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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610119

RESUMO

Rice polluted by metal(loid)s, especially arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), imposes serious health risks. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the obligate plant symbionts arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can reduce As and Cd concentrations in rice. The behaviours of metal(loid)s in the soil-rice-AMF system are of significant interest for scientists in the fields of plant biology, microbiology, agriculture, and environmental science. This paper reviews the mechanisms of As and Cd accumulation in rice with and without the involvement of AMF. In the context of the rice-soil-AMF system, we review and discuss the role of AMF in affecting soil ion mobility, chemical form, transport pathways (including symplast and apoplast), and genotype variation. A potential strategy for AMF application in rice fields is considered, followed by future research directions to improve theoretical understanding and encourage field application.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477493

RESUMO

Chloropropanols such as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) have drawn increasing attention due to their release from food contact paper and their potential carcinogenic effects. In this study, the effects were investigated of water extraction conditions on release of chloropropanols from food contact paper, and the extraction efficiencies of chloropropanols by water extract and migration method were compared. Cold water was found to be more severe than hot water for extraction of chloropropanols, with the highest water extraction value obtained at 23°C. Two hours of extraction was sufficient as the chloropropanols can be fully extracted from food contact paper within a short period of time. Increase of temperature in the range of 10°C-60°C had little impact on release of chloropropanols, however, the extraction of chloropropanols decreased when high temperatures (80°C or above) were applied due to volatilisation losses. Hence, attention should be paid when choosing extract conditions representing the worst-case scenario. The water extraction value using EN 645 method gives higher results compared to migration test described in GB 31604.1 and GB 5009.156, suggesting that the water extract method was probably more severe. For migration test, aqueous-based simulants were found to be more conservative than oil-based simulants, suggesting the conventional experiment conditions applicable for compliance test of chloropropanols migration can be simplified and optimised.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125894, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492832

RESUMO

The chemistry of root cell wall of rice could be changed by inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of such changes on cadmium (Cd) uptake and distribution in rice. Results showed that inoculation of AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (RI) significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) shoot biomass, plant height and root length of rice, and decreased Cd concentration in shoot and root under Cd stress. Moreover, Cd in root was mainly found in pectin and hemicellulose 1 (HC1) components of root cell wall. Inoculation of RI increased the levels of pectin, HC1 and lignin content, accompanied by the increments of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities. Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further showed that more hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in root cell wall were observed in mycorrhizal treatment, compared with control. This study demonstrates that cell wall components could be the locations for Cd fixation, which reduced Cd transportation from root to shoot. Inoculation of AMF may remodel root cell wall biosynthesis and affect the characteristics of Cd fixation. The entering and fixing mechanisms should be further studied.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Parede Celular/química , Fungos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150310, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583082

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs) accumulated in agricultural soils and rice have increased human exposure risks. Microbial degradation could efficiently reduce the residue of organic pollutants in soil and crop plants. Here, we hypothesized that endophytic bacteria from wild rice have the potential for degradation of PAEs and plant growth promoting. The endophytic bacterial community and functional diversity in wild rice (Oryza meridionalis) were analyzed for the first time, and the potential for PAE degradation and plant growth promoting by endophytes were investigated. The results of Illumina high-throughput sequencing revealed that abundant endophytes inhabited in wild rice with Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria being the dominant phyla. Endophytic bacterial diversity and complexity were confirmed by isolation and clustering of isolates. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis demonstrated that endophytes exerted diverse functions such as plant growth promoting, xenobiotics biodegradation, pollution remediation and bacterial chemotaxis. Pure culture experiment showed that 30 isolated endophytic strains exhibited in vitro plant growth promoting activities, and rice plants inoculated with these strains confirmed their growth promoting abilities. Some endophytic strains were capable of efficiently degrading PAEs, with the highest removal percentage of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) up to 96.1% by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain L381 within 5 days. Synthetic community F and strain L381 rapidly removed DBP from soil (removing 91.0%-99.2% within 10 d and from rice plant slurry (removing 93.4%-99.2% within 5 d). These results confirmed the hypothesis and demonstrated the diversity of endophytic bacteria in wild rice with diverse functions, especially for plant growth promoting and removing PAEs. These multifunctional endophytic bacteria provided good alternatives to reduce PAE accumulation in crops and increase yield.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11825-11834, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582220

RESUMO

Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxic heptapeptides identified in cyanobacterial bloom-impacted waters and soils. However, their environmental fate in soils is poorly understood, preventing reliable site assessment. This study aims to clarify the variant-specific adsorption, desorption, and dissipation of MC-LR and MC-RR in agricultural soils. Results revealed that their adsorption isotherms followed the Freundlich model (R2 ≥ 0.96), exhibiting a higher nonlinear trend and lower adsorption capacity for MC-LR than for MC-RR. The soils had low desorption rates of 8.14-21.06% and 3.06-34.04%, respectively, following a 24 h desorption cycle. Pairwise comparison indicated that soil pH and clay played key roles in MC-LR adsorption and desorption, while organic matter and cation exchange capacity played key roles in those of MC-RR. MC-LR dissipation half-lives in soils were 27.18-42.52 days, compared with 35.19-43.87 days for MC-RR. Specifically, an appreciable decrease in MC concentration in sterile soils suggested the significant role of abiotic degradation. This study demonstrates that the minor structural changes in MCs might have major effects on their environmental fates in agricultural soil and indicates that the toxic effects of MCs should be of high concern due to high adsorption, low desorption, and slow dissipation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Adsorção , Agricultura , Solo
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 420: 126165, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273883

RESUMO

The low- and high-arsenic (As) transferring cultivars (LTC and HTC) of cabbage showed significant differences in As uptake and distribution. We hypothesise that chemistry of root cell wall matrix plays a critical role. LTC and HTC were treated with As and grown for 60 days. As concentration and distribution at subcellular and cell wall component (pectin, hemicellulose and lignin) levels were determined. Remodelling enzymes (PME and PAL) and functional groups of cell wall were analysed. Results showed that shoot biomass of LTC was not affected by As. Less As was accumulated in shoot of LTC than HTC. LTC allocated more As in root and majority of As was deposited in cell wall. LTC had more hemicellulose 1 (HC1) and lignin, PME and PAL activities. The uronic acid contents of pectin, HC1 or HC2 were all positively (P < 0.05) correlated with As concentrations in each component, respectively. Chemistry of LTC root cell wall was remodelled in terms of changes in porosity, HC and lignin contents, and functional groups, which potentially exerted coupling effects on As entering and deposition. The LTC can restrain As in roots through changing characteristics of root cell wall matrix.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Brassica , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Parede Celular/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8730-8741, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169723

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) as an accumulative emerging persistent organic pollutant in crops poses severe threats to human health. Lettuce varieties that accumulate a lower amount of PFOS (low-accumulating crop variety, LACV) have been identified, but the regarding mechanisms remain unsolved. Here, rhizospheric activation, uptake, translocation, and compartmentalization of PFOS in LACV were investigated in comparison with those of high-accumulating crop variety (HACV) in terms of rhizospheric forms, transporters, and subcellular distributions of PFOS. The enhanced PFOS desorption from the rhizosphere soils by dissolved organic matter from root exudates was observed with weaker effect in LACV than in HACV. PFOS root uptake was controlled by a transporter-mediated passive process in which low activities of aquaporins and rapid-type anion channels were corrected with low expression levels of PIPs (PIP1-1 and PIP2-2) and ALMTs (ALMT10 and ALMT13) genes in LACV roots. Higher PFOS proportions in root cell walls and trophoplasts caused lower root-to-shoot transport in LACV. The ability to cope with PFOS toxicity to shoot cells was poorer in LACV relative to HACV since PFOS proportions were higher in chloroplasts but lower in vacuoles. Our findings provide novel insights into PFOS accumulation in lettuce and further understanding of multiprocess mechanisms of LACV.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes do Solo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Alface , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125416, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662795

RESUMO

Urban rivers were heavily polluted, which resulted in blackening and odorization (i.e., black-odor rivers). Nevertheless, very limited information is available on sediment contamination levels of black-odor rivers and their linkage to the patterns of microbial functional genes. This study investigated distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalates (PAEs) and their linkages to bacterial community and related functional genes in river sediments. The results demonstrate that higher average levels of ∑16PAHs (1405 µg/kg, dry weight) and ∑6PAEs (7120 µg/kg) were observed in sediments from heavy black-odor rivers than the moderate ones (∑16PAHs: 462 µg/kg; ∑6PAEs: 2470 µg/kg). The taxon composition and diversities of bacterial community in sediments varied with significantly lower diversity indices in heavy black-odor rivers than moderate ones. Sediments from heavy black-odor rivers enriched certain PAH and PAE degrading bacteria and genes. Unfortunately, PAH and PAE contamination demonstrated negative influences on nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism related bacteria and function genes but significant positive influences on certain sulfur metabolism related bacterial taxa and sulfur reduction gene, which might cause nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation and black-odor phenomenon in heavy black-odor rivers. This study highlights PAH and PAE contamination in urban rivers may shift bacterial community and detrimentally affect their ecological functions.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitrogênio , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 328: 124847, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609883

RESUMO

Sewage sludge contains various classes of organic pollutants, limiting its land application. Sludge composting can effectively remove some organic pollutants. This review summarizesrecent researches on concentration changes and dissipation of different organic pollutants including persistent organic pollutants during sludge composting, and discusses their dissipation pathways and the current understanding on dissipation mechanism. Some organic pollutants like PAHs and phthalates were removed mainly through biodegradation or mineralization, and their dissipation percentages were higher than those of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. Nevertheless, some recalcitrant organic pollutants could be sequestrated in organic fractions of sludge mixtures, and their levels and ARG abundance even increased after sludge composting in some studies, posing potential risks for land application. This review demonstrated that microbial community and their corresponding degradation for organic pollutants were influenced by different pollutants, bulking agents, composting methods and processes. Further research perspectives on removing organic pollutants during sludge composting were highlighted.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Poluentes Ambientais , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dibenzofuranos , Esgotos , Solo
10.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435286

RESUMO

The synergistic potential of plant essential oils (EOs) with other conventional and non-conventional antimicrobial agents is a promising strategy for increasing antimicrobial efficacy and controlling foodborne pathogens. Spoilage microorganisms are one of main concerns of seafood products, while the prevention of seafood spoilage principally requires exclusion or inactivation of microbial activity. This review provides a comprehensive overview of recent studies on the synergistic antimicrobial effect of EOs combined with other available chemicals (such as antibiotics, organic acids, and plant extracts) or physical methods (such as high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation, and vacuum-packaging) utilized to reduce the growth of foodborne pathogens and/or to extend the shelf-life of seafood products. This review highlights the synergistic ability of EOs when used as a seafood preservative, discovering the possible routes of the combined techniques for the development of a novel seafood preservation strategy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservação de Alimentos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 143208, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162130

RESUMO

Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are environmentally ubiquitous and have aroused a worldwide concern due to their threats to environment and human health. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the most frequently observed PAEs in the environment. In this study, a novel bacterium identified as Pseudomonas sp. YJB6 that isolated from PAEs-contaminated soil was determined to have strong DBP-degrading activity. A complete degradation of DBP in 200 mg/L was achieved within 3 days when YJB6 was cultivated at 31.4 °C with an initial inoculation size of 0.6 (OD600) in basic mineral salts liquid medium (MSM), pH 7.6. The degradation curves of DBP (50-2000 mg/L) fitted well the first-order kinetics model, with a half-life (t1/2) ranging from 0.86 to 1.88 d. The main degradation intermediates were identified as butyl-ethyl phthalate (BEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), phthalic acid (PA) and benzoic acid (BA), indicating a new complex and complete biodegradation pathway presented by YJB6. DBP might be metabolized through de-esterification, ß-oxidation, and hydrolysis, followed by entering the Krebs cycle of YJB6 as a final step. Strain YJB6 was successfully immobilized with sodium alginate (SA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and SA-PVA. The immobilization significantly improved the stability and adaptability of the cells thus resulting in high volumetric DBP-degrading rates compared to that of the freely suspended cells. In addition, these immobilized cells can be reused for many cycles with well conserved in DBP-degrading activity. The ideal DBP degrading ability of the free and immobilized YJB6 cells suggests that strain YJB6, especially the SA-PVA+ YJB6 promises great potential to remove hazardous PAEs.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dibutilftalato , Ésteres , Humanos , Hidrólise , Pseudomonas
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 143028, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129529

RESUMO

The growing incidence of microcystins (MCs) in the environment has become an issue of global concern for the high ecological and human health risks. Herein, a comparative adsorption of three MCs (MC-LR, MC-YR and MC-RR) by spent mushroom substrate (SMS)-derived biochars from contrasting pyrolytic conditions (temperature: 600/300 °C; and gas steam: CO2/N2) was surveyed to better understand the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption performance. For biochar preparation, 600 °C and CO2 led to greater levels of aromaticity, ash, SBET, and porosity, while 300 °C and N2 created more surface functional groups. The adsorption of MCs by biochars was a pH-dependent and endothermic physisorption process, following the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R2 = 0.99) and linear isotherm model (R2 > 0.88). The distribution coefficients Kd (0.98-19.2 L/kg) varied greatly among MCs (MC-YR > MC-RR > MC-LR) and biochars (BC600 > BN600 > BC300 > BN300), which depends on the combined effects of hydrophobicity, electrostatic attraction, H-bonding, cation bridging, and the amounts of adsorption sites on biochars. Higher ash, SBET, and total pore volume of BC600 facilitated the adsorption capacity for MCs relative to other biochars. Furthermore, the co-adsorption efficacy for MCs (Kd = 1.09-8.86 L/kg) was far below those for the single adsorption, indicating strong conflicts among competing MCs. This study sheds light on the roles of pyrolytic temperature and gas steam in biochar properties, and elucidates the mechanisms and factors affecting the adsorption performance of different MCs, which lays a foundation for MCs removal from water.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Microcistinas , Adsorção , Humanos , Pirólise
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124901, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360702

RESUMO

A novel PAE-hydrolyzing esterase (named Hyd) gene was screened from the genomic library of Rhodococcus sp. 2G and was successfully expressed in heterologous E. coli, which was defined as a new family of esterolytic enzymes. The purified Hyd could efficiently degrade various PAEs, displaying high activity and stability with a broad range of pH (4-10) and temperature (20-60 °C). Interaction mechanism of Hyd with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was investigated by integrated multi-spectroscopic and docking simulation methods. Fluorescence and UV-vis spectra revealed that DBP could quench the fluorescence of Hyd through a static quenching mechanism. The results from synchronous fluorescence and CD spectra confirmed that the DBP binding to Hyd triggered conformational and micro-environmental changes of Hyd, which were characterized by increased stretching extent and random coil, and decreased α-helix and ß-sheet. Molecular docking study showed that DBP could be bound to the cavity of Hyd with hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. A novel and distinctive catalytic mechanism was proposed: two key residues Thr190 and Ser191 might catalyze the hydrolysis of DBP, instead of the conserved catalytic triad (Ser-His-Asp) reported elsewhere, which was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.


Assuntos
Ésteres , Ácidos Ftálicos , Catálise , Dibutilftalato , Escherichia coli , Esterases/genética , Hidrólise , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123803, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264905

RESUMO

How nitrate (NO3-) fertilization influences ciprofloxacin (CIP) uptake by crops remains unsolved. Here, two Brassica parachinensis cultivars differing in CIP accumulation were cultivated to investigate the effects of NO3- supply on CIP uptake and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that NO3- supply effectively reduced CIP toxicity and accumulation in the two cultivars, especially in the low CIP cultivar. Moreover, NO3- supply induced different mechanisms of coping with CIP stress in the two cultivars through influencing subcellular distribution of CIP. The uptake of CIP by root was demonstrated to be a carrier-mediated, energy-consuming, and proton motive force-dependent influx process. Consequently, a mechanism of nitrate supply decreasing CIP uptake was proposed that uptake of CIP and NO3- into root cell would compete for the proton motive force and share a common energy source provided by plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Besides, regulating the concentration balances of cytoplasmic NO3- and proton by inhibiting the activities of NRase and two tonoplast proton pumps (V-ATPase and V-PPase) led to opposite effect on CIP uptake, further supporting this inference. Our results provide a novel insight into CIP uptake by plant roots, and improve the strategy of minimizing CIP accumulation in crops for food safety by fertilization management.


Assuntos
Brassica , Transporte Biológico , Ciprofloxacina , Nitratos , Raízes de Plantas
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 13046-13055, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030897

RESUMO

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is bioaccumulative in crops. PFOA bioaccumulation potential varies largely among crop varieties. Root exudates are found to be associated with such variations. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in root exudates from a PFOA-high-accumulation lettuce variety are observed significantly higher than those from PFOA-low-accumulation lettuce variety (p < 0.05). Root exudates and their LMWOAs components exert great influences on the linear sorption-desorption isotherms of PFOA in soils, thus activating PFOA and enhancing its bioavailability. Among root exudate components, oxalic acid is identified to play a key role in activating PFOA uptake, with >80% attribution. Oxalic acid at rhizospheric concentrations (0.02-0.5 mM) can effectively inhibit PFOA sorption to soils by decreasing hydrophobic force, electrostatic attraction, ligand exchange, and cation-bridge effect. Oxalic acid enhances dissolution of metallic ions, iron/aluminum oxides, and organic matters from soils and forms oxalate-metal complexes, based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, ultraviolet spectra, and analyses of metal ions, iron/aluminum organometallic complexes, and dissolved organic carbon. The findings not only reveal the activation process of PFOA in soils by root exudates, particularly oxalic acid at rhizospheric concentrations, but also give an insight into the mechanism of enhancing PFOA accumulation in lettuce varieties.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Alface , Caprilatos , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Ácido Oxálico
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111105, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866887

RESUMO

Soil is an important sink for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) that is a typical persistent organic pollutant with high toxicity. Understanding of PFOS sorption to various particle-size fractions of soil provides an insight into the mobility and bioavailability of PFOS in soil. This study evaluated kinetics, isotherms, and mechanisms of PFOS sorption to six soil particle-size fractions of paddy soil at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.01-1 µg/mL). The used soil particle-size fractions included coarse sand (120.4-724.4 mm), fine sand (45.7-316.2 mm), coarse silt (17.3-79.4 mm), fine silt (1.9-39.8 mm), clay (0.5-4.4 mm), and humic acid fractions (8.2-83.7 mm) labeled as F1~F6, respectively. PFOS sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics related to film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion, with speed-limiting phase acted by the latter. PFOS sorption isotherm data followed Freundlich model, with generally convex isotherms in larger size fractions (F1~F3) but concave isotherms in smaller size fractions (F4 and F5) and humic acid fraction (F6). Increasing organic matter content, Brunner-Emmet-Teller surface area, and smaller size fractions were conducive to PFOS sorption. Hydrophobic force, divalent metal ion-bridging effect, ligand exchange, hydrogen bonding, and protein-like interaction played roles in PFOS sorption. But hydrophobic force controlled the PFOS sorption, because its relevant organic matter governed the contribution of the soil fractions to the overall PFOS sorption. The larger size fractions dominated the PFOS sorption to the original soil because of their high mass percentages (~80%). This likely caused greater potential risks of PFOS migration into groundwater and bioaccumulation in crops at higher temperatures and ce values, based on their convex isotherms with an exothermic physical process.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Adsorção , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Argila/química , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Termodinâmica
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823916

RESUMO

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is prevalent in water and can be translocated into soil-crop ecosystem via irrigation, overflow (pollution accident), and cyanobacterial manure applications, threatening agricultural production and human health. However, the effects of various input pathways on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of MCs in terrestrial plants have been hardly reported so far. In the present study, pot experiments were performed to compare the bioaccumulation, toxicity, and health risk of MC-LR as well as its degradation in soils among various treatments with the same total amount of added MC-LR (150 µg/kg). The treatments included irrigation with polluted water (IPW), cultivation with polluted soil (CPS), and application of cyanobacterial manure (ACM). Three common leaf-vegetables in southern China were used in the pot experiments, including Ipomoea batatas L., Brassica juncea L., and Brassica alboglabra L. All leaf vegetables could bioaccumulate MC-LR under the three treatments, with much higher MC-LR bioaccumulation, especially root bioconcentration observed in ACM treatment than IPW and CPS treatments. An opposite trend in MC-LR degradation in soils of these treatments indicated that ACM could limit MC-LR degradation in soils and thus promote its bioaccumulation in the vegetables. MC-LR bioaccumulation could cause toxicity to the vegetables, with the highest toxic effects observed in ACM treatment. Similarly, bioaccumulation of MC-LR in the edible parts of the leaf-vegetables posed 1.1~4.8 fold higher human health risks in ACM treatment than in IPW and CPS treatments. The findings of this study highlighted a great concern on applications of cyanobacterial manure.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/análise , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Verduras/toxicidade , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/toxicidade , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia do Solo
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 14015-14024, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822176

RESUMO

This study established a high-efficiency fluorescence quenching approach for the in situ visualization and modeling of the spatial distribution of xylanase, ß-glucosidase, and phosphatase activities in plant leaves under pollution stress (namely, the leaf zymography technique, LZT). In the LZT, a membrane saturated with an enzyme-specific fluorescent substrate on the leaf surface was incubated and the fluorescence image generated on the membrane under ultraviolet light was recorded. An image-based modeling method for restoring the morphological traits of the true image by reducing noise was developed to ensure the accurate estimation of enzyme activities. The LZT could simultaneously measure 48 samples within 2 h, with good reproducibility. The results obtained by the LZT were comparable to those obtained by a conventional biochemical analysis method and presented low-cost and convenient advantages. This paper explains the theoretical basis required to investigate the realistic application of the LZT for assessing ecotoxicity in large-scale monitoring.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Folhas de Planta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140755, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758841

RESUMO

Wide use of plastic greenhouses for vegetable production increases human exposure to phthalate (PAEs) through vegetable intake. However, little information is available about distribution of PAEs in air-soil-vegetable systems of plastic greenhouses and PAE estrogenic effects. This study was designed to investigate PAE distributions and corresponding health risk in plastic greenhouses in Guangzhou, a subtropical city in South China. PAEs were prevalent in plastic greenhouses, with sum concentrations of 16 PAE compounds (∑16PAEs) up to 5.76 mg/kg in soils, 5.27 mg/kg in vegetables and 4393 ng/m3 in air. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, and dibutyl phthalate were predominant compounds. Average concentrations and bioconcentration factor of ∑16PAEs and the predominant PAE compounds in vegetables of greenhouses were higher than those of open fields. Plastic greenhouses exhibited significantly higher air PAE levels than those of open fields due to higher indoor temperature, which enhanced PAE accumulation by vegetables. Both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of PAEs via dietary and non-dietary exposures for farmers decreased with an order of vegetable > air > soil. Consumption of vegetables from greenhouses resulted in significantly higher estrogenic effects compared to those from open field cultivation. This study emphasizes highly potential health risks of PAEs in air-soil-vegetable systems of plastic greenhouses.

20.
Environ Res ; 186: 109611, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668551

RESUMO

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is a class of prevalent pollutants in agricultural soil, threating food safety through crop uptake and accumulation of PAEs. Accumulation of PAEs varies largely among crop species and cultivars. Nevertheless, how root exudates affect PAE bioavailability, dissipation, uptake and accumulation is still not well understood. In the present study, desorption and pot experiments were designed to investigate how root exudates from high-(Peizataifeng) and low-(Fengyousimiao) PAE accumulating rice cultivars affect soil PAE bioavailability, dissipation, and accumulation variation. Rice root exudates including low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) of Peizataifeng and Fengyousimiao could enhance desorption of two typical PAE compounds, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from aged soil to their available fractions by increasing soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), thus improving their bioavailability in soil. Peizataifeng produced twice higher amounts of oxalic acid, critic acid and malonic acid in root exudates, and exhibited stronger effects on enhancing desorption and bioavailability of DBP and DEHP than Fengyousimiao. Higher (by about 50%) total organic carbon contents of root exudates from Peizataifeng led to higher (by 10-30%) soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen than Fengyousimiao, and thus promoted more PAE dissipation from soil than Fengyousimiao. Nevertheless, higher (by 20-50%) soil DOC and significantly higher PAE bioavailability in the soils planted Peizataifeng resulted in greater (by 53-93%) PAE accumulation in roots and shoots of Peizataifeng than Fengyousimiao, confirming by higher (by 1.82-3.48 folds) shoot and root bioconcentration factors of Peizataifeng than Fengyousimiao. This study reveals that the difference in root exudate extent and LMWOAs between Peizataifeng and Fengyousimiao differentiates PAE accumulation.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ésteres , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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