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1.
Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken) ; 19(4): 171-175, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505922

RESUMO

Content available: Author Interview and Author Audio Recording.

2.
Cureus ; 13(6): e16065, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bowel preparation quality in colonoscopy is one of the most essential components of quality assessment. According to the latest guidelines, inadequate bowel preparation warrants repeat colonoscopy in less than a year. Our aim was to investigate the role of bowel preparation in adenoma detection rate (ADR), its relationship with patients' demographics, and compliance with subsequent surveillance recommendations with guidelines. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review study. Bowel preparation quality was divided into three categories: high, intermediate, and low. ADR and polyp detection rates (PDR) were calculated as the number of patients with adenoma or polyp divided by the total number of patients. RESULTS: Among 1,062 patients (934 African American and 128 non-African American) 81%, 11%, and 8% had high, intermediate, and low-quality bowel preparations, respectively. Race, gender, age, type of endoscopist, and body mass index did not play any role in bowel preparation quality. ADR and PDR were significantly higher in African Americans as compared to non-African Americans. ADR was significantly lower in the low-quality as compared to the high- and intermediate-quality bowel preparations (OR=2.13; p=0.0032). Bowel preparation quality was not correlated with subsequent follow-up recommendations. Academic gastroenterologists and surgeons had the highest and lowest compliance with surveillance guidelines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and gender disparity appears to have no meaningful effect on the quality of bowel preparation. Only two categories (adequate [high/intermediate] or inadequate [low-quality]) may be used for follow-up recommendations. Non-compliance with surveillance guidelines is concerning and may inadvertently increase the interval risk of colorectal cancer.

3.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14414, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987063

RESUMO

Ipilimumab and nivolumab are immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma and other cancers. Immune-mediated colitis is one of their adverse events that need to be differentiated from low-grade diarrhea as one of the most common side effects. A 51-year-old woman with relapsed metastatic melanoma presented with intractable diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and generalized abdominal pain. The patient had been treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab in the past two months. The infectious workup was inconclusive. Colonoscopy demonstrated severe colitis, and biopsies were consistent with colitis. Combination chemotherapy was stopped. The patient was treated with intravenous and oral steroids, and her symptoms improved. A combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab increases the chance of immune-mediated colitis, and steroids should be started promptly to avoid complications such as bowel perforation and toxic megacolon.

4.
Cureus ; 13(1): e13040, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680586

RESUMO

Introduction  Quality metrics of colonoscopy should be routinely monitored with a focus on optimizing the patient's subsequent risk of colorectal cancer development. Documentation of bowel preparation, adenoma detection rate (ADR), and post-colonoscopy follow-up recommendations are three of the most important quality indicators for colonoscopy, but significant improvement has been challenging to achieve. The goal of this study is to determine whether the publication of colonoscopy quality indicator guidelines in 2015 resulted in an improvement in quality measures of physicians in our endoscopy suite as compared to before. Methods  We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent a screening or surveillance colonoscopy in 2014 and 2017. Colonoscopies were performed in an open-access medical center endoscopy suite, staffed by three groups of physicians (academic gastroenterologists (AGs), non-academic gastroenterologists (non-AGs), and surgeons). We gathered demographic data, bowel preparation reports, follow-up recommendations, and notice to patient's primary care physician, and calculated ADR for patients. Age- and gender-matched patients in both years were analyzed for ADR. These data were further subcategorized for each group of physicians. Results  There were 553 patients in 2014 and 1,095 in 2017. Overall, male gender and African American race constituted the majority of patients in both years. Among age- and gender-matched patients in 2014 and 2017 (412 and 243 patients, respectively), ADR within each group of endoscopists was not significantly different between these two years (AGs 44% vs. 50%; non-AGs 32% vs. 27%; surgeons 25% vs. 21%; p>0.05 for all). However, in 2014 and 2017, ADR was significantly higher in the AG group as compared to the non-AG group and surgeons (p<0.006 and p<0.0004, respectively). Reporting of bowel preparation quality (82% vs. 87%) and documenting the recommended period for follow-up surveillance colonoscopy in the report (68% vs. 78%) improved between 2014 and 2017 (p=0.002 and p=0.0001, respectively). Correct recommendations for follow-up surveillance colonoscopy only improved significantly in the AG group (74% in 2014 as compared with 82% in 2017, p=0.003). Conclusion  Based on the current guidelines, AG physicians are far exceeding the target ADR goals, and are superior compared to other groups of endoscopists. Although improvements were noted after guideline publications, areas of needed improvement with respect to meeting gastroenterology society guidelines for quality remained. The fact that individual physicians are performing and billing in an endoscopy suite staffed and equipped by a medical center creates an environment where responsibility for improvement in quality cannot be readily assigned.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4267, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608598

RESUMO

To investigate the acute clinical, immunological, and corneal nerve changes following corneal HSV-1 KOS-63 strain inoculation. Corneas of C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with either low dose (Ld) or high dose (Hd) HSV-1 KOS-63 or culture medium. Clinical evaluation was conducted up to 7 days post inoculation (dpi). Viral titers were assessed by standard plaque assay. Excised corneas were stained for CD45 and beta-III tubulin. Corneal flow cytometry was performed to assess changes in leukocyte subpopulations. Corneal sensation was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Naïve, sham-infected (post scarification), and McKrae-infected C57BL/6 corneas served as two negative and positive controls, respectively. Compared to Ld infected mice, Hd HSV-1 KOS-63 demonstrated higher incidence of corneal opacity (1.5 ×) and neovascularization (2.6 × ; p < 0.05). At 7 dpi Hd infected mice showed more severe corneal opacity (2.23 vs. 0.87; p = 0.0003), neovascularization (6.00 vs. 0.75; p < 0.0001), and blepharitis (3.11 vs. 2.06; p = 0.001) compared to the Ld group. At 3 dpi epitheliopathy was significantly larger in the Hd group (23.59% vs. 3.44%; p = 0.001). Similarly, corneal opacity was significantly higher in Hd McKrae-infected corneas as compared with Ld McKrae-infected corneas at 3 and 5 dpi. No significant corneal opacity, neovascularization, blepharitis, and epitheliopathy were observed in naïve or sham-infected mice. Higher viral titers were detected in corneas (1 and 3 dpi) and trigeminal ganglia (TG) (3 and 5 dpi) in Hd versus Ld KOS-63 groups (p < 0.05). Leukocyte density showed a gradual increase over time from 1 to 7 dpi in both KOS-63 and McKrae-infected corneas. Corneal flow cytometric analysis (3 dpi) demonstrated a higher percentage of Gr-1 + (71.6 vs. 26.3) and CD11b + (90.6 vs. 41.1) cells in Hd versus Ld KOS-63 groups. Corneal nerve density significantly decreased in both Hd KOS-63 and Hd McKrae infected corneas in comparison with naïve and sham-infected corneas. At 3 dpi corneal nerve density was lower in the Hd versus Ld KOS-63 groups (16.79 vs. 57.41 mm/mm2; p = 0.004). Corneal sensation decreased accordingly at 5 and 7 dpi in both Ld and Hd KOS-63-infected mice. Corneal inoculation with HSV-1 KOS-63 strain shows acute keratitis and nerve degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrating virulence of this strain.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Ceratite Herpética/patologia , Ceratite Herpética/virologia , Carga Viral , Animais , Biomarcadores , Córnea/inervação , Córnea/patologia , Córnea/virologia , Opacidade da Córnea/etiologia , Opacidade da Córnea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Ceratite Herpética/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gânglio Trigeminal/metabolismo , Gânglio Trigeminal/patologia , Gânglio Trigeminal/virologia , Virulência
6.
Ocul Surf ; 18(4): 651-656, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of neuropathic corneal pain (NCP) is challenging, as it is often difficult to differentiate it from conventional dry eye disease (DED). In addition to eye pain, NCP can present with similar signs and symptoms of DED. The purpose of this study is to find an objective diagnostic sign to identify patients with NCP, using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: This was a comparative, retrospective, case-control study. Patients with clinical diagnosis of NCP (n = 25), DED (n = 30), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 16), who underwent corneal imaging with IVCM (HRT3/RCM) were included. Central corneal IVCM scans were analyzed by 2 masked observers for nerve density and number, presence of microneuromas (terminal enlargements of subbasal corneal nerve) and/or nerve beading (bead-like formation along the nerves), and dendritiform cell (DC) density. RESULTS: There was a decrease in total nerve density in both NCP (14.14 ± 1.03 mm/mm2) and DED patients (12.86 ± 1.04 mm/mm2), as compared to normal controls (23.90 ± 0.92 mm/mm2; p < 0.001). However, total nerve density was not statistically different between NCP and DED patients (p = 0.63). Presence of nerve beading was not significantly different between patients and normal controls (p = 0.15). Interestingly, microneuromas were observed in all patients with NCP, while they were not present in any of the patients with conventional DED (sensitivity and specificity of 100%). DC density was significantly increased in both NCP (71.89 ± 16.91 cells/mm2) and DED patients (111.5 ± 23.86 cells/mm2), as compared to normal controls (24.81 ± 4.48 cells/mm2 (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in DC density between DED and NCP patients (p = 0.31). CONCLUSION: IVCM may be used as an adjunct diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of NCP in the presence of neuropathic symptoms. Microneuromas may serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the diagnosis of NCP.


Assuntos
Córnea , Dor , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516734

RESUMO

Background: Increased mineralocorticoid activity is one of the plausible causes of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and mineralocorticoid inhibitors such as eplerenone have been investigated as its potential therapy. This study investigates the short-term safety and efficacy of oral eplerenone in patients with chronic CSCR. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 13 eyes of 13 patients with the diagnosis of chronic CSCR. All patients received eplerenone 50 mg/day for 4 weeks. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT) was obtained. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and OCT parameters including sub retinal fluid (SRF), choroidal thickness (CT) and central macular thickness (CMT), were measured manually. Results: The mean SRF height decreased slightly at 1-month follow-up as compared to baseline, but the change was not statistically significant (94.18 ± 17.53 vs. 113.15 ± 18.69; p = 0.08). Subfoveal CT and CMT was significantly reduced as compared to baseline (6.6% [p = 0.002] and 7.05% [p = 0.04], respectively). The BCVA did not change significantly (20/28 vs. 20/30 [p = 0.16]). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral eplerenone may be used as a safe and potentially effective treatment in chronic CSCR, however there are minimal short-term effects on subretinal fluid or visual acuity therefore therapeutic trials longer than one month are necessary to test its benefits.Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identification number: NCT01822561. Registered 3/25/13, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01822561.

8.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 13: 16-19, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505980

RESUMO

Purpose: Chromosome 22q11.2 micro-duplication syndrome (MDS), is a rare autosomal dominant condition, with a highly variable phenotype that ranges from unremarkable and asymptomatic, to fatal due to cardiovascular defects. Hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, superior displacement of the eyebrows, and ptosis are the most commonly reported ocular manifestations. Here, we report a newborn with bilateral exposure, entropion, and corneal ulceration related to 22q11.2 MDS. Observation: A newborn girl presented with bilateral upper eyelid entropion, bilateral lower eyelid ectropion, and lagophthalmos. She subsequently developed bilateral corneal ulcers. Topical antibacterial drops, bandage contact lenses, medroxyprogesterone 1%, and fluorometholone 0.1%, together with partial tarsorrhaphy and correction of eyelid malposition, were used to treat the ulcers and address the underlying issues of exposure and entropion. Genetic testing revealed chromosome 22q11.2.MDS; further evaluation revealed systemic manifestations of this syndrome. The ocular surface healed well with gradual improvement of corneal opacification as well as bilateral partial tarsorrhaphy. Conclusion and importance: This report is the first that describes a newborn with 22q11.2 MDS presenting with sight-threatening corneal ulceration. Entropion, ectropion, and lagophthalmos were identified and treated, allowing for healing of the corneal surface. Genetic testing revealed a syndrome not known to be associated with eyelid abnormalities and corneal ulceration, but with other important systemic and ocular implications. Bilateral partial tarsorrhaphy should not be excluded as a treatment option for infants who fail more conservative measures for the treatment of exposure.

10.
Ocul Surf ; 16(2): 218-225, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305292

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term alterations of corneal nerves in patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal, cross sectional. METHODS: This study included 16 patients with a history of HSV keratitis and 15 age-matched normal controls. Slit-scanning IVCM was performed in all subjects at baseline and then after a mean follow-up of 37.3 ±â€¯1.7 months in the patient group. Corneal subbasal nerve density and corneal sensation were compared between groups at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, the mean subbasal nerve density was significantly lower in both affected eyes (1.4 ±â€¯0.6 mm/mm2) and contralateral unaffected eyes (6.4 ±â€¯0.7 mm/mm2) compared with the controls (14.1 ±â€¯1.6 mm/mm2; all P < .001). At the end of follow-up, the mean nerve density in affected eyes increased to 2.8 ±â€¯0.7 mm/mm2 (P = .006), with no significant change in contralateral unaffected eyes (6.5 ±â€¯1.0 mm/mm2, P = .72). However, both eyes had lower nerve density than controls (all P < .001). Corneal sensation was significantly lower in affected eyes (2.6 ±â€¯0.6 cm) than in the control group (6.0 ±â€¯0.0, P < .001) and showed no significant change at the end of follow-up (2.5 ±â€¯0.6 cm, P = .80). Corneal sensation in contralateral unaffected eyes was not different in comparison with controls at both baseline and follow up (all p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that although corneal nerve regeneration occurs in patients with HSV keratitis, this change is not clinically significant and does not results in changes of corneal sensation. Therefore, these patients need to be followed closely for complications of neurotrophic keratopathy and might benefit from neuro-regenerative therapies.


Assuntos
Córnea/inervação , Infecções Oculares Virais/complicações , Ceratite Herpética/complicações , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Nervo Oftálmico/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Córnea/patologia , Córnea/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ceratite Herpética/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nervo Oftálmico/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensação/fisiologia , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Retina ; 38(12): 2277-2284, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare foveal vascular anatomy between patients with and without disorganization of retinal inner layers (DRILs) after resolved diabetic macular edema using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Twenty-four eyes of 21 age- and sex-matched patients with resolved diabetic macular edema were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. All eyes were imaged with enhanced high-definition line or cross-line structural B scans and 3 × 3-mm OCTA scans. Optical coherence tomography B scans were analyzed for the presence of DRIL, and based on this, eyes were classified as either DRIL present or DRIL absent. The foveal avascular zone area on OCTA was compared between patients with and without DRIL. The foveal avascular zone area was correlated with visual acuity. RESULTS: Nine eyes with DRIL and resolved diabetic macular edema were compared with 15 control eyes without DRIL and resolved diabetic macular edema. Area of ischemia on OCTA scans corresponded to the area of DRIL as determined on OCT B scans. The foveal avascular zone area in full retina as well as superficial and deep retinal plexuses OCTA slabs were significantly larger in patients with DRIL as compared to those without DRIL (P = 0.005, P < 0.001, and P = 0.004, respectively). The larger foveal avascular zone in full retinal segmentation (r = 0.72, P = 0.03) and superficial plexus (r = 0.74, P = 0.02) were positively correlated with lower visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Optical coherence tomography angiography can visualize retinal ischemia in patients with and without DRIL. Correspondence of impaired blood flow with DRIL suggests that retinal ischemia and loss of normal vasculature contributes to DRIL.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Macula Lutea/irrigação sanguínea , Edema Macular/complicações , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Capilares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vasos Retinianos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Ocul Surf ; 16(1): 31-44, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031645

RESUMO

Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 58(3): 1586-1593, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288269

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate morselized amniotic membrane and umbilical cord (AMUC) eye drops in promoting corneal re-epithelialization. Methods: Following a 2-mm diameter central epithelial wound in one eye of 48 normal C57BL/6 mouse corneas, 10 µL of saline with (n = 24) or without (n = 24) AMUC was applied three times a day for 6 days. The corneal epithelial defect was measured using 0.1% fluorescein, while corneal epithelial regularity was measured by assessment of a reflected light off the corneal surface. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry was performed for Ki-67, CD45, ßIII-tubulin, and keratin12. Safety and toxicity were also assessed by monitoring physical activity and body weight. Results: Compared with the vehicle saline control, AMUC resulted in a significantly smaller corneal epithelial defect at 12 hours (P = 0.002), 1 day (P = 0.016), and 2 days (P = 0.04) post abrasion. Amniotic membrane and umbilical cord also achieved a more rapid complete epithelialization (3.15 ± 1.44 vs. 4.00 ± 1.63 days, P = 0.06) and induced a higher incidence of corneal regularity without affecting physical activity and body weight. Spearman correlation showed that epithelialization was significantly correlated with treatment groups (P < 0.001), time (P < 0.001), and corneal regularity (P = 0.04). Amniotic membrane and umbilical cord significantly decreased CD45+ cell infiltration in the peripheral cornea (P < 0.05) and promoted Ki-67+ cells in the central corneal epithelium (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Topical AMUC significantly promotes corneal epithelialization and restores corneal regularity by reducing inflammation and promoting proliferation in a murine model of corneal abrasion without causing safety or toxicity concerns. This encouraging preclinical finding warrants a controlled human trial in the future.


Assuntos
Âmnio , Córnea/patologia , Lesões da Córnea/terapia , Epitélio Corneano/patologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Reepitelização/fisiologia , Cordão Umbilical , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Lesões da Córnea/patologia , Criopreservação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 38(1): 61-66, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27029644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population. Inflammatory mediators play an important role in AMD pathogenesis and immune-related gene polymorphisms are shown to increase the risk. Complement system is an important mediator of the immunity system and several genes encoding proteins involved in this system are associated with susceptibility to AMD. The central element of the complement cascade, C3 has been a plausible candidate since its cleavage product C3a was found in drusen. This study was planned to evaluate the association of C3-rs2230199 (R102G) variants with advanced type AMD in this cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, 494 participants consisting of 266 AMD patients (187 wet AMD and 79 advanced dry AMD) and 228 samples from unrelated healthy controls were enrolled for evaluation. Extracted-DNA samples were amplified to obtain fragments including the polymorphic region. RESULTS: The distribution of the R102G genotypes was significantly different in the AMD patients compared to controls (p = 0.001).The Odds Ratio compared to CC individuals was 1.69 (95% CI 1.15-2.49) for GC individuals and 6.48 (95% CI1.87-22.43) for GG individuals. The Odds Ratio compared to the C allele was 2.31 (95% CI 0.48-11) for the G allele. GG and GC genotypes and G allele were significantly associated with both types of advanced-AMD. Individuals carrying GG genotype have over a six-fold risk of developing AMD in comparison to those carrying the CC genotype in this cohort. Our meta-analysis pooled data showed that our homozygous individuals for GG have a higher risk of AMD compared to previous publications in different nations (p = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows C3 to be a relatively strong susceptibility gene for advanced-type-AMD (exudative-and-geographic-atrophy) in an Iranian population.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Atrofia Geográfica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Corantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/administração & dosagem , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
15.
Int Ophthalmol ; 37(5): 1161-1168, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27778189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement factor H (CFH) gene with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and any possible interaction among these factors. METHODS: In this case-control study, 139 unrelated patients with exudative AMD and 123 non-AMD controls were recruited. Blood sample was taken for analysis of the CRP levels and DNA testing. DNA fragments of CFH gene variants containing 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms including rs800292, rs1061170, rs2274700, and rs3753395 were assessed. A CRP level of ≥3 mg/L was considered as elevated. The association of elevated CRP and CFH gene variants polymorphism with exudative AMD was compared between the groups. RESULTS: Mean age was 72.6 ± 6.4 for controls and 74.9 ± 7.4 for case group (P = 0.006). The difference between CRP levels in cases and controls was not statistically significant (P = 0.055). However, Y402H variant of CFH in both homozygous and heterozygous carriers C allele was significantly more frequent among exudative AMD patients than controls, 32.1 versus 6.5 % (P < 0.001). Evaluating various CRP levels in patients with CC and non-CC genotypes disclosed that in CC genotype group, higher CRP level (>3 mg/L) was associated with higher risk of developing exudative AMD (OR = 12.0, CI: 1.5-98.8) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: This study disclosed no difference in CRP levels per se between exudative AMD patients with control group. However, higher levels of CRP in the presence of C allele of Y402H might confer more risk for the development of exudative AMD.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Fator H do Complemento/genética , DNA/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/sangue , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
16.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 11(2): 188-92, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27413500

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess quality of life (QOL) in children undergoing strabismus surgery. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 87 children (including 41 boys, 47.1%) with mean age of 8.7 ± 4.1 years at three academic eye hospitals in Tehran. A modified version of the RAND Health Insurance Study QOL questionnaire was filled based on interviews with parents before and three months after surgery. The questionnaire consisted of 36 Likert scale items ranging in score from 0 to 100, with higher scores representing better function. Relevant items were averaged together and categorized into 11 distinct QOL dimensions. RESULTS: The majority of QOL dimensions improved after strabismus surgery including functional limitation (92.36 ± 16.78 vs. 82.15 ± 20.92, P < 0.01), anxiety (68.61 ± 18.15 vs. 60.28 ± 19.19, P < 0.01), depression (82.31 ± 16.42 vs. 72.36 ± 17.72, P < 0.01), positive well-being (73.33 ± 14.69 vs. 70.56 ± 15.96, 0.048), social relations (79.43 ± 11.52 vs. 68.69 ± 30.98, 0.002), general health perception (76.4 ± 16.48 vs. 67.36 ± 18.9, P < 0.01), resistance/susceptibility (79.72 ± 13.4 vs. 71.02 ± 14.58, P < 0.01), satisfaction with development (73.81 ± 16.07 vs. 70.07 ± 14.98, P = 0.006), and eye alignment concerns (75.44 ± 15.89 vs. 53.14 ± 26.61, P < 0.01). Only self-reported prior health (71.73 ± 15.9 vs. 72.78 ± 15.29, P = 0.33) and parent-child closeness (72.92 ± 15.82 vs. 72.5 ± 17.99, P = 0.73) did not significantly improve. The amount of ocular realignment (more vs. less than 20 prism diopters [PD]) had a direct correlation with improvement in subscales of satisfaction with development (0.019) and eye alignment concerns (0.028). CONCLUSION: Strabismus surgery positively impacts physical and psychosocial function in children. Children with a greater amount of correction experienced more QOL improvement after surgery.

17.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 94(8): e779-e785, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27316788

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of CC-cytokine ligand 2 CCL2-2518 (rs1024611) single nucleotide polymorphism, complement factor H (CFH Y402H) and their possible interaction in developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: In this case-control study, DNA samples from 266 patients with advanced AMD and 229 healthy controls were genotyped for CCL2 polymorphism and also 254 patients and 164 healthy controls were genotyped for CFH polymorphism. The possible associations of these polymorphisms with susceptibility to AMD independently and in different joint combinations were evaluated. RESULTS: The genotype frequency for CFH was found to be significantly different between AMD and normal controls (31.5% versus 20.7%, OR = 3.56, p < 0.001 for CC and 52.4% versus 41.5%, OR = 2.96, p < 0.001 for CT genotype). However, no significant association between CCL2 polymorphism and AMD was observed in this cohort (OR = 1.15 and OR = 0.8, p = 0.172). Interestingly, studying the joint effects of two genotypes (TT genotype of CFH Y402H and AG genotype of CCL2-2518) showed more significant protective effect against AMD (p = 0.0001), while the risk effect of CC and CT genotypes of CFH was only visible in the presence of AA genotype of CCL2-2518 (p = 0.044 and p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Complement factor H Y402H polymorphism is strongly associated with advanced type AMD. Although this study revealed no association of CCL2-2518 with AMD, the risk effect of CFH genotypes was only visible in the presence of AA genotype of CCL2-2518. AG genotype of CCL2-2518 in combination with TT genotype of CFH Y402H showed significant protective effect against AMD.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Atrofia Geográfica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
19.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 37(2): 144-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25612476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disorder which results in irreversible vision loss and progressive impairment of central vision. Disease susceptibility is influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the complement factor H gene are the most important genetic risk factors. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association four SNPs (dbSNP ID: rs800292, rs1061170, rs2274700 and rs3753395) of CFH gene with AMD in the Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 100 AMD patients and 100 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Direct sequencing for three SNPs (rs800292, rs2274700 and rs3753395) and restriction fragment length polymorphism utilized for rs1061170. Allele and genotype frequencies of SNPs were calculated and tested for departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using the Chi-square test. An allelic and genotypic association was compared by logistic regression analysis using the SNPassoc. RESULTS: According to our results, the frequencies of risk allele for all SNPs (G, G, A, and C alleles of rs800292, rs2274700, rs3753395 and rs1061170, respectively) were significantly higher in AMD patients (p value < 0.001). AMD individuals who had at least one copy of the C allele of rs1061170 had an increased risk of disease compared with cases with the T allele. Other studied polymorphisms showed the same association. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the contribution of all four predicted CFH polymorphisms in AMD susceptibility among the Iranian population. This association with CFH may lead to early detection and new strategies for prevention and treatment of AMD.


Assuntos
Atrofia Geográfica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Atrofia Geográfica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fatores de Risco , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/diagnóstico
20.
J Ophthalmic Vis Res ; 10(1): 33-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe prophylactic patterns employed against endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 486 ophthalmologists filling in a self-administered questionnaire during the 20(th) Annual Congress of the Iranian Society of Ophthalmology in December 2010, Tehran, working in both private and academic medical centers. Prophylactic measures used preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively and self-reported rates of endophthalmitis were assessed as the main outcome measurements. RESULTS: In the preoperative phase, 75.5% of surgeons used povidone-iodine in the conjunctival sac and 71.4% of them did not use antibiotics. The rate of intraoperative prophylaxis was 61.9% either in the form of intracameral antibiotics or subconjunctival injection (mostly cephazolin or gentamicin). Only 7.8% of participants used intracameral cephalosporins. Postoperative antibiotics [mostly chloramphenicol (57%) and ciprofloxacin (28%)] were used by 94.2% of surgeons. On average, ten years of practice were required to observe one case of endophthalmitis. CONCLUSION: The surgeons in present setting used various prophylactic regimens against endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Setting a local and evidence-based clinical practice guideline seems necessary.

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