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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1161-1174, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate hygiene behaviors and environmental health conditions are fundamental to children's health, development, and well-being. They are especially important in institutional care settings for orphaned and abandoned children, a particularly vulnerable population whose basic needs are often not met. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed the evidence about hygiene behaviors and environmental health conditions in institutional care settings for children and associated health outcomes; interventions to improve these behaviors, conditions, and outcomes; and obstacles to improvement. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost were searched for studies in the peer-reviewed and grey literature. Studies were included if they reported primary data on one or more environmental health condition or hygiene behavior in an institutional care setting for orphaned and abandoned children. RESULTS: Forty-five publications reporting on over 500 institutions in 29 countries were included. The most documented concern was poor personal hygiene behaviors followed by inadequate water and sanitation infrastructure and overcrowding. Protozoan, helminthic, viral infections, and diarrheal illness among institutionalized children were the most commonly documented associated health outcomes. DISCUSSION: More studies documented the status of hygiene and environmental health in children's institutions than interventions to improve behaviors and conditions. Insufficient finances and expertise or involvement of caregivers are reported barriers to implementing improvements in children's institutions. The development of guidelines for essential environmental health standards in orphanages, monitoring of facility conditions, accountability for facility deficiencies, and implementation research to identify improvement opportunities would contribute to and promote the health and development of orphaned and abandoned children worldwide.


Assuntos
Criança Abandonada/estatística & dados numéricos , Crianças Órfãs/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Higiene/normas , Orfanatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Populações Vulneráveis
2.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(3): 335-346, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are well-established relationships between health and homelessness, and shelters can facilitate the transmission of diseases and contribute to their prevention. Adequate environmental health conditions and hygiene behaviors in homeless shelters are fundamental to the health of their clients, a marginalized population. We report the status of environmental health conditions and hygiene behaviors in homeless shelters and associated health outcomes; interventions to improve these conditions, behaviors, and outcomes; and obstacles to improvement. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost were searched for peer-reviewed studies, and additional sources for grey literature. Studies were included if they reported primary data on one or more environmental health condition or hygiene behavior in homeless shelters. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Insufficient ventilation systems, unhygienic bedding, and overcrowding were the most documented environmental health and hygiene deficiencies in homeless shelters, and tuberculosis infections and skin diseases were the most documented associated health outcomes among clients. Studies frequently recommended or described implementation of behavioral and administrative controls, ventilation system improvements, and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation fixtures. DISCUSSION: Most studies addressed airborne transmission of tuberculosis and were conducted in high-income countries, revealing an imbalance in the literature. Insufficient resources and the transience of clients are barriers to improving hygiene behaviors and environmental conditions in homeless shelters. Further investment and research into ensuring adequate hygiene and environmental health in this setting can protect and promote the health and well-being of people experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Higiene , Humanos
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(8): 1199-1206, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is an important, overlooked, and controllable source of nosocomial infection. Hospitalized neonates and their mothers are particularly vulnerable to nosocomial waterborne infections. Our objectives through this systematic review were to: investigate water sources, reservoirs, and transmission routes that lead to nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers; establish patient risk factors; compile measures for controlling outbreaks and recommended strategies for prevention; and identify information gaps to improve guidelines for reporting future outbreaks. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov. Peer-reviewed studies reporting contaminated water as a route of transmission to neonates and/or their mothers were included. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included. The most common contaminated water sources in healthcare facilities associated with infection transmission were tap water, sinks, and faucets. Low birthweights, preterm or premature birth, and underlying disease increased neonatal risk of infection. Effective control measures commonly included replacing or cleaning faucets and increased or alternative methods for hand disinfection, and recommendations for prevention of future infections highlighted the need for additional surveillance. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The implementation of control measures and recommended prevention strategies by healthcare workers and managing authorities of healthcare facilities and improved reporting of future outbreaks may contribute to a reduction in the incidence of nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães
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