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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growth of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Africa is an urgent public health crisis. Estimated models project over 150,000 deaths and 4,600,000 hospitalizations in the first year of disease in the absence of adequate interventions. Electronic contact tracing and surveillance, therefore, offers a critical role in decreasing COVID-19 transmission; yet if not conducted properly can rapidly become a bottleneck for synchronized data collection, case detection, and case management. While the continent is currently reporting relatively low COVID-19 cases, digitized contact tracing mechanisms and surveillance reporting are necessary for standardizing real-time reporting of new chains of infection to quickly reverse growing trends and halt the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe a COVID-19 contact tracing and health facility surveillance smart phone app with real-time visualization platform which was developed by the AFRO GIS centre, in collaboration with the WHO EPR team, through the expertise and experience gained from the numerous digital apps that had been developed for Polio surveillance and immunization programme in the WHO's Polio programme in the African Region. METHODS: We repurposed the Geographic Information System(GIS) infrastructures of the Polio Programme and database structure which relies on mobile data collection built on Open data Kit( ODK) and harnessed the visualization of real-time COVID-19 data using dynamic dashboards built on Power BI , ArcGIS online and Tableau . The contact tracing app was developed with the pragmatic considerations of COVID-19 peculiarities . the app underwent testing by field surveillance colleagues to meet the requirements of linking contacts to cases and monitoring chains of transmission. The Health Facility Surveillance App was developed from the knowledge and assessment of models of surveillance at health facility for other diseases of public health importance .It was added as an appendage to the preexisting surveillance form called the Integrated Supportive Supervision( ISS) app .These two mobile apps collected information on cases and contact tracing alongside alerting information on any COVID-19 reports from Health Facility levels which are linked to visualization platforms to enable actionable insights . RESULTS: So far, the contact tracing app and platform was piloted between April and June 2020 then put to use in Zimbabwe, Benin , Cameroon, Uganda, Nigeria and South Sudan and its use had generated some palpable successes with respect to COVID-19 surveillance. However the COVID-19 health facility based Surveillance app has been more extensively used in 27 countries in the region. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the above, this article was written to give an overview on the apps and visualization platform development, deployment, ease of replicability and preliminary outcome evaluation of its use on the field. From the regional perspective, integration of the contact tracing and surveillance data into one platform provides AFRO with a more accurate method of monitoring country efforts in their response to COVID-19, while guiding public health decisions and the assessment of risk for COVID-19.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expanding outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived type 2 poliovirus (cVDPV2) across Africa after the global withdrawal of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in 2016 are delaying global polio eradication. We aimed to assess the effect of outbreak response campaigns with monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2) and the addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to routine immunisation. METHODS: We used vaccination history data from children under 5 years old with non-polio acute flaccid paralysis from a routine surveillance database (the Polio Information System) and setting-specific OPV immunogenicity data from the literature to estimate OPV-induced and IPV-induced population immunity against type 2 poliomyelitis between Jan 1, 2015, and June 30, 2020, for 51 countries in Africa. We investigated risk factors for reported cVDPV2 poliomyelitis including population immunity, outbreak response activities, and correlates of poliovirus transmission using logistic regression. We used the model to estimate cVDPV2 risk for each 6-month period between Jan 1, 2016, and June 30, 2020, with different numbers of mOPV2 campaigns and compared the timing and location of actual mOPV2 campaigns and the number of mOPV2 campaigns required to reduce cVDPV2 risk to low levels. FINDINGS: Type 2 OPV immunity among children under 5 years declined from a median of 87% (IQR 81-93) in January-June, 2016 to 14% (9-37) in January-June, 2020. Type 2 immunity from IPV among children under 5 years increased from 3% (<1-6%) in January-June, 2016 to 35% (24-47) in January-June, 2020. The probability of cVDPV2 poliomyelitis among children under 5 years was negatively correlated with OPV-induced and IPV-induced immunity and mOPV2 campaigns (adjusted odds ratio: OPV 0·68 [95% CrI 0·60-0·76], IPV 0·82 [0·68-0·99] per 10% absolute increase in estimated population immunity, mOPV2 0·30 [0·20-0·44] per campaign). Vaccination campaigns in response to cVDPV2 outbreaks have been smaller and slower than our model shows would be necessary to reduce risk to low levels, covering only 11% of children under 5 years who are predicted to be at risk within 6 months and only 56% within 12 months. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that as mucosal immunity declines, larger or faster responses with vaccination campaigns using type 2-containing OPV will be required to stop cVDPV2 transmission. IPV-induced immunity also has an important role in reducing the burden of cVDPV2 poliomyelitis in Africa. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Medical Research Council Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, and WHO. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995766

RESUMO

Introduction: the new coronavirus (COVID-19) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei Province of China in December 2019, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has fast spread across the entire globe, with most countries struggling to slow and reduce the spread of the virus through rapid screening, testing, isolation, case management, contact tracing, implementing social distancing and lockdowns. This has been shown to be a major factor in countries that have been successful in containing COVID-19 transmission. Early detection of cases is important, and the use of geospatial technology can support to detect and easily identify potential hotspots that will require timely response. The use of spatial analysis with geographic information systems (GIS) had proved to be effective in providing timely and effective solutions in supporting epidemic response and pandemics over the years. It has developed and evolved rapidly with a complete technological tool for representing data, model construction, visualization and platform construction among others. Methods: we conducted a geospatial analysis to develop a web mapping application using ArcMap and ArcGIS online to guide and support active case search of potential COVID-19 cases, within 500m radius of COVID-19 confirmed cases to improve detection and testing of suspected cases. Results: the web mapping application tool guides the active case search teams in the field, with clear boundaries on the houses to be visited within 500-meter radius of confirmed positive cases, to conduct active case search of all cases of severe acute respiratory illnesses (SARI), acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), pneumonia etc, to detect and test for COVID-19 towards containing the pandemic. Conclusion: the use of GIS and spatial statistical tools have become an important and valuable tool in decision-making and, more importantly, guiding health care professional and other stakeholders in the response being carried out in a more coherent and easy manner. It has proven to be effective in supporting the active case search process to rapidly detect, test and isolate cases during the process, towards containing the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Análise Espacial , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
4.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1105, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997861

RESUMO

The polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) is one of the most important public health interventions in Africa. Quality data is necessary to monitor activities and key performance indicators and access year by year progress made. This process has been possible with a solid polio health information system that has been consolidated over the years. This study describes the whole process to have data for decision making. The main components are the data flow, the role of the different levels, data capture and tools, standards and codes, the data cleaning process, the integration of data from various sources, the introduction of innovative technologies, feedback and information products and capacity building. The results show the improvement in the timeliness of reporting data to the next level, the availability of quality data for analysis to monitor key surveillance performance indicators, the output of the data cleaning exercise pointing out data quality gaps, the integration of data from various sources to produce meaningful outputs and feedback for information dissemination. From the review of the process, it is observed an improvement in the quality of polio data resulting from a well-defined information system with standardized tools and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the introduction of innovative technologies. However, there is room for improvement; for example, multiple data entries from the field to the surveillance unit and the laboratory. Innovative technologies are implemented for the time being in areas hard to reach due to the high cost of the investment. A strong information system has been put in place from the community level to the global level with a link between surveillance, laboratory and immunization coverage data. To maintain standards in Polio Information system, there is need for continuous training of the staff on areas of surveillance, information systems, data analysis and information sharing. The use of innovative technologies on web-based system and mobile devices with validation rules and information check will avoid multiple entries.

5.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1103, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954301

RESUMO

Background: Globally, tremendous improvement has been made in Polio eradication since its inception in 1988. For the third time in a decade, Kenya has experienced a Polio outbreak along the border with Somalia. The affected areas were in Garissa County, replete with previous occurrences in 2006 and 2012. This article, give an account of series of events and activities that were used to stop the transmission within 13 weeks, an interval between the first and the last case of the 2013 outbreak. Methods: In an attempt to stop further transmission and time bound closure of the outbreak, many activities were brought to fore: the known traditional methods, innovative approaches, improved finances and surge capacity. These assisted in case detection, implementation, and coordination of activities. The external outbreak assessments and the six-monthly technical advisory group recommendations were also employed. Result: There were increased case detections of >=2/100,000, stool adequacy >=80%, due to enhanced surveillance, timely feedbacks from laboratory investigation and diagnosis. Sustained coverage in supplemental immunisation of > 90%, ensured that immune profile of >=3 polio vaccine doses was quickly attained to protect the targeted population, prevent further polio infection and eventual reduction of cases coming up with paralysis. Conclusion: Overall, the outbreak was stopped within the 120 days of the first case using 14 rounds of supplemental immunisation activities.

6.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1108, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954304

RESUMO

Mobile phone data collection tools are increasingly becoming very usable collecting, collating and analysing data in the health sector. In this paper, we documented the experiences with mobile phone data collection, collation and analysis in 5 countries of the East and Southern African, using Open Data Kit (ODK), where questionnaires were designed and coded on an XML form, uploaded and data collected using Android-Based mobile phones, with a web-based system to monitor data in real-time during EPI comprehensive review. The ODK interface supports in real-time monitoring of the flow of data, detection of missing or incomplete data, coordinate location of all locations visited, embedded charts for basic analysis. It also minimized data quality errors at entry level with the use of validation codes and constraint developed into the checklist. These benefits, combined with the improvement that mobile phones offer over paper-based in terms of timeliness, data loss, collation, and real-time data collection, analysis and uploading difficulties, make mobile phone data collection a feasible method of data collection that needs to be further explored in the conduct of all surveys in the organization.

7.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1110, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954305

RESUMO

Background: Poliomyelitis, often called polio is a viral paralytic disease caused by Polioviruses. Although all susceptible individuals are at risk of getting infected, only about 1% become paralyzed. During the 2013 Polio Outbreak in Garissa County in Kenya, 50% of the confirmed cases were from the nomadic population although it comprises of only less than 20% of the total population in the county. Following concerns from the Horn of Africa Polio Technical Advisory Group (TAG) regarding inadequate vaccine coverage of nomadic population, several strategies were put in place to improve coverage and Acute Flaccid Paralysis case reporting among nomads in the rest of the planned 2014 polio vaccination campaigns. We describe strategies initiated from April 2014 by the Ministry of Health and partners to reach children in nomadic settlement in the two sub-counties of Dadaab and Fafi of Garissa County. Methods: The strategies involved improving the mapping and tracking of the nomadic population by establishing lists of nomadic settlements obtained from local clan leaders and government administrators, their <5-year-old populations and focal persons. Focal persons were used to mobilise residents in their respective settlements and guide vaccination teams during campaigns. Settlement leaders were sensitised to report cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis. In remote hamlets, trained community health volunteers were used as vaccinators. In such places drugs for common illness were also provided during the campaigns. A tracking tool to monitor nomadic population movement and special tally sheets to capture data were created. Training of vaccination personnel and intense social mobilisation activities was done. Results and conclusion: About 2,000 additional children, from both nomadic and non-nomadic areas were reached when the new initiatives were started. For the first time, an actual number of nomadic children accessed was documented. Suspected AFP cases continued to be reported from nomadic settlements, and the number of zero dose children among the nonpolio AFP cases dropped. With modification and improvement, these strategies may be used to take health services such as routine immunisation to nomadic communities and reduce their vulnerability to vaccine preventable disease outbreaks.

8.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1114, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954307

RESUMO

The use of online Integrated Supportive Supervision (ISS) is aimed to improve the quality of services provided by front line health workers. This work is aimed to document the effects of ISS on the performance of health workers in Zambia using selected key surveillance and immunization process indicators. ISS data on WHO ODK server of all Integrated Supportive Supervisory (ISS) visits that were conducted in Zambia between 1st January 2018 to 30th September 2018 were analysed to determine the Percentage point difference between the first and the most recent ISS visits in order to determine whether an observed gap during first ISS visit had persisted during the most recent ISS visit. Our study demonstrated that ISS has remarkable percentage point increase between the first and the most recent ISS visits on availability of an updated monitoring chart, health workers knowledge of AFP case definition and AFP case files. However, there exist variations in the frequency of ISS visits across the provinces of the country. Future research effort should consider assessing the quality of the ISS data through periodic data validation missions.

9.
J Immunol Sci ; Spec Issue(2): 1116, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954308

RESUMO

Introduction: Chad is a country within the Lake Chad sub region, currently at risk for poliovirus infection. The Lake Chad Task Team on polio eradication in this sub region made significant efforts to reduce the risk of polio transmission in Chad by tacking immunization teams in the Island Settlement using a Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. This article demonstrates the application of GIS technology to track vaccination teams to monitor immunization coverage in the Island settlements, reduce the number of missed settlements, to provide evidence for vaccination implementation and accountability and improve team performance. Methods: In each district where tracking was conducted, global positioning system-enabled Android phones were given to each team on a daily basis and were used to record team tracks. These tracks were uploaded to a dashboard to show the level of coverage and identify areas missed by the teams. Results: In 2018, tracking covered 30 immunization days, in six rounds. Approximately average of 1173 Island settlements were tracked and covered in each of the six rounds. A total of 806,999 persons aged 0-10 years were immunized, out of which 4273 were zero dose cases at the point of their immunization. Tracking activities were conducted. There was an improvement in the geographic coverage of settlements and an overall reduction in the number of missed settlements. Conclusions: The tracking of vaccination teams and Island settlements ensured useful information for planning and implementation of polio campaigns and enabled supervisors to evaluate performance of vaccination teams.

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e18950, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As we move toward a polio-free world, the challenge for the polio program is to create an unrelenting focus on smaller areas where the virus is still present, where children are being repeatedly missed, where immunity levels are low, and where surveillance is weak. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to describe a possible solution to address weak surveillance systems and document the outcomes of the deployment of the Auto-Visual Acute Flaccid Paralysis Detection and Reporting (AVADAR) project. METHODS: This intervention was implemented in 99 targeted high-risk districts with concerns for silent polio circulation from eight countries in Africa between August 1, 2017, and July 31, 2018. A total of 6954 persons (5390 community informants and 1564 health workers) were trained and equipped with a smartphone on which the AVADAR app was configured to allow community informants to send alerts on suspected acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and allow health worker to use electronic checklists for investigation of such alerts. The AVADAR and Open Data Kit ONA servers were at the center of the entire process. A dashboard system and coordination teams for monitoring and supervision were put in place at all levels. RESULTS: Overall, 96.44% (24,142/25,032) of potential AFP case alerts were investigated by surveillance personnel, yielding 1414 true AFP cases. This number (n=1414) reported through AVADAR was higher than the 238 AFP cases expected during the study period in the AVADAR districts and the 491 true AFP cases reported by the traditional surveillance system. A total of 203 out of the 1414 true AFP cases reported were from special population settings, such as refugee camps and insecure areas. There was an improvement in reporting in silent health areas in all the countries using the AVADAR system. Finally, there were 23,473 reports for other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea, and cerebrospinal meningitis, using the AVADAR platform. CONCLUSIONS: This article demonstrates the added value of AVADAR to rapidly improve surveillance sensitivity. AVADAR is capable of supporting countries to improve surveillance sensitivity within a short interval before and beyond polio-free certification.


Assuntos
Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , África/epidemiologia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipotonia Muscular/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos
11.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a trial in Nigeria to assess the immunogenicity of the new bOPV + IPV immunization schedule and gains in type 2 immunity with addition of second dose of IPV. The trial was conducted in August 2016-March 2017 period, well past the tOPV-bOPV switch in April 2016. METHODS: This was an open-label, two-arm, non-inferiority, multi-center, randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 572 infants of age ≤14 days and randomized them into two arms. Arm A received bOPV at birth, 6 and 10 weeks, bOPV+IPV at week 14 and IPV at week 18. Arm B received IPV each at 6, 10, 14 weeks and bOPV at 18 weeks of age. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates for poliovirus types 1 and 3, respectively, were 98.9% (95%CI:96.7-99.8) and 98.1% (95%CI:88.2-94.8) in Arm A, and 89.6% (95%CI:85.4-93.0) and 98.5% (95%CI:96.3-99.6) in Arm B. Type 2 seroconversion with one dose IPV in Arm A was 72.0% (95%CI:66.2-77.3), which increased significantly with addition of second dose to 95.9% (95%CI:92.8-97.9). CONCLUSION: This first trial on the new EPI schedule in a sub-Saharan African country demonstrated excellent immunogenicity against poliovirus types 1 and 3, and substantial/enhanced immunogenicity against poliovirus type 2 after 1 to 2 doses of IPV respectively.

12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(1): 24-32, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618462

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate a project that integrated essential primary health-care services into the oral polio vaccine programme in hard-to-reach, underserved communities in northern Nigeria. Methods: In 2013, Nigeria's polio emergency operation centre adopted a new approach to rapidly raise polio immunity and reduce newborn, child and maternal morbidity and mortality. We identified, trained and equipped eighty-four mobile health teams to provide free vaccination and primary-care services in 3176 hard-to-reach settlements. We conducted cross-sectional surveys of women of childbearing age in households with children younger than 5 years, in 317 randomly selected settlements, pre- and post-intervention (March 2014 and November 2015, respectively). Findings: From June 2014 to September 2015 mobile health teams delivered 2 979 408 doses of oral polio vaccine and dewormed 1 562 640 children younger than 5 years old; performed 676 678 antenatal consultations and treated 1 682 671 illnesses in women and children, including pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria. The baseline survey found that 758 (19.6%) of 3872 children younger than 5 years had routine immunization cards and 690/3872 (17.8%) were fully immunized for their age. The endline survey found 1757/3575 children (49.1%) with routine immunization cards and 1750 (49.0%) fully immunized. Children vaccinated with 3 or more doses of oral polio vaccine increased from 2133 (55.1%) to 2666 (74.6%). Households' use of mobile health services in the previous 6 months increased from 509/1472 (34.6%) to 2060/2426(84.9%). Conclusion: Integrating routine primary-care services into polio eradication activities in Nigeria resulted in increased coverage for supplemental oral polio vaccine doses and essential maternal, newborn and child health interventions.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Nigéria , Poliomielite/psicologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1304, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis will declare the world free of wild poliovirus transmission when no wild virus has been found in at least 3 consecutive years, and all laboratories possessing wild poliovirus materials have adopted appropriate measures of containment. Nigeria has made progress towards poliomyelitis eradication with the latest reported WPV type 1 on 21 Aug 2016 after 2 years without any case. This milestone achievement was followed by an inventory of biomedical laboratories completed in November 2015 with the destruction of all identified infectious materials. This paper seeks to describe the poliovirus laboratory containment process in Nigeria on which an effective containment system has been built to minimize the risk of virus re-introduction into the population from the laboratories. METHODS: A national survey of all biomedical facilities, as well as an inventory of laboratories from various sectors, was conducted from June-November 2015. National Task Force (NTF) members and staff working on polio administered an on-site questionnaire in each facility. Laboratory personnel were sensitized with all un-needed materials destroyed by autoclaving and incineration. All stakeholders were also sensitized to continue the destruction of such materials as a requirement for phase one activities. RESULTS: A total of 20,638 biomedical facilities were surveyed with 9575 having laboratories. Thirty laboratories were found to contain poliovirus or potentially infectious materials. The 30 laboratories belonged to the ministries of health, education, defence and private organizations. CONCLUSIONS: This article is amongst the first in Africa that relates poliovirus laboratory containment in the context of the tOPV-bOPV switch in alignment with the Global Action Plan III. All identified infectious materials were destroyed and personnel trained to continue to destroy subsequent materials, a process that needs meticulous monitoring to mitigate the risk of poliovirus re-introduction to the population.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Laboratórios , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliovirus , Humanos , Nigéria
14.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1303, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kamacha river is one of the five polio environmental surveillance sites in Kaduna State where 13 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPDs) were isolated between 2014 and 2015. Kamacha river accounted for 5 of all reported cVDPVs in Kaduna State between 2014 and 2015. Poor quality Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIAs) and low population immunity have been reported in the 10 LGAs with tributaries that flow into the river. We described the processes of implementing the various health interventions in these targeted LGAs along the Kamacha River and assessed the effectiveness of the interventions in stopping cVDPV in Kaduna, state, Nigeria. METHODS: Special interventions that had been proven to be functional and effective in reaching unreached children with potent vaccines in the state were scaled up in these targeted 10 LGAs along the Kamacha River. These interventions included revision of house based microplans, scaling up of transit vaccination, scaling up of youth engagement, intensified supportive supervision, scaling up of Directly Observed Polio Vaccination (DOPV) and in-between rounds vaccination activities. We analyzed immunization plus days (IPDs) administrative tally sheet and monitoring data from 10 rounds before and 10 rounds after the special interventions. RESULTS: The number of children immunized increased from 1,862,958 in December 2014 before the intervention to 1,922,940 in March 2016 after the intervention. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) results showed an increase in the proportion of LGAs accepted at coverage > 90% after the interventions, from 67% before intervention to 84% after intervention. The proportion of non-polio AFP children with > 4 doses of oral polio vaccine increased from 2 to 8% before to 93-98% after the interventions.. No new environmental cVDPV has been isolated since the introduction of the interventions in April 2015 until July 2016. CONCLUSION: Scaling up known working interventions in the 10 LGAs with tributaries that drain to Kamacha River environmental sample site may have contributed to improved immunity and interruption of cVDPV in Kaduna state. These interventions should be replicated in LGAs and states with persistent poliovirus isolation.


Assuntos
Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral/efeitos adversos , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Governo Local , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Rios
15.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1311, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria was polio free for almost 2 years but, with the recent liberation of areas under the captivity of insurgents, there has been a resurgence of polio cases. For several years, these inaccessible areas did not have access to vaccination due to activities of Bokoharam, resulting in a concentration of a cohort of unvaccinated children that served as a polio sanctuary. This article describes the processes of engagement of security personnel to access security-compromised areas and the impact on immunization outcomes. METHODS: We assessed routine program data from January 2016 to July 2016 in security-inaccessible areas and we evaluated the effectiveness of engaging security personnel to improve access to settlements in security-compromised Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Borno state. We thereafter evaluated the effects of this engagement on postcampaign evaluation indicators. RESULTS: From 15 LGAs accessible to vaccination teams in January 2016, there was a 47% increase in July 2016. The number of wards increased from 131 in January to 162 in July 2016, while the settlement numbers increased from 6050 in January to 6548 in July 2016. The average percentage of missed children decreased from 8% in January to 3% in July 2016, while the number of LGAs with ≥ 80% coverage increased from 85% in January to 100% in July 2016. CONCLUSION: The engagement of security personnel in immunization activities led to an improved access and improvement in postcampaign evaluation indicators in security-compromised areas of a Nigerian state. This approach promises to be an impactful innovation in reaching settlements in security-compromised areas.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Criança , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1305, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eradication of polio requires that the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system is sensitive enough to detect all cases of AFP, and that such cases are promptly reported and investigated by disease surveillance personnel. When individuals, particularly community informants, are unaware of how to properly detect AFP cases or of the appropriate reporting process, they are unable to provide important feedback to the surveillance network within a country. METHODS: We tested a new SMS-based smartphone application (App) that enhances the detection and reporting of AFP cases to improve the quality of AFP surveillance. Nicknamed Auto-Visual AFP Detection and Reporting (AVADAR), the App creates a scenario where the AFP surveillance network is not dependent on a limited number of priority reporting sites. Being installed on the smartphones of multiple health workers (HWs) and community health informants (CHIs) makes the App an integral part of the detection and reporting system. RESULTS: Results from two phases of tests conducted in Nigeria point to the effectiveness of the App in the surveillance of AFP. CONCLUSION: We posit that appropriate use of the App can soon bring about a worldwide eradication of poliomyelitis.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Hipotonia Muscular/epidemiologia , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Smartphone , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Doença Aguda , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle
17.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1310, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria has made remarkable progress in its current efforts to interrupt wild poliovirus transmission despite the re-emergence of wild poliovirus in 2016. The gains made in Nigeria have been achieved through concerted efforts by governments at all levels, traditional leaders, health workers, caregivers, and development partners. The efforts have involved an elaborate plan, coordination, and effective implementation of routine immunization services, supplemental immunization activities, and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. METHODS: We conducted the following activities to strengthen AFP surveillance in Kaduna state: a monetary reward for all AFP cases reported by health workers or community informants and verified as "true" AFP by a World Health Organization (WHO) cluster coordinator; training and sensitization of surveillance officers, clinicians, and community informants; recruitment of more personnel and expansion of the surveillance network; and the involvement of special populations (nomadic, hard-to-reach, and border communities) and caregivers in stool sample collection. The paired t test was used to evaluate the impact of the different initiatives implemented in Kaduna state to intensify AFP surveillance in 2016. RESULTS: There was increased annualized non-polio AFP rate (ANPAFPR) in 21 out of 23 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kaduna state 6 months after implementation of different initiatives to intensify AFP surveillance. The AFP reported by the special population increased in 15 out of 23 LGAs. Statistical analyses of mean scores of ANPAFPR before and after the interventions using the paired t test revealed a significant difference in mean scores: mean = 19.7 (standard deviation (SD) = 16.1) per 100,000 < 15 years old in July-December 2015, compared with 38.0 (SD = 21.6) per 100,000 < 15 years old in January-June 2016 (p < 0.05). Likewise, analysis of silent wards using the paired t test showed a significant difference in mean scores: mean = 4.0 (SD = 2.1) in July-December 2015 compared with 2.4 (SD = 1.8) in January-June 2016 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The different initiatives implemented in 23 LGAs of Kaduna state to intensify AFP surveillance may be responsible for the significant improvement in the AFP surveillance performance indicators in 2016.


Assuntos
Hipotonia Muscular/epidemiologia , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Doença Aguda , Certificação , Criança , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1317, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supportive supervision is one of the interventions that fosters program improvement by way of imparting knowledge and skills to health workers. The basic challenge in supportive supervision is the availability of data in real time for timely and effective feedback. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the contribution of real-time data collection during supportive supervision for timely feedback and generation of evidence for health intervention planning. METHODS: We analyzed supportive supervision records collected through handheld devices employing the open data kit (ODK) platform from July 2015 to June 2016. Supervision was conducted across the country by 592 World Health Organization (WHO) officers. The availability of real-time data and the distance of health facilities to the community were analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period, 90,396 health facilities were supervised. The average time spent during supervision varied from 1.53 to 3.78 h across the six geopolitical zones of the country. The average interval between completion of the supervisory checklist and synchronization with the server varied from 3.9 h to 7.5 h. The average distance between the health facility and a ward varied from 5 to 24 km. CONCLUSION: The use of handheld devices for supportive supervision provided real-time data from health facilities to state and zonal levels for analysis and feedback. Program officers used the findings to rectify process indicators in time for a better outcome.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Apoio Social , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Telemedicina , Computadores de Mão , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nigéria , Organização e Administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
BMC Public Health ; 18(Suppl 4): 1306, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The year 2014 was a turning point for polio eradication in Nigeria. Confronted with the challenges of increased numbers of polio cases detected in rural, hard-to-reach (HTR), and security-compromised areas of northern Nigeria, the Nigeria polio program introduced the HTR project in four northern states to provide immunization and maternal and child health services in these communities. The project was set up to improve population immunity, increase oral polio vaccine (OPV) and other immunization uptake, and to support Nigeria's efforts to interrupt polio transmission by 2015. Furthermore, the project also aimed to create demand for these services which were often unavailable in the HTR areas. To this end, the program developed a community engagement (CE) strategy to create awareness about the services being provided by the project. The term HTR is operationally defined as geographically difficult terrain, with any of the following criteria: having inter-ward/inter-Local Government Area/interstate borders, scattered households, nomadic population, or waterlogged/riverine area, with no easy to access to healthcare facilities and insecurity. METHODS: We evaluated the outcome of CE activities in Kano, Bauchi, Borno, and Yobe states to examine the methods and processes that helped to increase OPV and third pentavalent (penta3) immunization coverage in areas of implementation. We also assessed the number of community engagers who mobilized caregivers to vaccination posts and the service satisfaction for the performance of the community engagers. RESULTS: Penta3 coverage was at 22% in the first quarter of project implementation and increased to 62% by the fourth quarter of project implementation. OPV coverage also increased from 54% in the first quarter to 76% in the last quarter of the 1-year project implementation. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic implementation of a CE strategy that focused on planning and working with community structures and community engagers in immunization activities assisted in increasing OPV and penta3 immunization coverage.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Criança , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Nigéria , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vacinas Combinadas/administração & dosagem
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(suppl_1): S103-S109, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376090

RESUMO

Background: Kano state has been a protracted reservoir of poliovirus in Nigeria. Immunity trends have been monitored through seroprevalence surveys since 2011. The survey in 2015 was, in addition, intended to assess the impact of use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Methods: It was a health facility based seroprevalence survey. Eligible children aged 6-9, 12-15 and 19-22 months of age brought to the paediatrics outpatient department of Murtala Mohammad Specialist Hospital between 19 October and 6 November 2015, were screened for eligibility. Eligible children were enrolled after parental consent, history taken, physical examination conducted, and a blood sample collected to test for neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. Results: Overall, 365 results were available in the three age groups. In the 6-9-month-old age group, the seroprevalence was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64-80%), 83% (95% CI 75-88%), and 66% (95% CI 57-73%) for serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In the 12-15- and 19-22-month-old age groups, seroprevalence was higher but still remained <90% across serotypes. Seroprevalence to serotypes 1 and 3 in 2015 was similar to 2014; however, for serotype 2 there was a significant improvement. IPV received in supplemental immunization activities was found to be a significant predictor of seropositivity among 6-9-month-old infants for serotypes 1 and 2. Conclusions: Seroprevalence for serotypes 1 and 3 remains low (<80%) in 6-9-month-olds. This poses a significant risk for poliovirus spread if reintroduced into the population. Efforts to strengthen immunization coverage are imperative to secure and sustain high population immunity.


Assuntos
Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/administração & dosagem , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Poliovirus/imunologia , Vacinação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Cobertura Vacinal
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