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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264359, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290384

RESUMO

AIM: To establish a therapeutic strategy for cirrhosis patients with gastric variceal bleeding. METHODS: The outcomes of 137 patients with bleeding gastric varices were evaluated. RESULTS: The bleeding source was gastroesophageal varices (GOV) in 86 patients, and gastric fundal varices (FV) in 51 patients. The Child-Turcotte-Pugh classes were A, B, and C in 26, 79, and 32 patients, respectively; 34 patients (24.8%) had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), of which 11 also had complicating portal venous tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Patients with GOV were treated by endoscopic variceal ligation or endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) with ethanolamine oleate, while those with FV were treated by EIS with cyanoacrylate; 29 patients with FV also underwent additional balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO). Hemostasis was successfully achieved in 136 patients (99.3%), and the cumulative 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year rebleeding rates were 18.1%, 30.8%, and 30.8%, respectively, in the patients with GOV, and 2.2%, 12.5% and 12.5%, respectively, in the patients with FV. The overall 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival rates were 79.7%, 71.5% and 64.4%, respectively, in the patients with GOV, and 91.0%, 76.9% and 59.5%, respectively, in the patients with FV. Multivariable analysis identified PVTT and alcoholic cirrhosis as a significant risk factor associated with rebleeding, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and PVTT as significant factors associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic therapies with or without BRTO appeared to be useful therapeutic strategies to prevent rebleeding in patients with gastric variceal bleeding, and favorable outcomes were obtained, except in patients with underlying HCC associated with PVTT and/or severe liver damage.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Doença Hepática Terminal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Varizes , Trombose Venosa , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Recidiva , Escleroterapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/terapia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
2.
Intern Med ; 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283380

RESUMO

We herein report two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who exhibited intraabdominal bleeding caused by tumor rupture soon after lenvatinib initiation. A hypervascular nodule was present in the lateral segment manifesting extrahepatic protrusion in an 81-year-old-man and in the caudate lobe, which was completely occupied by the tumor, in an 83-year-old-man. Both patients were given lenvatinib, and epigastralgia occurred suddenly three and five days later. Computed tomography revealed high-attenuation areas suggesting bleeding around the left and caudate lobes. Considering the strong antiangiogenic effects by lenvatinib, transcatheter arterial embolization should be performed before lenvatinib initiation in patients with subcapsular HCC.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(6)2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is commonly used for hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the effects of long-term treatment for Japanese people are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects and safety of long-term treatment with rifaximin on HE. METHODS: A total of 215 patients with cirrhosis administered with rifaximin developed overt or covert HE, which was diagnosed by an attending physician for >12 months. Laboratory data were extracted at pretreatment and 3, 6, and 12 months after rifaximin administration. The long-term effect of rifaximin was evaluated, and the incidence of overt HE during 12 months and adverse events was extracted. RESULTS: Ammonia levels were significantly improved after 3 months of rifaximin administration and were continued until 12 months. There were no serious adverse events after rifaximin administration. The number of overt HE incidents was 9, 14, and 27 patients within 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Liver enzymes, renal function, and electrolytes did not change after rifaximin administration. Prothrombin activity is a significant risk factor for the occurrence of overt HE. The serum albumin, prothrombin activity, and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scores were statistically improved after 3 and 6 months of rifaximin administration. Moreover, the same results were obtained in patients with Child-Pugh C. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term rifaximin treatment was effective and safe for patients with HE, including Child-Pugh C.

4.
J Gastroenterol ; 57(4): 267-285, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226174

RESUMO

In Japan, with the increasing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and growing public interest, the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology issued Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for GERD (1st edition) in 2009 and a revised 2nd edition in 2015. A number of studies on GERD were subsequently conducted in Japan and abroad, and vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB), became available for the first time in Japan in February 2015. The revised 3rd edition (Japanese edition), which incorporates new findings and information, was published in April 2021. These guidelines are summarized herein, particularly sections related to the treatment of GERD. The important clinical issues addressed in the present revision are (i) the introduction of treatment algorithms that classify GERD into reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease, (ii) the clarification of treatment algorithms based on to the severity of reflux esophagitis, and (iii) the positioning of vonoprazan in the treatment for GERD. The present guidelines propose vonoprazan as the initial/maintenance treatment for severe reflux esophagitis. They also recommend vonoprazan or PPI as an initial treatment for mild reflux esophagitis and recommended PPI and proposed vonoprazan as maintenance treatment. These updated guidelines offer the best clinical strategies for GERD patients in Japan and hope that they will be of global use for the diagnosis and treatment for GERD.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica , Gastroenterologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Esofagite Péptica/diagnóstico , Esofagite Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/diagnóstico , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico
5.
Hepatol Res ; 2022 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japanese guidelines for the treatment of cirrhosis suggest zinc supplementation to prevent hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis and zinc deficiency, although the factors that are associated with therapeutic efficacy remain unknown. METHOD: A total of 159 patients with chronic liver diseases but without previous zinc supplementation were analyzed. Factors associated with serum zinc levels as well as the therapeutic efficacy of zinc supplementation were evaluated. RESULT: Serum zinc levels decreased with the progression of liver diseases. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of albumin and cholinesterase and the daily furosemide dose were independently associated with the serum zinc levels. The optimal furosemide cut-off dosage for patients with zinc deficiency (<60 µg/dl) was 5 mg/day. Among 34 patients receiving zinc acetate hydrate, overt hepatic encephalopathy occurred in 12 patients (35.4%). A multivariate analysis identified a minimal serum zinc level of 50 µg/dl after more than 12 weeks of zinc supplementation as a factor associated with overt encephalopathy development, while furosemide use was not associated. The Child-Pugh score at baseline was the only factor associated with the maintenance of sufficient serum zinc levels. CONCLUSION: Although the furosemide dose was negatively correlated with the serum zinc level in patients with chronic liver diseases, furosemide use was not associated with the occurrence of overt encephalopathy in those receiving zinc supplementation. Serum zinc levels of ≥50 µg/dl were required to prevent overt encephalopathy development during zinc supplementation in both patients with and those without furosemide administration.

6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262764, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of switching of the nucleos(t)ide analog used for treatment from entecavir (ETV) to tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) in patients with chronic HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 103 patients with serum HBsAg levels of ≥100 IU/mL who had received ETV were enrolled. The nucleos(t)ide analog used for the treatment was switched from ETV to TAF, and the changes in serum HBsAg levels during the 144-week period before and after the drug switching were compared in 74 patients who had received ETV at least for 192 weeks. RESULTS: Significant decreases of serum HBsAg levels were observed during both the ETV and the TAF administration period, although the degree of reduction was greater during the latter period than during the former period (P<0.001). Significant decreases of serum HBsAg levels were seen in both patients with genotype B HBV infection and genotype C HBV infection, irrespective of the serum HBsAg and HBcrAg levels at the time of the drug switching. CONCLUSION: Switching of the nucleos(t)ide analog used for treatment from ETV to TAF merits consideration in patients with chronic HBV infection, since the extent of reduction of the serum HBsAg level was greater during the TAF treatment period than during the ETV treatment period.


Assuntos
Alanina/uso terapêutico , Substituição de Medicamentos/métodos , Fumaratos/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 47-61, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35061057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a disorder that presents with chronic dyspepsia, which is not only very common but also highly affects quality of life of the patients. In Japan, FD became a disease name for national insurance in 2013, and has been gradually recognized, though still not satisfactory. Following the revision policy of Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE), the first version of FD guideline was revised this time. METHOD: Like previously, the guideline was created by the GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation) system, but this time, the questions were classified to background questions (BQs, 24 already clarified issues), future research questions (FRQs, 9 issues cannot be addressed with insufficient evidence), and 7 clinical questions that are mainly associated with treatment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: These revised guidelines have two major features. The first is the new position of endoscopy in the flow of FD diagnosis. While endoscopy was required to all cases for diagnosis of FD, the revised guidelines specify the necessity of endoscopy only in cases where organic disease is suspected. The second feature is that the drug treatment options have been changed to reflect the latest evidence. The first-line treatment includes gastric acid-secretion inhibitors, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (acotiamide, a prokinetic agent), and Japanese herbal medicine (rikkunshito). The second-line treatment includes anxiolytics /antidepressant, prokinetics other than acotiamide (dopamine receptor antagonists, 5-HT4 receptor agonists), and Japanese herbal medicines other than rikkunshito. The patients not responding to these treatment regimens are regarded as refractory FD.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Gastroenterologia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Acetilcolinesterase/uso terapêutico , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
9.
J Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 120-132, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy enables a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C virus associated cirrhosis. However, the impact of DAA therapy on liver-related events in patients with cirrhosis is unclear. METHODS: A total of 350 patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis administered DAA therapy at 29 Japanese hospitals were enrolled (Child-Pugh class A [CP-A]: 195 patients, CP-B: 131 patients and CP-C: 24 patients). RESULTS: The SVR rates of patients with CP-A, CP-B and CP-C were 96.9%, 93.1% and 83.3%, respectively (p = 0.006). Seventy patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and male sex, previous HCC treatment, platelet counts < 10.0 × 104/µl, alpha-fetoprotein levels ≥ 5.0 ng/ml and CP-C were identified as significant factors in the multivariate analysis. The cumulative HCC occurrence/recurrence rates at 1 year were 6.6%/45.2%. The cumulative rate of decompensated cirrhotic events requiring hospital admission at 1 year was 9.1%. In the multivariate analysis, CP-B and CP-C were identified as significant factors. During the median observation period of 14.9 months, 13 patients died and one patient received liver transplant. The overall survival rates at 1 year were 98.4% in patients with CP-A, 96.4% in those with CP-B and 85.6% in those with CP-C (CP-A vs. CP-B: p = 0.759, CP-A vs. CP-C: p = 0.001 and CP-B vs. CP-C: p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: HCC development and mortality in patients with CP-B were not different from those with CP-A. On the other hand, in patients with CP-C, the development of HCC and decompensated cirrhotic events requiring hospital admission, and death were frequent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000036150).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Resposta Viral Sustentada
10.
J Gastroenterol ; 57(1): 19-29, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is considered to be caused by the interaction between genetic background and environmental triggers. Previous case-control studies have indicated the associations of environmental factors (tobacco smoking, a history of urinary tract infection, and hair dye) use with PBC. Therefore, we conducted a multicenter case-control study to identify the environmental factors associated with the development of PBC in Japan. METHODS: From 21 participating centers in Japan, we prospectively enrolled 548 patients with PBC (male/female = 78/470, median age 66), and 548 age- and sex-matched controls. These participants completed a questionnaire comprising 121 items with respect to demographic, anthropometric, socioeconomic features, lifestyle, medical/familial history, and reproductive history in female individuals. The association was determined using conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The identified factors were vault toilet at home in childhood [odds ratio (OR), 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-2.62], unpaved roads around the house in childhood (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92), ever smoking (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.28-2.25), and hair dye use (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.15-2.14) in the model for lifestyle factors, and a history of any type of autoimmune disease (OR, 8.74; 95% CI, 3.99-19.13), a history of Cesarean section (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.077-0.53), and presence of PBC in first-degree relatives (OR, 21.1; 95% CI, 6.52-68.0) in the model for medical and familial factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that poor environmental hygiene in childhood (vault toilets and unpaved roads) and chronic exposure to chemicals (smoking and hair dye use) are likely to be risk factors for the development of PBC in Japan.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Biliar , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/etiologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Liver Int ; 42(3): 615-627, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Machine learning (ML) provides new approaches for prognostication through the identification of novel subgroups of patients. We explored whether ML could support disease sub-phenotyping and risk stratification in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). METHODS: ML was applied to an international dataset of PBC patients. The dataset was split into a derivation cohort (training set) and a validation cohort (validation set), and key clinical features were analysed. The outcome was a composite of liver-related death or liver transplantation. ML and standard survival analysis were performed. RESULTS: The training set was composed of 11,819 subjects, while the validation set was composed of 1,069 subjects. ML identified four clusters of patients characterized by different phenotypes and long-term prognosis. Cluster 1 (n = 3566) included patients with excellent prognosis, whereas Cluster 2 (n = 3966) consisted of individuals at worse prognosis differing from Cluster 1 only for albumin levels around the limit of normal. Cluster 3 (n = 2379) included young patients with florid cholestasis and Cluster 4 (n = 1908) comprised advanced cases. Further sub-analyses on the dynamics of albumin within the normal range revealed that ursodeoxycholic acid-induced increase of albumin >1.2 x lower limit of normal (LLN) is associated with improved transplant-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Unsupervised ML identified four novel groups of PBC patients with different phenotypes and prognosis and highlighted subtle variations of albumin within the normal range. Therapy-induced increase of albumin >1.2 x LLN should be considered a treatment goal.


Assuntos
Colangite , Cirrose Hepática Biliar , Colagogos e Coleréticos/uso terapêutico , Colangite/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico
12.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(12): 1092-1106, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significance of the 2018 Japanese diagnostic criteria for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has not yet been evaluated. METHODS: A nationwide survey was performed for patients with ACLF occurring between 2017 and 2019. Cirrhotic patients with a Child-Pugh score of 5-9 were diagnosed as having ACLF when liver failure (serum bilirubin level of ≥ 5.0 mg/dL and a prothrombin time international normalization rate [INR] of ≥ 1.5) occurred within 28 days after an acute insult. Patients who fulfilled either criterion (total serum bilirubin or INR) and/or those with indeterminate Child-Pugh scores at baseline were also enrolled. RESULTS: Among the 501 enrolled patients, 183 patients (37%) were diagnosed as having ACLF. The etiologies of the cirrhosis and acute insults were alcohol intake/abuse in 114 (62%) and 75 (41%) patients, respectively. Sixty-eight patients (37%) were also diagnosed as having severe alcoholic hepatitis. The survival rate without liver transplantation was 48% among the ACLF patients and 71% in the remaining patients (P < 0.01). A multivariate analysis revealed that the disease condition was significantly associated with mortality, with an odds ratio of 2.025 in ACLF patients relative to the remaining patients (P < 0.01), and patient age and the number of organs with functional failure were also associated with mortality among the ACLF patients. CONCLUSION: The proposed diagnostic criteria for ACLF were useful for identifying cirrhotic patients with an unfavorable outcome following acute insults. A therapeutic strategy for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis should be established, since such patients accounted for the majority of ACLF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/etiologia , Criança , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico
13.
Liver Cancer ; 10(3): 181-223, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239808

RESUMO

The Clinical Practice Manual for Hepatocellular Carcinoma was published based on evidence confirmed by the Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hepatocellular Carcinoma along with consensus opinion among a Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH) expert panel on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Since the JSH Clinical Practice Guidelines are based on original articles with extremely high levels of evidence, expert opinions on HCC management in clinical practice or consensus on newly developed treatments are not included. However, the practice manual incorporates the literature based on clinical data, expert opinion, and real-world clinical practice currently conducted in Japan to facilitate its use by clinicians. Alongside each revision of the JSH Guidelines, we issued an update to the manual, with the first edition of the manual published in 2007, the second edition in 2010, the third edition in 2015, and the fourth edition in 2020, which includes the 2017 edition of the JSH Guideline. This article is an excerpt from the fourth edition of the HCC Clinical Practice Manual focusing on pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC. It is designed as a practical manual different from the latest version of the JSH Clinical Practice Guidelines. This practice manual was written by an expert panel from the JSH, with emphasis on the consensus statements and recommendations for the management of HCC proposed by the JSH expert panel. In this article, we included newly developed clinical practices that are relatively common among Japanese experts in this field, although all of their statements are not associated with a high level of evidence, but these practices are likely to be incorporated into guidelines in the future. To write this article, coauthors from different institutions drafted the content and then critically reviewed each other's work. The revised content was then critically reviewed by the Board of Directors and the Planning and Public Relations Committee of JSH before publication to confirm the consensus statements and recommendations. The consensus statements and recommendations presented in this report represent measures actually being conducted at the highest-level HCC treatment centers in Japan. We hope this article provides insight into the actual situation of HCC practice in Japan, thereby affecting the global practice pattern in the management of HCC.

14.
Transpl Int ; 34(8): 1408-1421, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021931

RESUMO

Malignant hepatic tumors (MHTs) in children are rare and account for approximately 5% of candidates for pediatric liver transplantation (LT) in Japan. We conducted a national survey of pediatric patients undergoing living donor LT for MHTs between October 1990 and April 2018. In total, 116 children underwent LT for MHTs during this study period: 100 hepatoblastomas (HBLs), 10 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), and six other MHTs. The overall patient survival rate at 5 years was 81.3% for HBL, 60.0% for HCC, and 80.0% for other MHTs (P = 0.047). In patients with HBL, there was no significant difference in the 1- and 5-year patient survival rates between patients undergoing primary LT and those who received salvage LT for tumor recurrence (89.7%, 81.6% vs. 88.0%, 76%; P = 0.526). The 5-year overall survival rate after LT for HBL significantly improved from 63.2% in 1996-2008 to 89.8% in 2009-2018 (P = 0.018). The presence of lung metastasis before LT had no significant influence on the long-term survival (P = 0.742). Five patients with HCC died, including two who fell outside the Milan criteria. In conclusion, LT for pediatric MHTs, especially HBL, is a valuable treatment option for select patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Transplante de Fígado , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Doadores Vivos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
JGH Open ; 5(4): 428-433, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In Japan, corticosteroids have been commonly used as a part of multidisciplinary therapy for patients with acute liver failure and late-onset hepatic failure. However, there is controversy regarding the development of infections and other complications. In this study, the influence of corticosteroids on patient outcomes after liver transplantation was investigated. METHODS: This study included 167 patients with acute liver failure and late-onset hepatic failure who underwent liver transplantation between 2010 and 2015. The effects of pretransplant corticosteroid therapy on patient outcomes were evaluated using a database constructed by the subcommittee for fulminant hepatitis in the Intractable Hepato-Biliary Diseases Study Group of Japan. RESULTS: The subacute type and the median total bilirubin levels were higher in those receiving corticosteroids than in those not receiving corticosteroids. Although infections tended to be higher in patients receiving corticosteroids, pretransplant corticosteroid administration did not affect the survival rates. The duration from corticosteroid initiation to liver transplantation was longer in patients who developed infections. The survival rates, however, did not differ between patients with and without infections. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids were administered to patients with poor prognoses. Otherwise, the overall outcome in those administered corticosteroids was not significantly different from that in those administered without corticosteroids. Although infectious complications tended to occur, they were generally controllable and nonfatal. Pretransplant corticosteroid therapy may be permissible, with regarding for infections and performed within the minimum duration.

16.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(1): 67-77, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) treatment for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis are limited in Japan. METHODS: A total of 190 patients with compensated (108) or decompensated (82) cirrhosis who initiated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment between February 2019 and August 2019 were enrolled. Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (EOT). RESULTS: The SVR12 rates were 92.6% in patients with compensated cirrhosis and 90.2% in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (p = 0.564), and the treatment completion rates were 98.1% and 96.3%, respectively (p = 0.372). In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, 3 patients discontinued treatment and 2 patients died because of liver-related events. In patients with decompensated cirrhosis with SVR12, 50% of patients with Child-Pugh class B at baseline showed improvement to class A at SVR12, and 27% and 9% of patients with Child-Pugh class C at baseline showed improvement to class B and class A at SVR12, respectively. Patients who achieved SVR12 showed elevated serum albumin levels at the EOT, which were further elevated at SVR12, but no elevated serum albumin levels after the EOT were observed in patients with baseline serum albumin levels less than 2.8 g/dl. CONCLUSIONS: Real-world efficacy of SOF/VEL treatment for patients with decompensated cirrhosis was similar to Japanese phase 3 study, although treatment discontinuation and death related to liver disease occurred. In patients with poor hepatic reserve, whether it improves continuously after viral clearance requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Hepatol Res ; 50(12): 1355-1364, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886950

RESUMO

AIM: To optimize the therapeutic strategy for patients with decompensated cirrhosis manifesting hepatic ascites and/or edema, factors affecting the outcome of patients receiving tolvaptan were evaluated. METHODS: The subjects were 165 patients receiving tolvaptan including 116 patients (70%) also treated with furosemide. The therapeutic efficacy of tolvaptan was defined as "effective" when a body weight reduction of 1.5 kg or more was obtained within 1 week. The long-term outcome was defined as "favorable" when the ascites-related events-free duration was prolonged following tolvaptan treatment, compared with that before treatment, or ascites-related events were absent for at least 120 days during treatment based on the hazard function analysis. RESULTS: Tolvaptan was effective in 115 patients (70%). Among them, the long-term outcome was evaluated in 99 patients and was favorable in 70 patients (71%). A multivariate analysis revealed that the serum blood urea nitrogen levels at baseline (odds ratio 0.960 per +1 mg/dL, P = 0.021) and the type of tolvaptan initiation (planned vs. emergent; 3.695, P < 0.001) were associated with therapeutic efficacy, while the furosemide dose (0.280 per +20 mg/day, P = 0.014) and previous ascites-related events (0.074, P < 0.001) were associated with the long-term outcome. Receiver operating curve analyses identified the optimal cut-off values for the furosemide dose as 15 mg/day (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the cumulative survival rates in patients receiving furosemide at 15 mg/day or less were significantly higher than those in the remaining patients (P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Furosemide given at baseline contributed to an unfavorable outcome in patients receiving tolvaptan; consequently, tolvaptan should be given before increasing the furosemide dose.

19.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(11): 1098-1106, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has emerged as a threat to human health. Liver dysfunction has been reported to occur frequently in patients with COVID-19, although its significance has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: The subjects were 35 patients with COVID-19, and clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator were classified as having severe COVID-19. RESULTS: All 35 patients were diagnosed as having mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at admission, but the severity aggravated to severe in 8 patients (22.9%) in hospital. Hepatocellular-type liver injury, defined as elevation of the serum AST and/or ALT levels to ≥ 3 times the ULN, was seen in 2 patients (5.7%), and cholestasis-type liver injury, defined as elevation of the serum ALP, γ-GTP and/or total bilirubin levels to ≥ twice the ULN, was seen in 4 patients (11.4%). A total of 9 patients (25.7%) fulfilled the criteria for liver injury. The percentage of patients with liver injury was higher in patients with severe COVID-19 than in the remaining patients (P = 0.001). Both the hepatic CT attenuation values and the liver-to-spleen attenuation (L/S) ratios at admission were lower in the former patients than in the latter patients (P < 0.001). ROC curve revealed the optimal cut-off value of the L/S ratio of 1.03 for discriminating between patients with severe and non-severe diseases. The hepatic CT attenuation values increased at the remission phase of the disease as compared to the values at admission (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Liver dysfunction associated with reduced hepatic CT attenuation values correlated with the disease severity in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Hepatopatias/virologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hepatol Res ; 50(11): 1264-1274, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833292

RESUMO

AIM: To optimize the therapeutic strategy for cirrhotic patients manifesting hepatic encephalopathy, factors affecting the outcome of patients receiving rifaximin were evaluated. METHODS: The subjects were 95 patients receiving rifaximin. Serum ammonia levels were measured serially during rifaximin treatment. Factors associated with long-term outcomes and cumulative survival rates were evaluated. RESULTS: Serum ammonia levels were decreased at 4 weeks after rifaximin treatment compared to the levels at baseline even in patients receiving rifaximin as an add-on therapy with lactitol hydrate (P < 0.001) and reduction values were negatively correlated with the maximal diameter of portosystemic shunts (r = -0.275, P = 0.009). Overt encephalopathy occurred in 37 patients (38.9%) during rifaximin treatment, and the hazard function analysis identified 90 days as a high-risk term for developing the first-time overt encephalopathy. Thus, the long-term outcome was judged as favorable in 77 patients (81.1%) in whom overt encephalopathy was absent for at least 90 days during rifaximin initiation. A multivariate analysis revealed that furosemide, especially at daily doses of ≥20 mg both at baseline and during rifaximin treatment, was a significant factor associated with unfavorable outcome (P = 0.009 and P = 0.022, respectively) as well as occurrence and recurrence of overt encephalopathy (P = 0.012). Moreover, furosemide treatment significantly deteriorated the cumulative survival rate of patients receiving rifaximin (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Furosemide contributed to the deteriorated outcome of patients receiving rifaximin. Consequently, rifaximin should be given before increasing the furosemide dose, and the furosemide dose should not be increased during rifaximin treatment.

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