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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180806

RESUMO

Guided by parental investment theory and social role theory, this study aimed to understand current contradictory results regarding sex differences in response to infant faces by considering the effect of gender role orientation. We recruited 300 adults in China and asked them to complete an Interest in Infants questionnaire and a Bem Sex Role Inventory and then administered a behavioral assessment that used unfamiliar infant faces with varying expressions (laughing, neutral, and crying) as stimuli to gauge three components of motivation towards infants (i.e., liking, representational responding, and evoked responding). The results demonstrated that sex differences emerged only in self-reported interest in infants, but no difference was found between the sexes in terms of their hedonic reactions to infant faces. Furthermore, femininity was found to correlate with preferences for infants in both verbal and visual tests, but significant interactive effects of feminine traits and sex were found only in the behavioral test. The findings indicated that men's responses to infants were influenced more by their feminine traits than were women's responses, potentially explaining the greater extent to which paternal (vs. maternal) investment is facultative.

2.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 2953-2968, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315005

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with gut microbiota, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We aimed to investigate the possible mechanism by which noni fruit polysaccharide (NFP) improved hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in rats under a high-fat diet (HFD) by modulating short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the intestinal barrier, and gut microbiota. Hepatic oxidative stress, inflammation, and gut dysbiosis in rats were induced through HFD feeding for 4 weeks, followed by intervention with NFP treatment (100 mg per kg bw) for 5 weeks. The results showed that NFP reduced body weight gain and improved lipid metabolism, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation in rats under a HFD. Aside from these beneficial effects, NFP positively affected the SCFA production and reversed the HFD-induced gut dysbiosis as indicated by improved microbiota diversity and composition. The levels of Lactobacillus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_014, Parasutterella, [Eubacterium]_coprostanoligenes_group, and Ruminococcus_1 improved, whereas the levels of Prevotella_9, Collinsella, Bacteroides, and Turicibacter decreased. Furthermore, NFP maintained the colonic barrier integrity (increased the mRNA relative expression of CCL5, ZO-1, and occludin in the colon, and decreased the serum CCL5 level), and decreased the serum lipopolysaccharide level. Thus, NFP may modulate the gut microflora and SCFA production and reduce the permeability of the colonic barrier and metabolic endotoxemia, thereby alleviating hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation in rats under a HFD.

3.
J Sex Res ; 53(9): 1131-1138, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27268768

RESUMO

College women are at a high risk of sexual assault. Although programs that aim to change bystander behaviors have been shown to be potentially effective in preventing sexual assault on campuses in the United States, little is known about bystander behaviors outside of the United States. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare factors affecting bystander behaviors regarding sexual assault intervention and prevention among undergraduate students in the United States, Japan, India, Vietnam, and China. A total of 1,136 students participated in a self-reported survey. Results demonstrate substantial variations across countries. Bystander behaviors are associated with multilevel factors, including gender, knowledge of individuals who have experienced a sexual assault, and knowledge about campus or community organizations.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Delitos Sexuais/etnologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Japão/etnologia , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Womens Health Issues ; 24(3): e327-33, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24725757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a significant women's health problem in the United States. However, critical information on specific populations is still lacking. In particular, it is not well known how free clinic patients perceive breast health. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and perceptions of breast health among uninsured women utilizing a free clinic that serves as a safety net for the underserved. METHODS: A self-administrated survey that included knowledge and perceptions of breast health was conducted for female free clinic patients aged 40 or older in fall 2012. There were 146 participants. The participants were classified into three groups for comparison; U.S. citizen English speakers, non-U.S. citizen English speakers, and Spanish speakers. RESULTS: Spanish speakers had the highest average score on the knowledge of breast health, whereas the non-U.S. citizen English speakers had the lowest average score. Free clinic patients may consider breast health screening if recommended by health care providers. The non-U.S. citizen English speakers and Spanish speakers were more likely to have negative perceptions of breast health compared with the U.S. citizen English speakers. CONCLUSIONS: Promoting knowledge about breast health is important for free clinics. Recommendation by a health care provider is a key to increasing attendance at health education programs and breast health screening. Non-U.S. citizens and non-English speakers would need culturally competent interventions. Free clinics have limited human and financial resources. Such characteristics of free clinics should be considered for practice implementations.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
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