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1.
Vaccine ; 38(5): 1152-1159, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National seasonal influenza programs have been recommended as a foundation for pandemic preparedness. During the 2009 pandemic, WHO aimed to increase Member States' equitable access to influenza vaccines through pandemic vaccine donation. METHODS: This analysis explores whether the presence of a seasonal influenza program contributed to more rapid national submission of requirements to receive vaccine during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Data from 2009 influenza vaccine donation, deployment, and surveillance initiatives were collected during May-September 2018 from WHO archival material. Data about the presence of seasonal influenza vaccine programs prior to 2009 were gathered from the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relationship between presence of a seasonal influenza program and time to submission of a national deployment and vaccination plan and to vaccine delivery. FINDING: Of 97 countries eligible to receive WHO-donated vaccine, 83 (86%) submitted national deployment and vaccination plans and 77 (79%) received vaccine. Countries with a seasonal influenza vaccine program were more likely to submit a national deployment and vaccination plan (hazards ratio [HR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. Countries with regulatory delays were less likely to receive vaccine than those without these delays (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6). INTERPRETATION: During the 2009 pandemic, eligible countries with a seasonal influenza vaccine program weremore ready to receive and use donated vaccines than those without a program. Our findings suggest that robust seasonal influenza vaccine programs increase national familiarity with the management of influenza vaccines and therefore enhance pandemic preparedness. FUNDING: N/A.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595655

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently completed the first phase of a RSV surveillance pilot study in fourteen countries (two to three in each WHO region) building on the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). This active surveillance strategy had several objectives including understanding RSV-related health burden in a variety of settings. A range of approaches can be used to estimate disease burden; most approaches could not be applied by participating countries in the WHO surveillance pilot. This article provides the recommendations made by WHO for strengthening and expanding the scope of the RSV surveillance in the next phase to enable burden estimation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean has partnered with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to strengthen pandemic influenza preparedness and response in the Region since 2006. This partnership focuses on pandemic preparedness planning, establishing and enhancing influenza surveillance systems, improving laboratory capacity for detection of influenza viruses, estimating the influenza disease burden, and providing evidence to support policies for the introduction and increased use of seasonal influenza vaccines. METHODS: Various published and unpublished data from public and WHO sources, programme indicators of the CDC cooperative agreement and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework were reviewed and analysed. Analyses and review of the programme indicators and published articles enabled us to generate information that was unavailable from only WHO sources. RESULTS: Most (19/22) countries of the Region have established influenza surveillance system; 16 countries in the Region have designated National Influenza Centres. The Region has seen considerable improvement in geographic coverage of influenza surveillance and influenza detection. Virus sharing has improved and almost all of the participating laboratories have achieved a 100% efficiency score in the WHO external quality assessment programme. At least seven countries have estimated their influenza disease burden using surveillance data and at least 17 are now using seasonal influenza vaccines as a control strategy for influenza illness. CONCLUSION: The Region has achieved substantial progress in surveillance and response to seasonal influenza, despite the adverse effects to the health systems of many countries due to acute and protracted emergencies and other significant challenges.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated acute lower respiratory infection is a common cause for hospitalization and hospital deaths in young children globally. There is urgent need to generate evidence to inform immunization policies when RSV vaccines become available. The WHO piloted a RSV surveillance strategy that leverages the existing capacities of the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) to better understand RSV seasonality, high-risk groups, validate case definitions, and develop laboratory and surveillance standards for RSV. METHODS: The RSV sentinel surveillance strategy was piloted in 14 countries. Patients across all age groups presenting to sentinel hospitals and clinics were screened all year-round using extended severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) case definitions for hospital and primary care settings, respectively. Respiratory specimens were tested for RSV at the National Influenza Centre (NIC) using standardized molecular diagnostics that had been validated by an External Quality Assurance program. The WHO FluMart data platform was adapted to receive case-based RSV data and visualize interactive visualization outputs. RESULTS: Laboratory standards for detecting RSV by RT-PCR were developed. A review assessed the feasibility and the low incremental costs for RSV surveillance. Several challenges were addressed related to case definitions, sampling strategies, the need to focus surveillance on young children, and the data required for burden estimation. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of any significant adverse impact on the functioning of GISRS which is primarily intended for virologic and epidemiological surveillance of influenza.

5.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 13(6): 547-555, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimated association of maternal influenza vaccination and birth outcomes may be sensitive to methods used to define preterm birth or small-for-gestational age (SGA). METHODS: In a cohort of pregnant women in Lao People's Democratic Republic, we estimated gestational age from: (a) date of last menstrual period (LMP), (b) any prenatal ultrasound, (c) first trimester ultrasound, (d) Ballard Score at delivery, and (e) an algorithm combining LMP and ultrasound. Infants were classified as SGA at birth using a Canadian, global, and equation-based growth reference. We estimated the association of maternal influenza vaccination and birth outcomes, by influenza activity, using multivariable log-binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards regression with vaccination as a time-varying exposure. RESULTS: The frequency of preterm birth in the cohort varied by method to estimate gestational age, from 5% using Ballard Score to 15% using any ultrasound. Using LMP, any ultrasound, or the algorithm, we found statistically significant reductions in preterm birth among vaccinated women during periods of high influenza activity and statistically significant increases in SGA, using a Canadian growth reference. We did not find statistically significant associations with SGA when using global or equation-based growth references. CONCLUSIONS: The association of maternal influenza vaccination and birth outcomes was most affected by the choice of a growth reference used to define SGA at birth. The association with pre-term birth was present and consistent across multiple statistical approaches. Future studies of birth outcomes, specifically SGA, should carefully consider the potential for bias introduced by measurement choice.

6.
Vaccine ; 37(35): 5089-5095, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288998

RESUMO

Influenza vaccination remains the most effective tool for reducing seasonal influenza disease burden. Few Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have robust, sustainable annual influenza national vaccination programs. The Partnership for Influenza Vaccine Introduction (PIVI) was developed as a public-private partnership to support LMICs to develop and sustain national vaccination programs through time-limited vaccine donations and technical support. We review the first 5 years of experience with PIVI, including the concept, country progress toward sustainability, and lesson learned. Between 2013 and 2018, PIVI worked with Ministries of Health in 17 countries. Eight countries have received donated vaccines and technical support; of these, two have transitioned to sustained national support of influenza vaccination and six are increasing national support of the vaccine programs towards full transition to local vaccine program support by 2023. Nine additional countries have received technical support for building the evidence base for national policy development and/or program evaluation. PIVI has resulted in increased use of vaccines in partner countries, and early countries have demonstrated progress towards sustainability, suggesting that a model of vaccine and technical support can work in LMICs. PIVI expects to add new country partners as current countries transition to self-reliance.

7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 49, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strengthening the quality of laboratory diagnostics is a key part of building global health capacity. In 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Southeast European Center for Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases (SECID), WHO European Regional Office (WHO EURO) and American Public Health Laboratories (APHL) collaborated to address laboratory quality training needs in Southeast Europe. Together, they developed a quality assurance (QA) mentorship program for six national laboratories (Laboratories A-E) in five countries utilizing APHL international consultants. The primary goal of the mentorship program was to help laboratories become recognized by WHO as National Influenza Centers (NICs). The program aimed to do this by strengthening influenza laboratory capacity by implementing quality management systems (QMS) action steps. After 1 year, we evaluated participants' progress by the proportion of QMS action steps they had successfully implemented, as well as the value of mentorship as perceived by laboratory mentees, mentors, and primary program stakeholders from SECID and WHO EURO. METHODS: To understand perceived value we used the qualitative method of semi-structured interviews, applying grounded theory to the thematic analysis. RESULTS: Mentees showed clear progress, having completed 32 to 68% [median: 62%] of planned QMS action steps in their laboratories. In regards to the perceived value of the program, we found strong evidence that laboratory mentorship enhances laboratory quality improvement by promoting accountability to QMS implementation, raising awareness of the importance of QMS, and fostering collaborative problem solving. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found that significant accomplishments can be achieved when QA programs provide dedicated technical mentorship for QMS implementation. Since the start of the mentoring, Laboratory "B" has achieved NIC recognition by WHO, while two other labs made substantial progress and are scheduled for recognition in 2018. In the future, we recommend that mentorship is more inclusive of laboratory directors, and that programs evaluate the amount of staff time needed for mentorship activities, including lab-based assessments and mentoring.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Laboratórios/normas , Tutoria , Melhoria de Qualidade , Pesquisadores , Fortalecimento Institucional , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(1): 104-112, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the burden of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) is important for setting national influenza surveillance and vaccine priorities. Estimating influenza-associated SARI rates requires hospital-based surveillance data and a population-based denominator, which can be challenging to determine. OBJECTIVES: We present an application of the World Health Organization's recently developed manual (WHO Manual) including hospital admission survey (HAS) methods for estimating the burden of influenza-associated SARI, with lessons learned to help others calculate similar estimates. METHODS: Using an existing SARI surveillance platform in Cambodia, we counted influenza-associated SARI cases during 2015 at one sentinel surveillance site in Svay Rieng Province. We applied WHO Manual-derived methods to count respiratory hospitalizations at all hospitals within the catchment area, where 95% of the sentinel site case-patients resided. We used HAS methods to adjust the district-level population denominator for the sentinel site and calculated the incidence rate of influenza-associated SARI by dividing the number of influenza-positive SARI infections by the adjusted population denominator and multiplying by 100 000. We extrapolated the rate to the provincial population to derive a case count for 2015. We evaluated data sources, detailed steps of implementation, and identified lessons learned. RESULTS: We estimated an adjusted influenza-associated 2015 SARI rate of 13.5/100 000 persons for the catchment area of Svay Rieng Hospital and 77 influenza-associated SARI cases in Svay Rieng Province after extrapolation. CONCLUSIONS: Methods detailed in the WHO Manual and operationalized successfully in Cambodia can be used in other settings to estimate rates of influenza-associated SARI.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
9.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 9(5 Suppl 1): 44-52, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832253

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of influenza in Cambodia is not well known, but it would be useful for understanding the impact of seasonal epidemics and pandemics and to design appropriate policies for influenza prevention and control. The severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance system in Cambodia was used to estimate the national burden of SARI hospitalizations in Cambodia. Methods: We estimated age-specific influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates in three sentinel sites in Svay Rieng, Siem Reap and Kampong Cham provinces. We used influenza-associated SARI surveillance data for one year to estimate the numerator and hospital admission surveys to estimate the population denominator for each site. A national influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rate was calculated using the pooled influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations for all sites as a numerator and the pooled catchment population of all sites as denominator. National influenza-associated SARI case counts were estimated by applying hospitalization rates to the national population. Results: The national annual rates of influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100 000 population was highest for the two youngest age groups at 323 for < 1 year and 196 for 1-4 years. We estimated 7547 influenza-associated hospitalizations for Cambodia with almost half of these represented by children younger than 5 years. Discussion: We present national estimates of influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates for Cambodia based on sentinel surveillance data from three sites. The results of this study indicate that the highest burden of severe influenza infection is borne by the younger age groups. These findings can be used to guide future strategies to reduce influenza morbidity.

10.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(1): 38-45, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are severely limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Rwanda. METHODS: We multiplied the influenza virus detection rate from influenza surveillance conducted at 6 sentinel hospitals by the national number of respiratory hospitalization obtained from passive surveillance after adjusting for underreporting and reclassification of any respiratory hospitalizations as SARI during 2012-2014. The population at risk was obtained from projections of the 2012 census. Bootstrapping was used for the calculation of confidence intervals (CI) to account for the uncertainty associated with all levels of adjustment. Rates were expressed per 100 000 population. A sensitivity analysis using a different estimation approach was also conducted. RESULTS: SARI cases accounted for 70.6% (9759/13 813) of respiratory admissions at selected hospitals: 77.2% (6783/8786) and 59.2% (2976/5028) among individuals aged <5 and ≥5 years, respectively. Overall, among SARI cases tested, the influenza virus detection rate was 6.3% (190/3022): 5.7% (127/2220) and 7.8% (63/802) among individuals aged <5 and ≥5 years, respectively. The estimated mean annual national number of influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations was 3663 (95% CI: 2930-4395-rate: 34.7; 95% CI: 25.4-47.7): 2637 (95% CI: 2110-3164-rate: 168.7; 95% CI: 135.0-202.4) among children aged <5 years and 1026 (95% CI: 821-1231-rate: 11.3; 95% CI: 9.0-13.6) among individuals aged ≥5 years. The estimates obtained from both approaches were not statistically different (overlapping CIs). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations was substantial and was highest among children aged <5 years.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 745, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29202715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, capacity for influenza surveillance and research in West Africa has strengthened. Data from these surveillance systems showed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 circulated in West Africa later than in other regions of the continent. METHODS: We contacted 11 West African countries to collect information about their influenza surveillance systems (number of sites, type of surveillance, sampling strategy, populations sampled, case definitions used, number of specimens collected and number of specimens positive for influenza viruses) for the time period January 2010 through December 2012. RESULTS: Of the 11 countries contacted, 8 responded: Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo. Countries used standard World Health Organization (WHO) case definitions for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) or slight variations thereof. There were 70 surveillance sites: 26 SARI and 44 ILI. Seven countries conducted SARI surveillance and collected 3114 specimens of which 209 (7%) were positive for influenza viruses. Among influenza-positive SARI patients, 132 (63%) were influenza A [68 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 64 influenza A(H3N2)] and 77 (37%) were influenza B. All eight countries conducted ILI surveillance and collected 20,375 specimens, of which 2278 (11%) were positive for influenza viruses. Among influenza-positive ILI patients, 1431 (63%) were influenza A [820 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 611 influenza A(H3N2)] and 847 (37%) were influenza B. A majority of SARI and ILI case-patients who tested positive for influenza (72% SARI and 59% ILI) were children aged 0-4 years, as were a majority of those enrolled in surveillance. The seasonality of influenza and the predominant influenza type or subtype varied by country and year. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 continued to circulate in West Africa along with influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B during 2010-2012. Although ILI surveillance systems produced a robust number of samples during the study period, more could be done to strengthen surveillance among hospitalized SARI case-patients. Surveillance systems captured young children but lacked data on adults and the elderly. More data on risk groups for severe influenza in West Africa are needed to help shape influenza prevention and clinical management policies and guidelines.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 431, 2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To collect information, identify training needs, and assist with influenza capacity building voluntary laboratory capacity assessments were conducted using a standardized tool in CDC cooperative agreement countries. To understand the usefulness of comparing results from repeat assessments and to determine if targeted training supported improvements, this paper details comparison of assessment results of conducting 17 repeat laboratory assessments between 2009 and 2013. METHODS: Laboratory assessments were conducted by SMEs in 17 laboratories (16 countries). We reviewed the quantitative assessment results of the laboratories that conducted both an initial and follow up assessment between 2009 to 2013 using repeated measures of Anova, (Mixed procedure of SAS (9.3)). Additionally, we compared the overall summary scores and the assessor recommendations from the two assessments. RESULTS: We were able to document a statistically significant improvement between the first and second assessments both on an aggregate as well as individual indicator score. Within the international capacity tool three of the eight categories recorded statistically significant improvement (equipment, management, and QA/QC), while the other tool categories (molecular, NIC, specimen, safety and virology) showed improvement in scores although not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We found that using a standardized tool and quantitative framework is useful for documenting capacity and performance improvement in identified areas over time. The use of the tool and standard reports with assessor recommendations assisted laboratories with establishing, maintaining, and improving influenza laboratory practices. On-going assessments and the consistent application of the analytic framework over time will continue to aid in building a measurement knowledge base for laboratory capacity.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Laboratórios/normas , Coleta de Dados , Humanos
13.
Vaccine ; 35(23): 3056-3063, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces the risk of influenza disease in pregnant women and their offspring. Some have proposed that maternal vaccination may also have beneficial effects on birth outcomes. In 2014, we conducted an observational study to test this hypothesis using data from two large hospitals in Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate associations between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes. We carried out interviews and reviewed medical records post-partum to collect data on demographics, influenza vaccination during pregnancy, birth outcomes and other risk factors associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. We used influenza surveillance data to adjust for timing of influenza circulation. We assessed self-reports of influenza vaccination status by further reviewing medical records of those who self-reported but did not have readily available evidence of vaccination status. We performed multiple logistic regression (MLR) and propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: A total of 3268 women were included in the final analysis. Of these, 55% had received influenza vaccination in 2014. Overall, we did not observe statistically significant associations between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes after adjusting for risk factors, with either MLR or PSM. With PSM, after adjusting for risk factors, we observed protective associations between influenza vaccination in the second and third trimester and preterm birth (aOR: 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.99 and aOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, respectively) and between influenza vaccination in the second trimester and low birth weight (aOR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to support an association between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes by trimester of receipt with data from an urban population in Nicaragua. The study had significant selection and recall biases. Prospective studies are needed to minimize these biases.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Registros Médicos , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16(1): 379, 2016 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is a lower-middle income country making steady progress improving maternal and child health outcomes. We sought to ascertain if there have been improvements in three specific birth outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth and small for gestational age) over the last decade. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed birth records between 2004 and 2013 at the Mother and Child Health (MCH) hospital in Vientiane. We defined preterm birth as gestation <37 weeks and low birth weight as <2,500 g. We calculated small for gestational age (SGA). We describe birth outcomes over time and compare proportions using Chi square. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2013, the annual average number of newborns delivered each year was 4,322 and the frequency of low birth weight ranged from 9.5 to 12%, preterm births from 6.3 to 10%, and infants born SGA from 25 to 35%. There were no improvements in these frequencies over time. Women <18 years at delivery had a statistically significantly higher frequency of babies born with a low birth weight (15.3 vs. 10.8%, p < 0.02) or preterm (16.4 vs. 7.8%, p < 0.01) than those aged >18. There was no difference in the frequency of babies born SGA by age (26.8% in women <18 years vs. 29.7% in women >18 years, p = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: At the largest maternal and child hospital in Lao PDR, we found a high frequency of poor birth outcomes with no improvements over the last decade.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/tendências , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Laos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(6): 993-1001, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27192395

RESUMO

During 2004-2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with 39 national governments to strengthen global influenza surveillance. Using World Health Organization data and program evaluation indicators collected by CDC in 2013, we retrospectively evaluated progress made 4-9 years after the start of influenza surveillance capacity strengthening in the countries. Our results showed substantial increases in laboratory and sentinel surveillance capacities, which are essential for knowing which influenza strains circulate globally, detecting emergence of novel influenza, identifying viruses for vaccine selection, and determining the epidemiology of respiratory illness. Twenty-eight of 35 countries responding to a 2013 questionnaire indicated that they have leveraged routine influenza surveillance platforms to detect other pathogens. This additional surveillance illustrates increased health-system strengthening. Furthermore, 34 countries reported an increased ability to use data in decision making; data-driven decisions are critical for improving local prevention and control of influenza around the world.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 63(4): 487-94, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27143672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that maternal influenza vaccination can improve birth outcomes. However, there are limited data from tropical settings, particularly Southeast Asia. We conducted an observational study in Laos to assess the effect of influenza vaccination in pregnant women on birth outcomes. METHODS: We consented and enrolled a cohort of pregnant woman who delivered babies at 3 hospitals during April 2014-February 2015. We collected demographic and clinical information on mother and child. Influenza vaccination status was ascertained by vaccine card. Primary outcomes were the proportion of live births born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm and mean birth weight. Multivariate models controlled for differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women and influenza virus circulation. RESULTS: We enrolled 5103 women (2172 [43%] were vaccinated). Among the 4854 who had a live birth, vaccinated women were statistically significantly less likely than unvaccinated women to have an infant born preterm during the period of high influenza virus circulation (risk ratio [RR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI], .45-.70), and the effect remained after adjusting for covariates (adjusted RR, 0.69; 95% CI, .55-.87). There was no effect of vaccine on mean birth weight. Vaccinated mothers had a statistically significant elevated risk of having an infant born SGA (adjusted RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11­1.41). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study, we found indirect evidence of influenza vaccine safety during pregnancy, and women who received vaccine had a reduced risk of delivering a preterm infant during times of high influenza virus circulation. Vaccination may prevent 1 in 5 preterm births that occur during periods of high influenza circulation.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vaccine ; 34(8): 1086-90, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are at risk of severe influenza disease and are a priority group for influenza vaccination programs. Nicaragua expanded recommendations to include influenza vaccination to all pregnant women in the municipality of Managua in 2013. METHODS: We carried out a survey among 1,807 pregnant women who delivered at public hospitals in the municipality of Managua to evaluate the uptake of influenza vaccination and factors associated with vaccination. RESULTS: We observed a high (71%) uptake of influenza vaccination among this population, with no differences observed by age, education or parity of the women. Having four antenatal visits and five or more visits were associated with receipt of influenza vaccination (AORs: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.81, and 2.37; 95% CI: 1.12, 5.0, respectively). Also, receipt of influenza vaccination recommendation from a health care provider was positively associated with receipt of influenza vaccination (AOR: 14.22; 95% CI: 10.45, 19.33). CONCLUSIONS: The successful expansion of influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the municipality of Managua may be due to ready access to free medical care and health care providers' recommendation for vaccination at health care clinics that received influenza vaccine.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Nicarágua , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 501, 2015 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory testing is a fundamental component of influenza surveillance for detecting novel strains with pandemic potential and informing biannual vaccine strain selection. The United States (U.S.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), under the auspices of its WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza, is one of the major public health agencies which provides support globally to build national capacity for influenza surveillance. Our main objective was to determine if laboratory assessments supported capacity building efforts for improved global influenza surveillance. METHODS: In 2010, 35 national influenza laboratories were assessed in 34 countries, using a standardized tool. Post-assessment, each laboratory received a report with a list of recommendations for improvement. Uptake of recommendations were reviewed 3.2 mean years after the initial assessments and categorized as complete, in-progress, no action or no update. This was a retrospective study; follow-up took place through routine project management rather than at a set time-point post-assessment. WHO data on National Influenza Centre (NIC) designation, External Quality Assessment Project (EQAP) participation and FluNet reporting was used to measure laboratory capacity longitudinally and independently of the assessments. All data was further stratified by World Bank country income category. RESULTS: At follow-up, 81% of 614 recommendations were either complete (350) or in-progress (145) for 32 laboratories (91% response rate). The number of countries reporting to FluNet and the number of specimens they reported annually increased between 2005, when they were first funded by CDC, and 2010, the assessment year (p < 0.01). Improvements were also seen in EQAP participation and NIC designation over time and more so for low and lower-middle income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Assessments using a standardized tool have been beneficial to improving laboratory-based influenza surveillance. Specific recommendations helped countries identify and prioritize areas for improvement. Data from assessments helped CDC focus its technical assistance by country and region. Low and lower-middle income countries made greater improvements in their laboratories compared with upper-middle income countries. Future research could include an analysis of annual funding and technical assistance by country. Our approach serves as an example for capacity building for other diseases.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Laboratórios , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Laboratórios/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(7): 1209-12, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079140

RESUMO

During 2001-2014, predominant influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains in South America predominated in all or most subsequent influenza seasons in Central and North America. Predominant A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) strains in North America predominated in most subsequent seasons in Central and South America. Sharing data between these subregions may improve influenza season preparedness.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/virologia , Américas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 120(3-4): 321-7, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26002998

RESUMO

Infectious diseases in poultry can spread quickly and lead to huge economic losses. In the past decade, on multiple continents, the accelerated spread of highly pathogenic avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus, often through informal trade networks, has led to the death and culling of hundreds of millions of poultry. Endemic poultry diseases like Newcastle disease and fowl typhoid can also be devastating in many parts of the world. Understanding trade networks in unregulated systems can inform policy decisions concerning disease prevention and containment. From June to December 2008 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of backyard farmers, market traders, and middlemen in 5/8 provinces in Kenya. We administered a standardized questionnaire to each type of actor using convenience, random, snowball, and systematic sampling. Questionnaires addressed frequency, volume, and geography of trade, as well as biosecurity practices. We created a network diagram identifying the most important locations for trade. Of 380 respondents, 51% were backyard farmers, 24% were middlemen and 25% were market traders. Half (50%) of backyard farmers said they raised poultry both for household consumption and for sale. Compared to market traders, middlemen bought their poultry from a greater number of villages (median 4.2 villages for middlemen vs. 1.9 for market traders). Traders were most likely to purchase poultry from backyard farmers. Of the backyard farmers who sold poultry, 51% [CI 40-63] reported selling poultry to market traders, and 54% [CI 44-63] sold to middlemen. Middlemen moved the largest volume of poultry on a weekly basis (median purchases: 187 birds/week [IQR 206]; median sales: 188 birds/week [IQR 412.5]). The highest numbers of birds were traded in Nairobi - Kenya's capital city. Nairobi was the most prominent trading node in the network (61 degrees of centrality). Many smaller sub-networks existed as a result of clustered local trade. Market traders were also integral to the network. The informal poultry trade in Kenya is dependent on the sale of backyard poultry to middlemen and market traders. These two actors play a critical role in poultry movement in Kenya; during any type of disease outbreak middlemen should be targeted for control- and containment-related interventions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Quênia/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Inquéritos e Questionários
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