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2.
Gut ; 69(1): 74-82, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over half of patients with IBS have either diarrhoea (IBS-D) or a mixed stool pattern (IBS-M). The relative efficacy of licenced pharmacological therapies is unclear in the absence of head-to-head trials. We conducted a network meta-analysis to resolve this uncertainty. DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Embase Classic, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, and Clinicaltrials.gov through January 2019 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of licenced pharmacological therapies (alosetron, eluxadoline, ramosetron and rifaximin) in adults with IBS-D or IBS-M. Trials included in the analysis reported a dichotomous assessment of overall response to therapy, and data were pooled using a random effects model. Efficacy and safety of all pharmacological therapies were reported as a pooled relative risk with 95% CIs to summarise the effect of each comparison tested. Treatments were ranked according to their p score. RESULTS: We identified 18 eligible RCTs (seven alosetron, five ramosetron, two rifaximin and four eluxadoline), containing 9844 patients. All were superior to placebo for the treatment of IBS-D or IBS-M at 12 weeks, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended endpoint for trials in IBS. Alosetron 1 mg twice daily was ranked first for efficacy, based on the FDA-recommended composite endpoint of improvement in both abdominal pain and stool consistency, effect on global symptoms of IBS and effect on stool consistency. Ramosetron 2.5µg once daily was ranked first for effect on abdominal pain. Total numbers of adverse events were significantly greater with alosetron 1 mg twice daily and ramosetron 2.5µg once daily, compared with placebo. Rifaximin 550 mg three times daily ranked first for safety. Constipation was significantly more common with all drugs, except rifaximin 550 mg three times daily. CONCLUSION: In a network meta-analysis of RCTs of pharmacological therapies for IBS-D and IBS-M, we found all drugs to be superior to placebo, but alosetron and ramosetron appeared to be the most effective.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Determinação de Ponto Final/normas , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Manejo da Dor/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Gastroenterology ; 158(1): 285-286, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704300
4.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 21(12): 65, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807948

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most prescribed drugs in the developed world and elderly patients are particularly likely to be prescribed acid suppression. There have been reports of many diseases being associated with PPI therapy and the elderly would be particular at risk of any harms these drugs may cause. This review therefore reviews the evidence of the risks and benefits of these drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: PPIs are very effective at treating acid-related disorders. Recent randomized trials have suggested that the associations between PPI and various diseases are likely to be related to bias and residual confounding and these drugs appear to be safe apart from a possible increase risk of enteric infections. PPIs should be used at the lowest dose and for the shortest duration possible. They are still relatively safe drugs but should only be prescribed for proven indications.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Altering the intestinal microbiota has been proposed as a treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but there are no established associations between specific microbes and IBD. We performed a systematic review to identify frequent associations. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CDSR, and CENTRAL databases, through April 2, 2018 for studies that compared intestinal microbiota (from fecal or colonic or ileal tissue samples) among patients (adult or pediatric) with IBD vs healthy individuals (controls). The primary outcome was difference in specific taxa in fecal or intestinal tissue samples from patients with IBD vs controls. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of studies included in the review. RESULTS: We identified 2631 citations; 48 studies from 45 articles were included in the analysis. Most studies evaluated adults with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. All 3 studies of Christensenellaceae and Coriobacteriaceae and 6 of 11 studies of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii reported a decreased amount of those organisms compared with controls, whereas 2 studies each of Actinomyces, Veillonella, and Escherichia coli revealed an increased amount in patients with Crohn's disease. For patients with ulcerative colitis, Eubacterium rectale and Akkermansia were decreased in all 3 studies whereas E coli was increased in 4 of 9 studies. The microbiota diversity was either decreased or not different in patients with IBD vs controls. Fewer than 50% of the studies stated comparable sexes and ages of cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS: In a systematic review, we found evidence for differences in abundances of some bacteria in patients with IBD vs controls, but we cannot make conclusions due to inconsistent results and methods among studies. Further large-scale studies, with better methods of assessing microbe populations, are needed.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although novel therapies for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) continue to be developed, many doctors rely on more established, traditional therapies as first-line or second-line treatment options. These therapies include soluble fibre (eg, ispaghula husk), antispasmodic drugs, peppermint oil, and gut-brain neuromodulators (including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or α-2-δ calcium channel subunit ligands). However, the relative efficacy of traditional treatments in patients with IBS is unclear because there have been few head-to-head randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We aimed to compare and rank the efficacy of traditional therapies in patients with IBS to help inform clinical decisions. METHODS: For this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Embase Classic, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to week 2 of August 2019; ClinicalTrials.gov for unpublished trials or supplementary data published up to Aug 18, 2019; and gastroenterology conference proceedings for study abstracts published between 2001 and Aug 18, 2019. We included RCTs that compared any of these treatments with each other (head-to-head trials) or with placebo, in which the efficacy of soluble fibre, antispasmodic drugs, peppermint oil, or gut-brain neuromodulators was assessed in adults (aged at least 18 years) with IBS of any subtype after 4-12 weeks of treatment. Only RCTs reporting a dichotomous assessment of overall response to therapy, in terms of either improvement in global IBS symptoms or improvement in abdominal pain, were included. The efficacy and safety of all treatments were reported as a pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% CIs to summarise the effect of each comparison tested, and treatments were ranked according to their P-score. FINDINGS: Our search identified 5863 references, of which 81 were screened for eligibility. 51 RCTs with data from 4644 patients were eligible for inclusion in our analysis, but only 13 of these trials were at low risk of bias. Based on an endpoint of failure to achieve improvement in global IBS symptoms at 4-12 weeks, peppermint oil capsules were ranked first for efficacy (RR 0·63, 95% CI 0·48-0·83, P-score 0·84) and tricyclic antidepressants were ranked second (0·66, 0·53-0·83, P-score 0·77). For failure to achieve an improvement in global IBS symptoms at 4-12 weeks, there were no significant differences between active treatments after direct or indirect comparisons. For failure to achieve improvement in abdominal pain at 4-12 weeks, tricyclic antidepressants were ranked first for efficacy (0·53, 0·34-0·83, P-score 0·87); however, this result was based on data from only four RCTs involving 92 patients. For failure to achieve an improvement in abdominal pain, none of the active treatments showed superior efficacy upon indirect comparison. Tricyclic antidepressants were more likely than placebo to lead to adverse events (1·59, 1·26-2·06, P-score 0·16). INTERPRETATION: In this network meta-analysis of RCTs of soluble fibre, antispasmodic drugs, peppermint oil, and gut-brain neuromodulators for IBS, few of which were judged as being at a low risk of bias, peppermint oil was ranked first for efficacy when global symptoms were used as the outcome measure, and tricyclic antidepressants were ranked first for efficacy when abdominal pain was used as the outcome measure. However, because of the lack of methodological rigour of some RCTs analysed in our study, there is likely to be considerable uncertainty around these findings. In addition, because treatment duration in most included trials was 4-12 weeks, the long-term relative efficacy of these treatments is unknown. FUNDING: None.

8.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1451-1459, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with antithrombotic drugs are at risk of bleeding. Bleeding may be the first manifestation of underlying cancer. METHODS: We examined new cancers diagnosed in relation to gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding among patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) and determined the hazard of new cancer diagnosis after bleeding at these sites. RESULTS: Of 27 395 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 years; women, 21%), 2678 (9.8%) experienced any (major or minor) bleeding, 713 (2.6%) experienced major bleeding, and 1084 (4.0%) were diagnosed with cancer during a mean follow-up of 23 months. Among 2678 who experienced bleeding, 257 (9.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with a 20-fold higher hazard of new gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (7.4% versus 0.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 20.6 [95% CI, 15.2-27.8]) and 1.7-fold higher hazard of new nongastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (3.8% versus 3.1%; HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20-2.40]). Genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 32-fold higher hazard of new genitourinary cancer diagnosis (15.8% versus 0.8%; HR, 32.5 [95% CI, 24.7-42.9]), and urinary bleeding was associated with a 98-fold higher hazard of new urinary cancer diagnosis (14.2% versus 0.2%; HR, 98.5; 95% CI, 68.0-142.7). Nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary bleeding was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary cancers (4.4% versus 1.9%; HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 2.32-3.91]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atherosclerosis treated with antithrombotic drugs, any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding was associated with higher rates of new cancer diagnosis. Any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding should prompt investigation for cancers at these sites. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412, Aug., 2019. tabela, grafico
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1022748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem
10.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691, ago., 30 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1015771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 x 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. (AU)


Assuntos
Bactérias , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Aspirina
11.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 320-348, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aim to provide guidance for medical treatment of luminal Crohn's disease in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of publication databases to identify studies of medical management of pediatric Crohn's disease. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. We developed statements through an iterative online platform and then finalized and voted on them. RESULTS: The consensus includes 25 statements focused on medical treatment options. Consensus was not reached, and no recommendations were made, for 14 additional statements, largely due to lack of evidence. The group suggested corticosteroid therapies (including budesonide for mild to moderate disease). The group suggested exclusive enteral nutrition for induction therapy and biologic tumor necrosis factor antagonists for induction and maintenance therapy at diagnosis or at early stages of severe disease, and for patients failed by steroid and immunosuppressant induction therapies. The group recommended against the use of oral 5-aminosalicylate for induction or maintenance therapy in patients with moderate disease, and recommended against thiopurines for induction therapy, corticosteroids for maintenance therapy, and cannabis in any role. The group was unable to clearly define the role of concomitant immunosuppressants during initiation therapy with a biologic agent, although thiopurine combinations are not recommended for male patients. No consensus was reached on the role of aminosalicylates in treatment of patients with mild disease, antibiotics or vedolizumab for induction or maintenance therapy, or methotrexate for induction therapy. Patients in clinical remission who are receiving immunomodulators should be assessed for mucosal healing within 1 year of treatment initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based medical treatment of Crohn's disease in children is recommended, with thorough ongoing assessments to define treatment success.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Gastroenterologia/normas , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Canadá , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(9): 656-657, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326346
14.
Dig Dis ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The test characteristics of blood urea concentration in the identification of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) or high-risk endoscopic lesions have not been clearly determined. This study aimed to elucidate if urea independently correlates with the presence of positive endoscopic findings in cases of presumed UGIB and understand the diagnostic value of this parameter when assessing a patient with potential UGIB. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Hamilton Health Sciences hospitals examining patients who had upper endoscopy for presumed UGIB. Contingency tables were generated to determine the test characteristics of urea at different thresholds for prediction of UGIB. A crude OR was calculated for odds of bleeding being identified on endoscopy based on varying thresholds of urea, and adjusted ORs were calculated using logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: Variables significantly associated with detecting a source of GI bleeding at endoscopy included increase in urea (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.09), male gender (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.08-3.77), presence of melena (OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.06-5.33), and hematemesis (OR 3.88, 95% CI 1.70-8.83), when adjusted for other covariates. The odds of identifying UGIB at endoscopy in patients with urea ≥10 mmol/L was 3.73 (95% CI 1.90-7.31) times higher than for patients with urea <10 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: Urea level is an independent predictor of positive endoscopic findings in presumed UGIB, and urea ≥10 mmol/L may be a useful threshold to help guide clinicians towards clinically significant bleeding that could warrant early endoscopic evaluation.

15.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(3): e1-e34, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294378

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Crohn's disease (CD) is a lifelong illness with substantial morbidity, although new therapies and treatment paradigms have been developed. We provide guidance for treatment of ambulatory patients with mild to severe active luminal CD. Methods: We performed a systematic review to identify published studies of the management of CD. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Statements were developed through an iterative online platform and then finalized and voted on by a group of specialists. Results: The consensus includes 41 statements focused on 6 main drug classes: antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylate, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, biologic therapies, and other therapies. The group suggested against the use of antibiotics or 5-aminosalicylate as induction or maintenance therapies. Corticosteroid therapies (including budesonide) can be used as induction, but not maintenance therapies. Among immunosuppressants, thiopurines should not be used for induction, but can be used for maintenance therapy for selected low-risk patients. Parenteral methotrexate was proposed for induction and maintenance therapy in patients with corticosteroid-dependent CD. Biologic agents, including tumor necrosis factor antagonists, vedolizumab, and ustekinumab, were recommended for patients failed by conventional induction therapies and as maintenance therapy. The consensus group was unable to clearly define the role of concomitant immunosuppressant therapies in initiation of treatment with a biologic agent. Conclusions: Optimal management of CD requires careful patient assessment, acknowledgement of patient preferences, evidence-based use of existing therapies, and thorough assessment to define treatment success.

16.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(3): e35-e63, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294379

RESUMO

Background & Aims: We aim to provide guidance for medical treatment of luminal Crohn's disease in children. Methods: We performed a systematic search of publication databases to identify studies of medical management of pediatric Crohn's disease. Quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) approach. We developed statements through an iterative online platform and then finalized and voted on them. Results: The consensus includes 25 statements focused on medical treatment options. Consensus was not reached, and no recommendations were made, for 14 additional statements, largely due to lack of evidence. The group suggested corticosteroid therapies (including budesonide for mild to moderate disease). The group suggested exclusive enteral nutrition for induction therapy and biologic tumor necrosis factor antagonists for induction and maintenance therapy at diagnosis or at early stages of severe disease, and for patients failed by steroid and immunosuppressant induction therapies. The group recommended against the use of oral 5-aminosalicylate for induction or maintenance therapy in patients with moderate disease, and recommended against thiopurines for induction therapy, corticosteroids for maintenance therapy, and cannabis in any role. The group was unable to clearly define the role of concomitant immunosuppressants during initiation therapy with a biologic agent, although thiopurine combinations are not recommended for male patients. No consensus was reached on the role of aminosalicylates in treatment of patients with mild disease, antibiotics or vedolizumab for induction or maintenance therapy, or methotrexate for induction therapy. Patients in clinical remission who are receiving immunomodulators should be assessed for mucosal healing within 1 year of treatment initiation. Conclusions: Evidence-based medical treatment of Crohn's disease in children is recommended, with thorough ongoing assessments to define treatment success.

17.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(1): 6-29, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294724

RESUMO

Background & aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, affecting about 10% of the general population globally. The aim of this consensus was to develop guidelines for the management of IBS. Methods: A systematic literature search identified studies on the management of IBS. The quality of evidence and strength of recommendations were rated according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Statements were developed through an iterative online platform and then finalized and voted on by a multidisciplinary group of clinicians and a patient. Results: Consensus was reached on 28 of 31 statements. Irritable bowel syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms; serological testing is suggested to exclude celiac disease, but routine testing for C-reactive protein (CRP), fecal calprotectin or food allergies is not recommended. A trial of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, polyols (FODMAP) diet is suggested, while a gluten-free diet is not. Psyllium, but not wheat bran, supplementation may help reduce symptoms. Alternative therapies such as peppermint oil and probiotics are suggested, while herbal therapies and acupuncture are not. Cognitive behavioural therapy and hypnotherapy are suggested psychological therapies. Among the suggested or recommended pharmacological therapies are antispasmodics, certain antidepressants, eluxadoline, lubiprostone, and linaclotide. Loperamide, cholestyramine and osmotic laxatives are not recommended for overall IBS symptoms. The nature of the IBS symptoms (diarrhea-predominant or constipation-predominant) should be considered in the choice of pharmacological treatments. Conclusions: Patients with IBS may benefit from a multipronged, individualized approach to treatment, including dietary modifications, psychological and pharmacological therapies.

18.
J Can Assoc Gastroenterol ; 2(1): 30-36, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294725

RESUMO

Background and Aim: The value of a multidisciplinary group and patient engagement in guideline groups is uncertain. We compared the recommendations of two guidelines that used the same data during the same time frame but with different participants to obtain a "real world" perspective on influence of the composition of guideline groups. Methods: The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) and the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) recently updated their clinical practice guidelines for the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Both the CAG and ACG used the same methodology and methodologist and were presented with the same data for interpretation. The ACG group consisted of predominantly academic gastroenterologists, while the CAG group also included general practitioners, a psychiatrist, a psychologist and a patient representative. The CAG group were also asked what components of the group were valuable. Results: There were 14 statements with the same or similar recommendations. There were 10 statements in the CAG guideline not addressed by the ACG guideline and five recommendations where the opposite was the case. There was one statement that the two groups both addressed, but each group came to different conclusions. CAG members were in 100% agreement that involving a patient and having a multidisciplinary team was valuable and may have played a role in these differing interpretations of the same data in an IBS guideline. Conclusions: There has been little uptake of patient involvement and multidisciplinary teams in guideline groups. However, this study provides a unique example of added benefit through broader group representation.

19.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 25(11): 1796-1804, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251335

RESUMO

Excessive intestinal permeability or intestinal barrier dysfunction as measured by various assays has been observed in various diseases. However, little is known about the factors contributing to altered gut permeability in these diseases. Our objective was to determine the genetic determinants of altered gut permeability as measured by the lactulose mannitol fractional excretion ratio (LacMan ratio) in 1075 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In a targeted analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in genes associated with intestinal barrier function related or not to inflammatory bowel disease, we did not find a significant association with intestinal permeability. In an untargeted genome-wide association analysis, the top 100 associations were located in 22 genomic loci, although they were not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (raw P values [1.8 × 10-7 - 1.4 × 10-5]. The lowest P value was obtained for rs9616637 (22q13.33, C22orf34), for which the minor allele A was associated with a decreased LacMan ratio. These results suggest that host genetic background has limited contribution toward intestinal permeability. Despite this, our study is currently the largest of its kind assessing gut permeability in vivo. It remains possible that smaller genetic effect sizes on LacMan ratio are not detectable in this sized cohort. Larger studies are warranted to identify the potential genetic contribution to intestinal permeability.

20.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028237, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a frequent concern in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased length of ICU stay, skin breakdown and renal dysfunction. However, its prevalence, aetiology and prognosis in the critically ill have been poorly studied. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the incidence, risk factors and consequences of diarrhoea in critically ill adults. The secondary objectives are to estimate the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in ICU patients and to validate the Bristol Stool Chart and Bliss Stool Classification System characterising bowel movements in the ICU. Our primary outcome is the incidence of diarrhoea . Our secondary outcomes include: CDAD, ICU and hospital mortality and ICU and hospital length of stay. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This international prospective cohort study will enrol patients over 10 weeks in 12 ICUs in Canada, the USA, Poland and Saudi Arabia. We will include all patients 18 years of age and older who are admitted to the ICU for at least 24 hours and follow them daily until ICU discharge. Our primary outcome is the incidence of diarrhoea based on the WHO definition, during the ICU stay. Our secondary outcomes include: CDAD, ICU and hospital mortality and ICU and hospital length of stay. We will use logistic regression to identify factors associated with diarrhoea (as defined using WHO criteria) and the kappa statistic to measure agreement on diarrhoea rates between the WHO definition and the Bristol Stool Chart and Bliss Stool Classification System. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol has been approved by the research ethics board of all participating centres. The diarrhoea interventions, consequences and epidemiology in the intensive care unit (DICE-ICU) study will generate evidence about diarrhoea and its frequency, predisposing factors and consequences, to inform critical care practice and future research. LAY SUMMARY: Diarrhoea is a frequent clinical problem for hospitalised patients including those who are critically ill in the ICU. Diarrhoea can cause complications such as skin damage, dehydration and kidney problems. It is not clear how common diarrhoea is in the ICU, the factors that cause it or the best way for clinicians to assess it. The DICE-ICU study is an international prospective observational study to examine the frequency, risk factors and outcomes of diarrhoea during critical illness.

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