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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-current cardioversion (DCC) for atrial fibrillation carries a risk of stroke, probably associated with the temporary atrial stunning following cardioversion. The presence of a cardiac thrombus, usually localized in the left atrial appendage (LAA), is recognized as a clear contra-indication to the cardioversion. However, the presence of atrial sludge without LAA thrombus in trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) remains, for many cardiologists, a relative contra-indication to the cardioversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCC in patients presenting atrial sludge without LAA thrombus. METHODS: We prospectively included all consecutive patients demonstrating atrial sludge without LAA thrombus in TEE and undergoing DCC for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Safety of DCC was evaluated by the occurrence of clinical events at 1 month following cardioversion, i.e., up to the end of the atrial stunning period, as assessed by clinical examination and the standardized and validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-Free Status (QVSFS). RESULTS: Over a period of 2 years, 21 patients presenting atrial sludge without LAA thrombus underwent DCC for AF. During the follow-up period of 1 month after DCC, no clinical embolic event, cardiac event, or unscheduled consultations/hospitalizations occurred. At 1 month, 67% of the patients remained in sinus rhythm. CONCLUSION: No clinical event occurred in patients demonstrating atrial sludge without thrombus and undergoing DCC for AF. These findings support current guidelines that only keep atrial thrombus as a contraindication to cardioversion, but warrant further investigation in large studies.

2.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(3): 541-548, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A double orifice of the left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) associated with atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) can significantly complicate surgical repair. This study reports our experience of AVSD repair over 3 decades, with special attention to the zone of apposition (ZoA) of the main orifice, and presents a technique of hemivalve pericardial extension in specific situations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study from 1987 to 2016 on 1067 patients with AVSD of whom 43 (4%) had a double orifice, plus 2 additional patients who required LAVV pericardial enlargement. Median age at repair was 1.3 years. Mean follow-up was 8.2 years (1 month-32 years). RESULTS: Associated abnormalities of the LAVV subvalvular apparatus were found in 7 patients (5 parachute LAVV and 2 absence of LAVV subvalvular apparatus). ZoA was noted in 4 patients (9%): partially closed in 15 (35%) and completely closed in 24 (56%). Four patients required, either at first repair or secondarily, a hemivalve enlargement using a pericardial patch without closure of the ZoA. The early mortality rate was 7% (n = 3), all before 2000. Two patients had unbalanced ventricles and the third had a single papillary muscle. There were no late deaths. Six patients (14%) required 7 reoperations (3 early and 4 late reoperations) for LAVV regurgitation and/or dysfunction, of whom 4 (9%) required mechanical LAVV replacement (all before 2000). Freedom from late LAVV reoperation was 97% at 1 year, 94% at 5 years and 87% at 10, 20 and 30 years. Unbalanced ventricles (P = 0.045), subvalvular abnormalities (P = 0.0037) and grade >2 LAVV postoperative regurgitation (P = 0.017) were identified as risk factors for LAVV reoperations. Freedom from LAVV mechanical valve replacement was 95% at 1 year, 90% at 5 years and 85% at 10, 20 and 30 years. An anomalous LAVV subvalvular apparatus was identified as a risk factor for mechanical valve replacement (P = 0.010). None of the patients who underwent LAVV pericardial extension had significant LAVV regurgitation at the last follow-up examination. CONCLUSIONS: Repair of AVSD and double orifice can be tricky. Preoperative LAVV regurgitation was not identified as an independent predictor of surgical outcome. LAVV hemivalve extension appears to be a useful and effective alternate surgical strategy when the ZoA cannot be closed.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(3): e558, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 8p deletions are associated with a variety of conditions, including cardiac abnormalities, mental, behavioral problems with variable morphotype and genitourinary anomalies in boys. METHODS: We describe the follow-up over almost 15 years of a boy who initially presented with perineal hypospadias with a micropenis and cryptorchidism with 46,XY DSD. RESULTS: Imaging, pathology, and hormonal exploration suggested gonadal dysgenesis. Further genetic studies were deemed necessary during follow-up. The child's further development recommended further genetic analyses. High-resolution analysis showed an interstitial deletion on the short arm of a chromosome 8: 46,XY,del(8)(p23.1p23.1). We reviewed the literature and found 102 cases including 54 boys: 62.7% had mental problems, 50.9% a dysmorphic disorder, 55.9% cardiac anomalies, and 46.3% of the boys had genitourinary anomalies. Our patient's genital abnormalities can be explained by the haploinsufficiency of the genes, such as GATA4 (OMIM 600576) that are included in the deleted area. CONCLUSION: This case of severe 46,XY DSD raises the question of the role played by 8p23 microdeletion in gonadal dysgenesis. Clinicians are encouraged to look for this anomaly on chromosome 8 in cases of unexplained gonadal dysgenesis even when few signs suggestive of this anomaly are present.


Assuntos
Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/genética , Adolescente , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/patologia , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XY/terapia , Humanos , Cariótipo , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324540

RESUMO

We aimed to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcome in patients treated for infective endocarditis (IE), with a focus on departure from European guidelines. We conducted a retrospective audit of all adult patients treated for endocarditis during a 1-year period across a regional network of nine care centers in the south-east of France. Medical records were reviewed regarding patient and infection characteristics, antibiotic therapy, outcome, and compliance to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Antibiotic treatment appropriateness was evaluated regarding molecule, dosage, and duration, according to guidelines. Primary endpoint was the assessment of factors associated with unfavorable outcome, defined as in-hospital mortality or IE relapse at 1-year follow-up. Secondary endpoints were intensive care admission, iatrogenic events, and nosocomial infections that occurred during hospital stay. One hundred patients were included. Median age was 71 years old. Twenty-two patients died and IE relapse occurred in two patients, representing 24 patients with unfavorable outcome. Overall, antibiotic treatment was deemed appropriate in 28 cases. Thirty-three patients required intensive care, 34 iatrogenic events were found, including 19 acute kidney injuries, and 13 nosocomial infections occurred during care. Using a logistic regression, factors associated with unfavorable outcome were admission in the intensive care unit (adjusted odd ratio 7.26 [1.8-29.28]; p = 0.005), new-onset nosocomial infection (adjusted odd ratio 8.83 [1.42-54.6]; p = 0.019), and age > 71 years old (adjusted odd ratio 11.2 [2.76-46.17]; p < 0.001). Departure from guidelines was frequent but not related to unfavorable outcome in our study. Only intensive care, age, and nosocomial infections were associated with mortality and relapse. Iatrogenic events were numerous, with no impact on outcome.

5.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(10): 1369.e9-1369.e11, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205988

RESUMO

This case illustrates the evolution of right ventricular (RV) 3-dimensional (3D) area strain during pregnancy in a patient with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. The report highlights impairment in RV function with pregnancy, suggesting the importance of prepregnancy RV systolic function assessment, especially using 3D echocardiography.

8.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 11(7): e006107, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classical fluoroscopic criteria for the documentation of septal right ventricular (RV) lead positioning have poor accuracy. We sought to evaluate the individualized left anterior oblique (LAO) projection as a novel fluoroscopy criterion. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker or defibrillator implantation were prospectively included. RV lead positioning was assessed by fluoroscopy using posteroanterior, right anterior oblique 30° to rule out coronary sinus positioning, and LAO 40° in the classical group or individualized LAO in the individualized group. Individualized LAO was defined by the degree of LAO that allowed the perfect superposition of the RV apex (using the tip of the RV lead temporarily placed at the apex) and of the superior vena cava-inferior vena cava axis (materialized by a guidewire), hence providing a true profile view of the interventricular septum. Accuracy of fluoroscopy for RV lead positioning was then assessed by comparison with true RV lead positioning using transthoracic echocardiography. RESULTS: We included 100 patients, 50 in each study group. Agreement between RV lead septal/free wall positioning in transthoracic echocardiography and fluoroscopy was excellent in the individualized group (k=0.91), whereas it was poor in the classical group (k=0.35). Septal/free wall RV lead positioning was correctly identified in 48/50 (96%) patients in the individualized group versus 38/50 (76%) in the classical group (P=0.004). For septal lead positioning, fluoroscopy had 100% Se and 89.5% Sp in the individualized group versus 91.4% Se and 40% Sp in the classical group. Complications and procedural data were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: Individualized LAO is a quick and highly reliable patient-tailored fluoroscopy projection for RV lead positioning.

11.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 52(2): 209-215, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluoroscopic criteria have been described for the documentation of septal right ventricular (RV) lead positioning, but their accuracy remains questioned. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker or defibrillator implantation were prospectively included. RV lead was positioned using postero-anterior and left anterior oblique 40° incidences, and right anterior oblique 30° to rule out coronary sinus positioning when suspected. RV lead positioning using fluoroscopy was compared to true RV lead positioning as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Precise anatomical localizations were determined with both modalities; then, RV lead positioning was ultimately dichotomized into two simple clinically relevant categories: RV septal or RV free wall. Accuracy of fluoroscopy for RV lead positioning was then assessed by comparison with TTE. We included 100 patients. On TTE, 66/100 had a septal RV lead and 34/100 had a free wall RV lead. Fluoroscopy had moderate agreement with TTE for precise anatomical localization of RV lead (k = 0.53), and poor agreement for septal/free wall localization (k = 0.36). For predicting septal RV lead positioning, classical fluoroscopy criteria had a high sensitivity (95.5%; 63/66 patients having a septal RV lead on TTE were correctly identified by fluoroscopy) but a very low specificity (35.3%; only 12/34 patients having a free wall RV lead on TTE were correctly identified by fluoroscopy). CONCLUSION: Classical fluoroscopy criteria have a poor accuracy for identifying RV free wall leads, which are most of the time misclassified as septal. This raises important concerns about the efficacy and safety of RV lead positioning using classical fluoroscopy criteria.

12.
Echocardiography ; 35(4): 474-480, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2DTEE) is currently validated for left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus assessment but has some limitations. AIMS: To evaluate the performance and interest of systematic real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) for LAA thrombus assessment, when performed after 2DTEE. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients undergoing TEE were prospectively included. LAA was first evaluated using 2DTEE, and patients were classified as "2D-NT" if no thrombus was found, "2D-T" in case of clear thrombus, or "2D-EQ" if equivocal. Then, 3DTEE of the LAA was performed and patients were similarly classified as "3D-NT," "3D-T," or "3D-EQ." Additional LAA CT scan was only performed if LAA thrombus was not clearly ruled out or confirmed by TEE. Additional value of 3DTEE after 2DTEE LAA evaluation was then assessed. We included 104 patients undergoing TEE. Agreement between 2DTEE and 3DTEE was very good for thrombus diagnosis (k = 0.936), but moderate for vacant LAA (k = 0.562) due to more frequent 2D-EQ than 3D-EQ (11.5% vs 2.9%; P = .016). 3DTEE allowed to refine the LAA status in 11 of 12 (91.7%) 2D-EQ patients: 10 3D-NT, 1 3D-T, and 1 3D-EQ. Coupling 3DTEE to 2DTEE permitted a definite LAA diagnosis in 103 of 104 (99%) vs 92 of 104 (88.5%) patients when 2DTEE was used alone (P = .002). Nine (8.7%) LAA thrombi were diagnosed, and 3 CT scan were performed. CONCLUSION: 3DTEE of the LAA is more effective for thrombus assessment than 2DTEE. 3DTEE should be particularly considered in case of equivocal 2DTEE, as it allows to reach a definite LAA diagnosis in almost all of the patients.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Idoso , Sistemas de Computação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1236-1245, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We delineate the clinical spectrum and describe the histology in arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by tortuosity of the large and medium-sized arteries, caused by mutations in SLC2A10. METHODS: We retrospectively characterized 40 novel ATS families (50 patients) and reviewed the 52 previously reported patients. We performed histology and electron microscopy (EM) on skin and vascular biopsies and evaluated TGF-ß signaling with immunohistochemistry for pSMAD2 and CTGF. RESULTS: Stenoses, tortuosity, and aneurysm formation are widespread occurrences. Severe but rare vascular complications include early and aggressive aortic root aneurysms, neonatal intracranial bleeding, ischemic stroke, and gastric perforation. Thus far, no reports unequivocally document vascular dissections or ruptures. Of note, diaphragmatic hernia and infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) are frequently observed. Skin and vascular biopsies show fragmented elastic fibers (EF) and increased collagen deposition. EM of skin EF shows a fragmented elastin core and a peripheral mantle of microfibrils of random directionality. Skin and end-stage diseased vascular tissue do not indicate increased TGF-ß signaling. CONCLUSION: Our findings warrant attention for IRDS and diaphragmatic hernia, close monitoring of the aortic root early in life, and extensive vascular imaging afterwards. EM on skin biopsies shows disease-specific abnormalities.

14.
Cell Tissue Res ; 371(2): 309-323, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29018970

RESUMO

Andersen's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal disorder that has been defined by the triad of periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, and developmental anomalies. AS has been directly linked to over 40 different autosomal dominant negative loss-of-function mutations in the KCNJ2 gene, encoding for the tetrameric strong inward rectifying K+ channel KIR2.1. While KIR2.1 channels have been suggested to contribute to setting the resting membrane potential (RMP) and to control the duration of the action potential (AP) in skeletal and cardiac muscle, the mechanism by which AS mutations produce such complex pathophysiological symptoms is poorly understood. Thus, we use an adenoviral transduction strategy to study in vivo subcellular distribution of wild-type (WT) and AS-associated mutant KIR2.1 channels in mouse skeletal muscle. We determined that WT and D71V AS mutant KIR2.1 channels are localized to the sarcolemma and the transverse tubules (T-tubules) of skeletal muscle fibers, while the ∆314-315 AS KIR2.1 mutation prevents proper trafficking of the homo- or hetero-meric channel complexes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in individual skeletal muscle fibers confirmed the reduction of inwardly rectifying K+ current (IK1) after transduction with ∆314-315 KIR2.1 as compared to WT channels. Analysis of skeletal muscle function revealed reduced force generation during isometric contraction as well as reduced resistance to muscle fatigue in extensor digitorum longus muscles transduced with AS mutant KIR2.1. Together, these results suggest that KIR2.1 channels may be involved in the excitation-contraction coupling process required for proper skeletal muscle function. Our findings provide clues to mechanisms associated with periodic paralysis in AS.

15.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 19(4): 450-458, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637308

RESUMO

Aims: Survival in pulmonary hypertension (PH) relates to right ventricular (RV) function. However, the RV unique anatomy and structure limit 2D analysis and its regional 3D function has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of global and regional 3D RV deformation on clinical condition and survival in adults with PH and healthy controls. Methods and results: We collected a prospective longitudinal cohort of 104 consecutive PH patients and 34 healthy controls between September 2014 and December 2015. Acquired 3D transthoracic RV echocardiographic sequences were analysed by semi-automatic software (TomTec 4D RV-Function 2.0). Output meshes were post-processed to extract regional motion and deformation. Global and regional statistics provided deformation patterns for each subgroup of subjects. RV lateral and inferior regions showed the highest deformation. In PH patients, RV global and regional motion and deformation [both circumferential, longitudinal, and area strain (AS)] were affected in all segments (P < 0.001 against healthy controls). Deformation patterns gradually worsened with the clinical condition. Over 6.7 [5.8-7.2] months follow-up, 16 (15.4%) patients died from cardio-pulmonary causes. Right atrial pressure, global RV AS, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, 3D RV ejection fraction, and end-diastolic volume were independent predictors of survival. Global RV AS > -18% was the most powerful RV function parameter, identifying patients with a 48%-increased risk of death (AUC 0.83 [0.74-0.90], P < 0.001). Conclusion: Right ventricular strain patterns gradually worsen in PH patients and provide independent prognostic information in this population.

16.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 110(11): 616-625, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of volume expansion (VE) in submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is unclear. AIM: To compare the effects of diuretic treatment versus VE in patients hospitalized for PE with RV dysfunction. METHODS: We prospectively included 46 consecutive patients with submassive PE treated on admission with a 40mg bolus of furosemide (D group, n=24) or 500mL of saline infusion (VE group, n=22). The primary endpoint was the timing of normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin Ic concentrations. The secondary endpoints were variations in RV function variables, recorded at baseline, at the 4th hour after treatment initiation (H4) and every day until discharge, and a clinical composite endpoint of thrombolysis or death at 7 and 30 days. RESULTS: No differences were observed between patients at baseline. The primary endpoint occurred earlier in the D group than in the VE group (67.5±34.8 vs 111.6±63.3hours; P=0.006). Furosemide treatment on admission was well tolerated, and was not associated with serious adverse events. At H4, substantial improvements were observed in the D group versus the VE group in terms of heart rate reduction (-8.15±21.0 vs -0.71±6.30 beats/min; P<0.01) and peak tricuspid annular systolic velocity (Doppler tissue imaging) (11.4±2.10 vs 9.90±2.80cm/s; P=0.02). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of severe outcomes at 7 and 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute management of submassive PE patients, a single furosemide bolus on admission seems to produce significant and earlier improvements in RV function markers compared with VE, without adverse events.


Assuntos
Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Hidratação/métodos , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia , Função Ventricular Direita/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/mortalidade , França , Furosemida/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
19.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 110(5): 303-316, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28286190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific drug therapy (PAH-SDT) and mortality in Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is controversial. AIMS: To investigate outcomes in patients with ES, and their relationship with PAH-SDT. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, nationwide, multicentre cohort study. RESULTS: We included 340 patients with ES: genetic syndrome (n=119; 35.3%); pretricuspid defect (n=75; 22.1%). Overall, 276 (81.2%) patients received PAH-SDT: monotherapy (endothelin receptor antagonist [ERA] or phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor [PDE5I]) 46.7%; dual therapy (ERA+PDE5I) 40.9%; triple therapy (ERA+PDE5I+prostanoid) 9.1%. Median PAH-SDT duration was 5.5 years [3.0-9.1 years]. Events (death, lung or heart-lung transplantation) occurred in 95 (27.9%) patients at a median age of 40.5 years [29.4-47.6]. The cumulative occurrence of events was 16.7% [95% confidence interval 12.8-21.6%] and 46.4% [95% confidence interval 38.2-55.4%] at age 40 and 60 years, respectively. With age at evaluation or time since PAH diagnosis as time scales, cumulative occurrence of events was lower in patients taking one or two PAH-SDTs (P=0.0001 and P=0.004, respectively), with the largest differences in the post-tricuspid defect subgroup (P<0.001 and P<0.02, respectively) versus patients without PAH-SDT. By multivariable Cox analysis, with time since PAH diagnosis as time scale, New York Heart Association/World Health Organization functional class III/IV, lower peripheral arterial oxygen saturation and pretricuspid defect were associated with a higher risk of events (P=0.002, P=0.01 and P=0.04, respectively), and one or two PAH-SDTs with a lower risk of events (P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes are poor in ES, but seem better with PAH-SDT. ES with pretricuspid defects has worse outcomes despite the delayed disease onset.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Eisenmenger/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Causas de Morte , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Complexo de Eisenmenger/mortalidade , Complexo de Eisenmenger/fisiopatologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Europace ; 19(12): 2001-2006, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064251

RESUMO

Aim: Axillary vein access for pacemaker implantation is uncommon in many centres because of the lack of training in this technique. We assessed whether the introduction of the axillary vein technique was safe and efficient as compared with cephalic vein access, in a centre where no operators had any previous experience in axillary vein puncture. Methods and results: Patients undergoing pacemaker implantation were randomized to axillary or cephalic vein access. All three operators had no experience nor training in axillary vein puncture, and self-learned the technique by reading a published review. Axillary vein puncture was fluoroscopy-guided without contrast venography. Cephalic access was performed by dissection of delto-pectoral groove. Venous access success, venous access duration (from skin incision to guidewire or lead in superior vena cava), procedure duration, X-ray exposure, and peri-procedural (1 month) complications were recorded. results We randomized 74 consecutive patients to axillary (n = 37) or cephalic vein access (n = 37). Axillary vein was successfully accessed in 30/37 (81.1%) patients vs. 28/37 (75.7%) of cephalic veins (P = 0.57). Venous access time was shorter in axillary group than in cephalic group [5.7 (4.4-8.3) vs. 12.2 (10.5-14.8) min, P < 0.001], as well as procedure duration [34.8 (30.6-38.4) vs. 42.0 (39.1-46.6) min, P = 0.043]. X-ray exposure and peri-procedural overall complications were comparable in both groups. Axillary puncture was safe and faster than cephalic access even for the five first procedures performed by each operator. Conclusion: Self-taught axillary vein puncture for pacemaker implantation seems immediately safe and faster than cephalic vein access, when performed by electrophysiologists trained to pacemaker implantation but not to axillary vein puncture.


Assuntos
Veia Axilar , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Competência Clínica , Curva de Aprendizado , Marca-Passo Artificial , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Veia Axilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Flebografia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Punções , Exposição à Radiação , Radiografia Intervencionista , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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