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1.
Neurobiol Dis ; 132: 104577, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425744

RESUMO

Dominant mutations of ATP1A3, a neuronal Na,K-ATPase α subunit isoform, cause neurological disorders with an exceptionally wide range of severity. Several new mutations and their phenotypes are reported here (p.Asp366His, p.Asp742Tyr, p.Asp743His, p.Leu924Pro, and a VUS, p.Arg463Cys). Mutations associated with mild or severe phenotypes [rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), or early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE)] were expressed in HEK-293 cells. Paradoxically, the severity of human symptoms did not correlate with whether there was enough residual activity to support cell survival. We hypothesized that distinct cellular consequences may result not only from pump inactivation but also from protein misfolding. Biosynthesis was investigated in four tetracycline-inducible isogenic cell lines representing different human phenotypes. Two cell biological complications were found. First, there was impaired trafficking of αß complex to Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane, as well as changes in cell morphology, for two mutations that produced microcephaly or regions of brain atrophy in patients. Second, there was competition between exogenous mutant ATP1A3 (α3) and endogenous ATP1A1 (α1) so that their sum was constant. This predicts that in patients, the ratio of normal to mutant ATP1A3 proteins will vary when misfolding occurs. At the two extremes, the results suggest that a heterozygous mutation that only impairs Na,K-ATPase activity will produce relatively mild disease, while one that activates the unfolded protein response could produce severe disease and may result in death of neurons independently of ion pump inactivation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413903

RESUMO

Background: KIF1C (Kinesin Family Member 1C) variants have been associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia and spastic ataxia. Case report: We report fraternal twins presenting with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. Their brain MRI showed a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous KIF1C variant in both patients. Discussion: KIF1C variants can manifest as a complex movement disorder with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. KIF1C variants may also cause a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy.

3.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307818

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies comprise a large group of rare genetic disorders primarily affecting CNS white matter. Historically, the diagnostic process was slow and patient prognosis regarded as poor because curative treatment was only available for very few leukodystrophies in early stages of the disease. Whole-exome sequencing has both greatly increased the number of known leukodystrophies and improved diagnosis. Whether MRI keeps its central place in diagnosis and what the role is of whole-exome sequencing are relevant questions for neurologists. Improved diagnosis has revealed the phenotypic variability of leukodystrophies, requiring adaptation of prognostication. Technological advance in molecular techniques and improved insight into the pathophysiology of individual leukodystrophies have led to therapeutic developments, including drug design and gene therapy. Despite this progress, therapies are only beneficial early in the disease course, emphasising the need for a speedy diagnosis and for research on regenerative approaches to repair the damage already present.

5.
Brain Dev ; 41(9): 808-811, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196579

RESUMO

In some patients with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS), the diagnosis can be difficult to reach. We report a child with 2 inherited mutations suggesting an autosomal recessive transmission of SLC2A1 mutations. METHODS: The child and her parents were explored with erythrocyte 3-O-methyl-d-Glucose uptake, glucose uptake in oocytes expressing GLUT1 with the gene mutations and measure of the expression of GLUT1 at the surface of the circulating red blood cells by flow cytometry (METAglut1™ test). RESULTS: Both erythrocyte glucose uptake and glucose uptake in oocyte with the patient's mutations did not support the diagnosis of a mild GLUT1-DS phenotype with autosomal recessive transmission of SLC2A1 mutations. Instead, GLUT-1 expression at the surface of the erythrocytes appeared to better correlate with the clinical phenotypes in this family. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of these functional/expression tools need to be further studied with a focus on mild phenotype of GLUT1-DS.

6.
Neurology ; 92(23): e2679-e2690, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We took advantage of a large multinational recruitment to delineate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large, trans-European multicenter cohort of patients with spastic paraplegia gene 7 (SPG7). METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data from 241 patients with SPG7, integrating neurologic follow-up data. One case was examined neuropathologically. RESULTS: Patients with SPG7 had a mean age of 35.5 ± 14.3 years (n = 233) at onset and presented with spasticity (n = 89), ataxia (n = 74), or both (n = 45). At the first visit, patients with a longer disease duration (>20 years, n = 62) showed more cerebellar dysarthria (p < 0.05), deep sensory loss (p < 0.01), muscle wasting (p < 0.01), ophthalmoplegia (p < 0.05), and sphincter dysfunction (p < 0.05) than those with a shorter duration (<10 years, n = 93). Progression, measured by Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia evaluations, showed a mean annual increase of 1.0 ± 1.4 points in a subgroup of 30 patients. Patients homozygous for loss of function (LOF) variants (n = 65) presented significantly more often with pyramidal signs (p < 0.05), diminished visual acuity due to optic atrophy (p < 0.0001), and deep sensory loss (p < 0.0001) than those with at least 1 missense variant (n = 176). Patients with at least 1 Ala510Val variant (58%) were older (age 37.6 ± 13.7 vs 32.8 ± 14.6 years, p < 0.05) and showed ataxia at onset (p < 0.05). Neuropathologic examination revealed reduction of the pyramidal tract in the medulla oblongata and moderate loss of Purkinje cells and substantia nigra neurons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest SPG7 cohort study to date and shows a spasticity-predominant phenotype of LOF variants and more frequent cerebellar ataxia and later onset in patients carrying at least 1 Ala510Val variant.

9.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(4): 706-727, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883825

RESUMO

In view of the rapidly expanding number of IMD discovered by next generation sequencing, we propose a simplified classification of IMD that mixes elements from a clinical diagnostic perspective and a pathophysiological approach based on three large categories. We highlight the increasing importance of complex molecule metabolism and its connection with cell biology processes. Small molecule disorders have biomarkers and are divided in two subcategories: accumulation and deficiency. Accumulation of small molecules leads to acute or progressive postnatal "intoxication", present after a symptom-free interval, aggravated by catabolism and food intake. These treatable disorders must not be missed! Deficiency of small molecules is due to impaired synthesis of compounds distal to a block or altered transport of essential molecules. This subgroup shares many clinical characteristics with complex molecule disorders. Complex molecules (like glycogen, sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids) are poorly diffusible. Accumulation of complex molecules leads to postnatal progressive storage like in glycogen and lysosomal storage disorders. Many are treatable. Deficiency of complex molecules is related to the synthesis and recycling of these molecules, which take place in organelles. They may interfere with fœtal development. Most present as neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders unrelated to food intake. Peroxisomal disorders, CDG defects of intracellular trafficking and processing, recycling of synaptic vesicles, and tRNA synthetases also belong to this category. Only few have biomarkers and are treatable. Disorders involving primarily energy metabolism encompass defects of membrane carriers of energetic molecules as well as cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolic defects. This oversimplified classification is connected to the most recent available nosology of IMD.

10.
Acta Neuropathol ; 138(1): 123-145, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874923

RESUMO

Recently, we provided genetic basis showing that mitochondrial dysfunction can trigger motor neuron degeneration, through identification of CHCHD10 encoding a mitochondrial protein. We reported patients, carrying the p.Ser59Leu heterozygous mutation in CHCHD10, from a large family with a mitochondrial myopathy associated with motor neuron disease (MND). Rapidly, our group and others reported CHCHD10 mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia-ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we generated knock-in (KI) mice, carrying the p.Ser59Leu mutation, that mimic the mitochondrial myopathy with mtDNA instability displayed by the patients from our original family. Before 14 months of age, all KI mice developed a fatal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy associated with enhanced mitophagy. CHCHD10S59L/+ mice also displayed neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and motor neuron degeneration with hyper-fragmentation of the motor end plate and moderate but significant motor neuron loss in lumbar spinal cord at the end stage of the disease. At this stage, we observed TDP-43 cytoplasmic aggregates in spinal neurons. We also showed that motor neurons differentiated from human iPSC carrying the p.Ser59Leu mutation were much more sensitive to Staurosporine or glutamate-induced caspase activation than control cells. These data confirm that mitochondrial deficiency associated with CHCHD10 mutations can be at the origin of MND. CHCHD10 is highly expressed in the NMJ post-synaptic part. Importantly, the fragmentation of the motor end plate was associated with abnormal CHCHD10 expression that was also observed closed to NMJs which were morphologically normal. Furthermore, we found OXPHOS deficiency in muscle of CHCHD10S59L/+ mice at 3 months of age in the absence of neuron loss in spinal cord. Our data show that the pathological effects of the p.Ser59Leu mutation target muscle prior to NMJ and motor neurons. They likely lead to OXPHOS deficiency, loss of cristae junctions and destabilization of internal membrane structure within mitochondria at motor end plate of NMJ, impairing neurotransmission. These data are in favor with a key role for muscle in MND associated with CHCHD10 mutations.

11.
Neuron ; 101(4): 560-583, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790538

RESUMO

Autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCAs) comprise a heterogeneous group of rare degenerative and metabolic genetic diseases that share the hallmark of progressive damage of the cerebellum and its associated tracts. This Review focuses on recent translational research in ARCAs and illustrates the steps from genetic characterization to preclinical and clinical trials. The emerging common pathways underlying ARCAs include three main clusters: mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired DNA repair, and complex lipid homeostasis. Novel ARCA treatments might target common hubs in pathogenesis by modulation of gene expression, stem cell transplantation, viral gene transfer, or interventions in faulty pathways. All these translational steps are addressed in current ARCA research, leading to the expectation that novel treatments for ARCAs will be reached in the next decade.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Animais , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos
13.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1225-e1237, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS, encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively. METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS. Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. RESULTS: Patients had a combination of early-onset deafness and later-onset neurologic deterioration caused by progressive brain white matter abnormalities on MRI. Female patients with LARS2 pathogenic variants had premature ovarian failure. In 2 patients, MRI showed additional signs of early-onset vascular abnormalities. In 2 other patients with LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated white matter lactate, suggesting mitochondrial disease. Pathology in one patient with LARS2 pathogenic variants displayed evidence of primary disease of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with lack of myelin and deficient astrogliosis. Aminoacylation activities of purified recombinant mutant leucyl tRNA synthase showed a 3-fold loss of catalytic efficiency. Aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts showed about 50% reduction of enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: This study adds LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants as gene defects that may underlie deafness, ovarian failure, and leukodystrophy with mitochondrial signature. We discuss the specific MRI characteristics shared by leukodystrophies caused by mitochondrial tRNA synthase defects. We propose to add aminoacylation assays as biochemical diagnostic tools for leukodystrophies.

14.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 333-352, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773687

RESUMO

AIM: To explore the clinical presentation, course, treatment and impact of early treatment in patients with remethylation disorders from the European Network and Registry for Homocystinurias and Methylation Defects (E-HOD) international web-based registry. RESULTS: This review comprises 238 patients (cobalamin C defect n = 161; methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency n = 50; cobalamin G defect n = 11; cobalamin E defect n = 10; cobalamin D defect n = 5; and cobalamin J defect n = 1) from 47 centres for whom the E-HOD registry includes, as a minimum, data on medical history and enrolment visit. The duration of observation was 127 patient years. In 181 clinically diagnosed patients, the median age at presentation was 30 days (range 1 day to 42 years) and the median age at diagnosis was 3.7 months (range 3 days to 56 years). Seventy-five percent of pre-clinically diagnosed patients with cobalamin C disease became symptomatic within the first 15 days of life. Total homocysteine (tHcy), amino acids and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) were the most frequently assessed disease markers; confirmatory diagnostics were mainly molecular genetic studies. Remethylation disorders are multisystem diseases dominated by neurological and eye disease and failure to thrive. In this cohort, mortality, thromboembolic, psychiatric and renal disease were rarer than reported elsewhere. Early treatment correlates with lower overall morbidity but is less effective in preventing eye disease and cognitive impairment. The wide variation in treatment hampers the evaluation of particular therapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: Treatment improves the clinical course of remethylation disorders and reduces morbidity, especially if started early, but neurocognitive and eye symptoms are less responsive. Current treatment is highly variable. This study has the inevitable limitations of a retrospective, registry-based design.

15.
Cell Rep ; 26(5): 1189-1202.e6, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699348

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a retinal-cerebellar degenerative disorder caused by CAG-polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansions in the ataxin-7 gene. As many SCA7 clinical phenotypes occur in mitochondrial disorders, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of patients revealed altered energy metabolism, we considered a role for mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies of SCA7 mice uncovered marked impairments in oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange. When we examined cerebellar Purkinje cells in mice, we observed mitochondrial network abnormalities, with enlarged mitochondria upon ultrastructural analysis. We developed stem cell models from patients and created stem cell knockout rescue systems, documenting mitochondrial morphology defects, impaired oxidative metabolism, and reduced expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) production enzymes in SCA7 models. We observed NAD+ reductions in mitochondria of SCA7 patient NPCs using ratiometric fluorescent sensors and documented alterations in tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism in patients. Our results indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction, stemming from decreased NAD+, is a defining feature of SCA7.

17.
J Neurol Sci ; 395: 77-83, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: "JUMP" is a multidisciplinary program based at the Pitie-Salpêtrière Hospital Paris that transitions young adults with chronic neurological conditions from paediatric to adult healthcare. Transitional care programs have been shown to improve medical, educational and psychosocial outcomes for adolescent patients. METHODS: Demographic details and health-related variables of all patients referred to the JUMP program were collected. Satisfaction outcome measures were the 18-item On Your Own Feet Transfer Experience Scale (OYOF-TES) and a visual analogue scale, which assessed overall satisfaction with the transfer process. Scales were sent to JUMP patients attending the JUMP day hospital (n = 94) and their parents (n = 94). RESULTS: Since its inception, 111 patients have been seen in the JUMP program. Nine neurological clinical syndromes and four main underlying etiologies were identified. Approximately half of all questionnaires and scales (86/188) sent to patients and parents were returned. Eighty-nine percent of patients and 91% of parents were very satisfied with their transfer experience. There was a strong, positive correlation between patient and parent satisfaction [r = 0.910; p < 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: The JUMP program which is rooted in a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach to transitional care encompasses a broad range of neuro-pathologies. Overall, satisfaction levels were high amongst patients within the program, and their parents. The key role played by the coordination nurse specialists throughout the transfer process is a likely key determinant in satisfaction levels.

18.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 17(9): 660-688, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116051

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative disorders of ageing (NDAs) such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis represent a major socio-economic challenge in view of their high prevalence yet poor treatment. They are often called 'proteinopathies' owing to the presence of misfolded and aggregated proteins that lose their physiological roles and acquire neurotoxic properties. One reason underlying the accumulation and spread of oligomeric forms of neurotoxic proteins is insufficient clearance by the autophagic-lysosomal network. Several other clearance pathways are also compromised in NDAs: chaperone-mediated autophagy, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, extracellular clearance by proteases and extrusion into the circulation via the blood-brain barrier and glymphatic system. This article focuses on emerging mechanisms for promoting the clearance of neurotoxic proteins, a strategy that may curtail the onset and slow the progression of NDAs.

19.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869164

RESUMO

Synaptic functions have long been thought to be driven by proteins, especially the SNARE complex, contrasting with a relatively passive role for lipids constituting cell membranes. It is now clear that not only lipids, i.e. glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, play a determinant role in the dynamics of synaptic membranes but they also actively contribute to the endocytosis and exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in conjunction with synaptic proteins. On the other hand, a growing number of inborn errors of metabolism affecting the nervous system have been related to defects in the synthesis and remodelling of fatty acids, phospholipids and sphingolipids. Alterations of the metabolism of these lipids would be expected to affect the dynamics of synaptic membranes and synaptic vesicles. Still, only few examples are currently documented. It remains to be determined to which extent the pathophysiology of disorders of complex lipids biosynthesis and remodelling share common pathogenic mechanisms with the more traditional synaptopathies.

20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876767

RESUMO

Until recently, inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) were considered a pediatric specialty, as emphasized by the term "inborn," and the concept of adult onset IEM has only very recently reached the adult medical community. Still, an increasing number of adult onset IEM have now been recognized, as new metabolomics and molecular diagnostic techniques have become available. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms underlying phenotypic variability in adult versus children with IEM. Specifically, phenotypic severity and age of onset are expected to be modulated by differences in residual protein activity possibly driven by various genetic factors. Phenotypic variability may also occur in the context of similar protein expression, which suggests the intervention of environmental, ontogenic, and aging factors.

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