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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199089

RESUMO

The meniscus possesses low self-healing properties. A perfect regenerative technique for this tissue has not yet been developed. This work aims to evaluate the role of hypoxia in meniscal development in vitro. Menisci from neonatal pigs (day 0) were harvested and cultured under two different atmospheric conditions: hypoxia (1% O2) and normoxia (21% O2) for up to 14 days. Samples were analysed at 0, 7 and 14 days by histochemical (Safranin-O staining), immunofluorescence and RT-PCR (in both methods for SOX-9, HIF-1α, collagen I and II), and biochemical (DNA, GAGs, DNA/GAGs ratio) techniques to record any possible differences in the maturation of meniscal cells. Safranin-O staining showed increments in matrix deposition and round-shape "fibro-chondrocytic" cells in hypoxia-cultured menisci compared with controls under normal atmospheric conditions. The same maturation shifting was observed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis: SOX-9 and collagen II increased from day zero up to 14 days under a hypoxic environment. An increment of DNA/GAGs ratio typical of mature meniscal tissue (characterized by fewer cells and more GAGs) was observed by biochemical analysis. This study shows that hypoxia can be considered as a booster to achieve meniscal cell maturation, and opens new opportunities in the field of meniscus tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Menisco/citologia , Menisco/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Suínos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
2.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069190

RESUMO

During the prenatal, neonatal, and weaning periods, the porcine gastrointestinal tract undergoes several morpho-functional, changes together with substantial modification of the microbial ecosystem. Modifications of the overall structure of the small intestine also occur, as well as a rapid increase of the volume, mainly in the last period of gestation: intestinal villi, starting from jejunum, appears shortly before the sixth week of gestation, and towards the end of the third month, epithelial cells diversify into enterocytes, goblet cells, endocrine, and Paneth cells. Moreover, in the neonatal period, colostrum induces an increase in intestinal weight, absorptive area, and brush border enzyme activities: intestine doubles its weight and increases the length by 30% within three days of birth. During weaning, intestinal environment modifies drastically due to a replacement of highly digestible sow milk by solid feed: profound changes in histological parameters and enzymatic activity are associated with the weaning period, such as the atrophy of the villi and consequent restorative hypertrophy of the crypts. All these modifications are the result of a delicate and precise balance between the proliferation and the death of the cells that form the intestinal mucosa (i.e., mitosis and apoptosis) and the health conditions of the piglet. An in-depth knowledge of these phenomena and of how they can interfere with the correct intestinal function can represent a valid support to predict strategies to improve gut health in the long-term and to prevent weaning gut alterations; thus, reducing antimicrobial use.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072221

RESUMO

To ensure environmental sustainability, according to the European Green Deal and to boost the One Health concept, it is essential to improve animals' health and adopt sustainable and natural feed ingredients. Over the past decade, prebiotics have been used as an alternative approach in order to reduce the use of antimicrobials, by positively affecting the gut microbiota and decreasing the onset of several enteric diseases in pig. However, dietary supplementation with seaweed polysaccharides as prebiotics has gained attention in recent years. Seaweeds or marine macroalgae contain several polysaccharides: laminarin, fucoidan, and alginates are found in brown seaweeds, carrageenan in red seaweeds, and ulvan in green seaweeds. The present review focuses on studies evaluating dietary seaweed polysaccharide supplementation in pig used as prebiotics to positively modulate gut health and microbiota composition.

4.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 184-191, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545535

RESUMO

Quadriceps contracture (QC) is reported in dogs mainly as a complication of trauma or parasitic infection. QC causes progressive hind limb deviation, muscular hypotrophy and degenerative joint disease and, in puppies, bone hypoplasia. The aim of this clinical case series is to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) changes in hind limb ossification centres in thirteen 55 to 57-days-old Doberman Pinscher related littermates induced by QC after repeated intramuscular injections. The presence, size, and shape of ossification centres of affected and unaffected hind limbs were compared. Affected limbs were hyperextended and externally rotated, with genu recurvatum and proximo-medial patellar luxation. QC had no influence on the time of appearance of ossification centres however, it was associated with femoral head flattening, hip subluxation, flattening of the femoral distal epiphysis. The tibial plateau was tilted caudoproximally-craniodistally and wedged into the growth plate. Thirty-two out of fifty-five ossification centres (including diaphyseal and epiphyseal centres, such as femoral head and tibial plateau) were significantly smaller in affected limbs (p < 0.05). Lack of weight-bearing could account for the smaller size of ossification centres in affected tarsi and metatarsi. Progressive limb hyperextension and external rotation might have induced gradual loading withdrawal on the medial aspect of the foot justifying the reduced size observed only for the medial ossification centres of the digits of affected limbs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing CT findings of hind limb ossification centre changes in puppies with QC contracture.


Assuntos
Contratura/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Membro Posterior/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/veterinária , Osteogênese , Animais , Contratura/veterinária , Cães , Artropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Luxação Patelar/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
5.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795348

RESUMO

Weaning is very stressful for piglets and leads to alterations in the intestinal barrier, a reduction in nutrient absorption and a higher susceptibility to intestinal diseases with heavy economic losses. This review describes the structures involved in the intestinal barrier: the epithelial barrier, immune barrier and the enteric nervous system. Here, new insights into the interactions between feed components and the physiology and morphology of the epithelial barrier are highlighted. Dietary strategies focused on improving gut health are also described including amino acids, phytochemicals and organic acids.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842324

RESUMO

Seaweeds are macroalgae, with different sizes, colors and composition. They consist of brown algae, red algae and green algae, which all have a different chemical composition and bioactive molecule content. The polysaccharides, laminarin and fucoidan are commonly present in brown seaweeds, ulvans are found in green seaweeds and, red algae contain a large amount of carrageenans. These bioactive compounds may have several positive effects on health in livestock. In order to reduce the antimicrobials used in livestock, research has recently focused on finding natural and sustainable molecules that boost animal performance and health. The present study thus summarizes research on the dietary integration of seaweeds in swine. In particular the influence on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, prebiotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities were considered. The review highlights that brown seaweeds seem to be a promising dietary intervention in pigs in order to boost the immune system, antioxidant status and gut health. Data on the use of green seaweeds as a dietary supplementation seems to be lacking at present and merit further investigation.

7.
BMC Vet Res ; 11: 249, 2015 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26437937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New clinical oriented approaches are supported by the integration of advanced imaging techniques, e.g. computed tomography and magnetic resonance, with gross anatomy imaging. The interscapular region of the cat is a typical site of a highly invasive infiltrative pathology, i.e. Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma. Even if chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been considered as pre-surgical therapies, extensive surgery is still the recommended treatment. Evidence suggested that the relationships between muscles, infiltrative mass and adjacent musculoskeletal structures could change according to the forelimb positions: a fact to be duly considered while planning the surgical approach. Anatomic and tomographic atlases provide only images of the interscapular region from cats positioned with their forelimbs extended cranially, which means that, they do not record musculoskeletal modifications due to the forelimb movements. Aim of this study was to provide detailed images of the changes occurring in the musculoskeletal structures of the interscapular region of cats according to their forelimb position by comparing cross-sectional gross anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: We provide an atlas of normal cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the interscapular region of the cat, from the fifth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra. We compare and couple the slices obtained both in flexed and extended forelimb positioning with the animal maintained in sternal recumbency. CONCLUSION: This study shows a new and dynamic way to investigate the interscapular region of the cat and provides anatomical references for in vivo computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, considering changes in the muscular form according to the forelimb positioning. We believe that an in-depth anatomical knowledge of the interscapular region may be helpful to approach the study of any pathology located there and, in particular, to set up an appropriate therapy for the feline injection-site sarcoma.


Assuntos
Gatos/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cadáver , Membro Anterior/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
8.
Biol Reprod ; 88(3): 58, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23325810

RESUMO

Oocytes isolated from cows of reproductive age with reduced antral follicle counts (AFC) have a diminished capacity of embryonic development, which may be related to alterations in the mechanism that directs the proper segregation of chromosomes. Because we demonstrated that progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is involved in chromosome congression and metaphase II (MII) plate formation, the present study was designed to determine 1) if the decrease in oocyte developmental competence observed in dairy cows with a reduced AFC is due to a higher incidence of aneuploidy and 2) whether alterations in PGRMC1 contributes to the incidence of aneuploidy. Oocytes from ovaries with reduced AFC and age-matched controls were matured in vitro and the occurrence of aneuploidy determined as well as the mRNA level and localization of PGRMC1. Although oocytes from ovaries with reduced AFC were capable of undergoing meiosis in vitro, these oocytes showed a 3-fold increase in aneuploidy compared to oocytes isolated from control ovaries (P < 0.05). Although Pgrmc1 mRNA levels were not altered, PGRMC1 and aurora kinase B (AURKB) failed to localize to precise focal points on MII chromosomes of oocytes from ovaries with reduced AFC. Furthermore, when oocytes of control ovaries were cultured with an inhibitor of AURKB activity, their MII plate was disrupted and PGRMC1 was not properly localized to the chromosomes. These results suggest that alterations in PGRMC1 and/or AURKB localization account in part for the increased aneuploidy and low development competence of oocytes from ovaries with reduced AFC.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Animais , Aurora Quinases , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino
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