosus) in the dispersion of bat adenovirus and bat alphacoronavirus in east Asia, considering their gene flows and divergence times (based on deep-sequencing data), using bat fecal guano samples. Bats in China moved to Jeju Island and/or Taiwan in the last 20,000 years via the Korean Peninsula and/or Japan. The phylogenies of host mitochondrial D-loop DNA was not significantly congruent with those of bat adenovirus (m2XY = 0.07, p = 0.08), and bat alphacoronavirus (m2XY = 0.48, p = 0.20). We estimate that the first divergence time of bats carrying bat adenovirus in five caves studied (designated as K1, K2, JJ, N2, and F3) occurred approximately 3.17 million years ago. In contrast, the first divergence time of bat adenovirus among bats in the 5 caves was estimated to be approximately 224.32 years ago. The first divergence time of bats in caves CH, JJ, WY, N2, F1, F2, and F3 harboring bat alphacoronavirus was estimated to be 1.59 million years ago. The first divergence time of bat alphacoronavirus among the 7 caves was estimated to be approximately 2,596.92 years ago. The origin of bat adenovirus remains unclear, whereas our findings suggest that bat alphacoronavirus originated in Japan. Surprisingly, bat adenovirus and bat alphacoronavirus appeared to diverge substantially over the last 100 years, even though our gene-flow data indicate that the eastern bent-winged bat serves as an important natural reservoir of both viruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cavernas , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Extremo Oriente , Fezes/virologia , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Método de Monte Carlo , Filogenia
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 88: 104664, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333290

RESUMO

Recently, hepe-astrovirus-like RNA viruses named bastroviruses (BastVs), have been found in human, pig, bat, and rat fecal samples. In this study, we determined nearly complete genome sequences of four BastVs in the feces of healthy pigs. Genetic characterization revealed that these porcine BastVs (PBastVs) and BastVs from other animals including humans, had the same genome organization, that is, they contained three predicted conserved domains of viral methyltransferase, RNA helicase, and RdRp in the nonstructural ORF1 and the astrovirus capsid domain in the structural ORF2. Phylogenetic analyses using RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the capsid region revealed that PBastVs branched with bat and rat BastVs; however, the groups formed by each host were distantly related to human BastVs. Pairwise amino acid sequence comparison demonstrated that PBastVs shared 95.2-98.6% and 76.1-95.5% sequence identity among each other in the ORF1 and ORF2 regions, respectively; the sequence identities between PBastVs and BastVs from other animals were 21.4-42.5% and 9.1-20.6% in the ORF1 and ORF2 regions, respectively. This suggested that BastVs were derived from a common ancestor but evolved independently in each host population during a prolonged period. Putative recombination events were identified in the PBastV genome, suggesting that PBastVs gain sequence diversity and flexibility through recombination events. In an analysis of previously obtained metagenomic data, PBastV sequence reads were detected in 7.3% (23/315) of fecal samples from pigs indicating that PBastVs are distributed among pig populations in Japan.

16.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2909-2914, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951133

RESUMO

Two and three genotypes of enterovirus G (EV-G) carrying a papain-like cysteine protease (PL-CP) sequence were detected on two pig farms and classified into genotypes G1 and G10, and G1, G8, and G17, respectively, based on VP1 sequences. A G10 EV-G virus bearing a PL-CP sequence was detected for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the P2 and P3 regions grouped the viruses by farm with high sequence similarity. Furthermore, clear recombination break points were detected in the 2A region, suggesting that PL-CP EV-G-containing strains gained sequence diversity through recombination events among the multiple circulating EV-G genotypes on the farms.


Assuntos
Cisteína Proteases/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/veterinária , Enterovirus Suínos/genética , Genoma Viral , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Enterovirus Suínos/enzimologia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Japão , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sus scrofa , Proteínas Virais/genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974220

RESUMO

Murid and cricetid rodents were previously believed to be the principal reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. Recently, however, multiple newfound hantaviruses have been discovered in shrews, moles, and bats, suggesting a complex evolutionary history. Little is known about the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of the prototype shrew-borne hantavirus, Thottapalayam thottimvirus (TPMV), carried by the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus), which is widespread in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Comparison of TPMV genomic sequences from two Asian house shrews captured in Myanmar and Pakistan with TPMV strains in GenBank revealed that the Myanmar TPMV strain (H2763) was closely related to the prototype TPMV strain (VRC66412) from India. In the L-segment tree, on the other hand, the Pakistan TPMV strain (PK3629) appeared to be the most divergent, followed by TPMV strains from Nepal, then the Indian-Myanmar strains, and finally TPMV strains from China. The Myanmar strain of TPMV showed sequence similarity of 79.3-96.1% at the nucleotide level, but the deduced amino acid sequences showed a high degree of conservation of more than 94% with TPMV strains from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and China. Cophylogenetic analysis of host cytochrome b and TPMV strains suggested that the Pakistan TPMV strain was mismatched. Phylogenetic trees, based on host cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes of mitochondrial DNA, and on host recombination activating gene 1 of nuclear DNA, suggested that the Asian house shrew and Asian highland shrew (Suncus montanus) comprised a species complex. Overall, the geographic-specific clustering of TPMV strains in Asian countries suggested local host-specific adaptation. Additional in-depth studies are warranted to ascertain if TPMV originated in Asian house shrews on the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Musaranhos , África , Animais , China , Índia , Nepal , Paquistão , Filogenia , Filogeografia
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2647-2651, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844234

RESUMO

In order to study potential pathogenic mechanisms of feline morbillivirus (FeMV) in infected kidney cells, we performed a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with an anti-FeMV P protein antibody on a total of 38 cat kidney tissues, 12 of which were positive for FeMV. Among these samples, we detected significantly larger numbers of apoptotic cells in FeMV-positive tissues than in FeMV-negative tissues, and in these tissues, a substantial percentage of TUNEL-positive (TUNEL+) cells contained the FeMV P protein (mean, 37.4; range, 17.4-82.9), suggesting that induction of apoptosis may be an important mechanism for pathological changes associated with FeMV infection in cat kidney tissues.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Rim/patologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Rim/virologia , Masculino , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Morbillivirus/patologia
19.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(35)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855249

RESUMO

The draft genome sequence of the blood-origin Streptococcus canis strain FU149, isolated from a dog with a necrotizing soft tissue infection in Japan, is reported. The genome size was 2.108 Mbp, with a G+C content of 39.5%. Sequences unmapped to the reference genome sequence of NCTC 12191T (GenBank accession number LR134293) were characterized.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1181, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health concern for children. Each day, worldwide, approximately 440 children became newly infected with HIV, and 270 children died from AIDS-related causes in 2018. Poor nutrition has been associated with accelerated disease progression, and sufficient dietary diversity is considered a key to improve children's nutritional status. Therefore, this study aims to 1) examine nutritional status of school-age children living with HIV in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and 2) identify factors associated with their nutritional status, especially taking their dietary diversity into consideration. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2018 within the catchment area of the National Pediatric Hospital, Cambodia. Data from 298 children and their caregivers were included in the analyses. Using semi-structured questionnaires, face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life, and dietary diversity. To assess children's nutritional status, body weight and height were measured. Viral load and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were collected from clinical records. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with stunting and wasting. RESULTS: Of 298 children, nearly half (46.6%) were stunted, and 13.1% were wasted. The mean number of food groups consumed by the children in the past 24 h was 4.6 out of 7 groups. Factors associated with children's stunting were age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.166, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.151, 4.077), household wealth (AOR 0.543, 95%CI: 0.299, 0.986), duration of receiving ART (AOR 0.510, 95%CI: 0.267, 0.974), and having disease symptoms during the past 1 year (AOR 1.871, 95%CI: 1.005, 3.480). The only factor associated with wasting was being male (AOR 5.304, 95%CI: 2.210, 12.728). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of stunting was more than double that of non-infected school-age children living in urban areas in Cambodia. This highlights the importance of conducting nutritional intervention programs, especially tailored for children living with HIV in the country. Although dietary diversity was not significantly associated with children's nutritional status in this study, the findings will contribute to implementing future nutritional interventions more efficiently by indicating children who are most in need of such interventions in Cambodia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Síndrome de Emaciação/complicações , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , HIV , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Carga Viral , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
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