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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 134, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970501

RESUMO

Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Deficient environmental health (EH) conditions and infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities (HCFs) contribute to the spread of HAIs, but microbial sampling of sources of contamination is rarely conducted nor reported in low-resource settings. The purpose of this study was to assess EH conditions and IPC practices in Malawian HCFs and evaluate how EH deficiencies contribute to pathogen exposures and HAIs, and to provide recommendations to inform improvements in EH conditions using a mixed-methods approach. Thirty-one maternity wards in government-run HCFs were surveyed in the three regions of Malawi. Questionnaires were administered in parallel with structured observations of EH conditions and IPC practices and microbial testing of water sources and facility surfaces. Results indicated significant associations between IPC practices and microbial contamination. Facilities where separate wards were not available for mothers and newborns with infections and where linens were not used for patients during healthcare services were more likely to have delivery tables with surface contamination (relative risk = 2.23; 1.49, 3.34). E. coli was detected in water samples from seven (23%) HCFs. Our results suggest that Malawian maternity wards could reduce microbial contamination, and potentially reduce the occurrence of HAIs, by improving EH conditions and IPC practices. HCF staff can use the simple, low-cost EH monitoring methods used in this study to incorporate microbial monitoring of EH conditions and IPC practices in HCFs in low-resource settings.

2.
Health Policy Plan ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722372

RESUMO

Many healthcare facilities (HCFs) in low-income countries experience unreliable connectivity to energy sources, which adversely impacts the quality of health service delivery and provision of adequate environmental health services. This assessment explores the status and consequences of energy access through interviews and surveys with administrators and healthcare workers from 44 HCFs (central hospitals, district hospitals, health centres and health posts) in Malawi. Most HCFs are connected to the electrical grid but experience weekly power interruptions averaging 10 h; less than one-third of facilities have a functional back-up source. Inadequate energy availability is associated with irregular water supply and poor medical equipment sterilization; it adversely affects provider safety and contributes to poor lighting and working conditions. Some challenges, such as poor availability and maintenance of back-up energy sources, disproportionately affect smaller HCFs. Policymakers, health system actors and third-party organizations seeking to improve energy access and quality of care in Malawi and similar settings should address these challenges in a way that prioritizes the specific needs of different facility types.

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(11): 964-974, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children globally. Most pneumonia deaths in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) occur among children with HIV infection or exposure, severe malnutrition, or hypoxaemia despite antibiotics and oxygen. Non-invasive bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is considered a safe ventilation modality that might improve child pneumonia survival. bCPAP outcomes for high-risk African children with severe pneumonia are unknown. Since most child pneumonia hospitalisations in Africa occur in non-tertiary district hospitals without daily physician oversight, we aimed to examine whether bCPAP improves severe pneumonia mortality in such settings. METHODS: This open-label, randomised, controlled trial was done in the general paediatric ward of Salima District Hospital, Malawi. We enrolled children aged 1-59 months old with WHO-defined severe pneumonia and either HIV infection or exposure, severe malnutrition, or an oxygen saturation of less than 90%. Children were randomly assigned 1:1 to low-flow nasal cannula oxygen or nasal bCPAP. Non-physicians administered care; the primary outcome was hospital survival. Primary analyses were by intention-to-treat and interim and adverse events analyses per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02484183, and is closed. FINDINGS: We screened 1712 children for eligibility between June 23, 2015, and March 21, 2018. The data safety and monitoring board stopped the trial for futility after 644 of the intended 900 participants were enrolled. 323 children were randomly assigned to oxygen and 321 to bCPAP. 35 (11%) of 323 children who received oxygen died in hospital, as did 53 (17%) of 321 who received bCPAP (relative risk 1·52; 95% CI 1·02-2·27; p=0·036). 13 oxygen and 17 bCPAP patients lacked hospital outcomes and were considered lost to follow-up. Suspected adverse events related to treatment occurred in 11 (3%) of 321 children receiving bCPAP and 1 (<1%) of 323 children receiving oxygen. Four bCPAP and one oxygen group deaths were classified as probable aspiration episodes, one bCPAP death as probable pneumothorax, and six non-death bCPAP events included skin breakdown around the nares. INTERPRETATION: bCPAP treatment in a paediatric ward without daily physician supervision did not reduce hospital mortality among high-risk Malawian children with severe pneumonia, compared with oxygen. The use of bCPAP within certain patient populations and non-intensive care settings might carry risk that was not previously recognised. bCPAP in LMICs needs further evaluation before wider implementation for child pneumonia care. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, International AIDS Society, Health Empowering Humanity.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and post-partum adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa experience inferior outcomes along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade compared to their adult counterparts. Yet, despite this inequality in outcomes, scarce data from the region describe AGYW perspectives to inform adolescent-sensitive PMTCT programming. In this paper, we report findings from formative implementation research examining barriers to, and facilitators of, PMTCT care for HIV-infected AGYW in Malawi, and explore strategies for adapting the mothers2mothers (m2m) Mentor Mother Model to better meet AGYW service delivery-related needs and preferences. METHODS: Qualitative researchers conducted 16 focus group discussions (FGDs) in 4 Malawi districts with HIV-infected adolescent mothers ages 15-19 years categorized into two groups: 1) those who had experience with m2m programming (8 FGDs, n = 38); and 2) those who did not (8 FGDs, n = 34). FGD data were analyzed using thematic analysis to assess major and minor themes and to compare findings between groups. RESULTS: Median participant age was 17 years (interquartile range: 2 years). Poverty, stigma, food insecurity, lack of transport, and absence of psychosocial support were crosscutting barriers to PMTCT engagement. While most participants highlighted resilience and self-efficacy as motivating factors to remain in care to protect their own health and that of their children, they also indicated a desire for tailored, age-appropriate services. FGD participants indicated preference for support services delivered by adolescent HIV-infected mentor mothers who have successfully navigated the PMTCT cascade themselves. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected adolescent mothers expressed a preference for peer-led, non-judgmental PMTCT support services that bridge communities and facilities to pragmatically address barriers of stigma, poverty, health system complexity, and food insecurity. Future research should evaluate implementation and health outcomes for adolescent mentor mother services featuring these and other client-centered attributes, such as provision of livelihood assistance and peer-led psychosocial support.

5.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(7): 639-646, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890119

RESUMO

While urbanization in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) context can lead to greater independence in women, various sociological, biological, and geographical factors in urban areas may keep women at a higher risk for HIV than men. Access to major roads during Malawi's transition into rapid urbanization may leave women disproportionately vulnerable to HIV infection. It is not well established whether women who report to health clinics closer to major roads have higher or lower levels of HIV. In this study we explored the spatial heterogeneity of HIV prevalence among pregnant females in Lilongwe District, Malawi. Using Geographic Information Systems, we visually represented patterns of HIV prevalence in relation to primary roads. HIV prevalence data for 2015 were obtained from 44 antenatal clinics (ANC) in Lilongwe District. ANC prevalence data were aggregated to the administrative area and mapped. Euclidean distance between clinics and two primary roads that run through Lilongwe District were measured. A correlation was run to assess the relationship between area-level ANC HIV prevalence and clinic distance to the nearest primary road. ANC HIV prevalence ranged from 0% to 10.3%. Clinic to major road distance ranged from 0.1 to 35 km. Correlation results ( r= -0.622, p = 0.002) revealed a significant negative relationship between clinic distance to primary road and HIV prevalence, indicating that the farther the clinics stood from primary roads, the lower the reported antenatal HIV prevalence. Overall, the clinic catchments through which the major roads run reported higher ANC HIV prevalence. Antenatal HIV prevalence decreases as ANC distance from primary roads increases in Lilongwe, Malawi. As urbanization continues to grow in this region, road distance may serve as a good indicator of HIV burden and help to guide targeted prevention and treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
6.
Matern Child Nutr ; 15(3): e12765, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516880

RESUMO

Based on formative research, HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi receive little infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling postpartum and want more support for IYCF from their husbands. To address these gaps, we implemented a behaviour change communication intervention promoting IYCF in village savings and loan associations (VSLAs) that included HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. The intervention consisted of 15 IYCF learning sessions facilitated by VSLA volunteers during regular VSLA meetings and included four sessions to which husbands were invited. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention through learning session participation logs, structured observations of learning sessions, and in-depth interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative VSLA members, husbands of members, and VSLA volunteers. Nine VSLA volunteers conducted learning sessions with approximately 300-400 women, about one quarter of whom were lactating, and 25-35 men. VSLA volunteers consistently communicated technical information correctly, followed the learning session steps, and used visual aids. Sessions averaged 46 min, with <20% of observed sessions completed within the recommended time (20-25 min). Key themes from interviews were the following: (a) learning sessions were useful; (b) including HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the sessions was acceptable; (c) information learned during sessions encouraged families to change IYCF practices; (d) IYCF messages were shared with others in the community; and (e) male participation was low because men considered VSLAs and IYCF to be women's activities. In conclusion, integrating IYCF learning sessions into VLSAs was feasible and acceptable for mixed groups of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Future research should test other strategies for involving men in IYCF.

7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21 Suppl 5: e25132, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Providing outreach HIV prevention services at venues (i.e. "hotspots") where people meet new sex partners can decrease barriers to HIV testing services (HTS) for key populations (KP) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We offered venue-based HTS as part of bio-behavioural surveys conducted in urban Malawi and Angola to generate regional insights into KP programming gaps and identify opportunities to achieve the "first 90" for KP in SSA. METHODS: From October 2016 to March 2017, we identified and verified 1054 venues in Luanda and Benguela, Angola and Zomba, Malawi and conducted bio-behavioural surveys at 166 using the PLACE method. PLACE interviews community informants to systematically identify public venues where KP can be reached and conducts bio-behavioural surveys at a stratified random sample of venues. We present survey results using summary statistics and multivariable modified Poisson regression modelling to examine associations between receipt of outreach worker-delivered HIV/AIDS education and HTS uptake. We applied sampling weights to estimate numbers of HIV-positive KP unaware of their status at venues. RESULTS: We surveyed 959 female sex workers (FSW), 836 men who have sex with men (MSM), and 129 transgender women (TGW). An estimated 71% of HIV-positive KP surveyed were not previously aware of their HIV status, receiving a new HIV diagnosis through PLACE venue-based HTS. If venue-based HTS were implemented at all venues, 2022 HIV-positive KP (95% CI: 1649 to 2477) who do not know their status could be reached, including 1666 FSW (95% CI: 1397 to 1987), 274 MSM (95% CI: 160 to 374), and 82 TG (95% CI: 20 to 197). In multivariable analyses, FSW, MSM, and TGW who received outreach worker-delivered HIV/AIDS education were 3.15 (95% CI: 1.99 to 5.01), 3.12 (95% CI: 2.17 to 4.48), and 1.80 (95% CI: 0.67 to 4.87) times as likely, respectively, as those who did not to have undergone HTS within the last six months. Among verified venues, <=68% offered any on-site HIV prevention services. CONCLUSIONS: Availability of HTS and other HIV prevention services was limited at venues. HIV prevention can be delivered at venues, which can increase HTS uptake and HIV diagnosis among individuals not previously aware of their status. Delivering venue-based HTS may represent an effective strategy to reach the "first 90" for KP in SSA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Angola/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Profissionais do Sexo , Parceiros Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Hum Lact ; 34(1): 68-76, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies in low- and middle-income countries have examined the roles of couples in infant and young child feeding decision making and practices, and there is no corresponding data in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Research aim: This study aimed to explore mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their roles in feeding decision making and practices. METHODS: The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 15 mothers and their male partners, recruited from the catchment areas of two urban and two rural government clinics in Lilongwe District, Malawi. The mothers were ≥ 18 years of age, were HIV positive, and had a child < 24 months of age. Twelve of the 15 fathers were also HIV positive. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Mothers were responsible for child care, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding. Fathers provided monetary support for purchasing food and offered verbal support to encourage mothers to implement recommended feeding practices. Many fathers found it difficult to support adequate complementary feeding because of household food insecurity. Mothers were advised on child feeding during prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic visits. No fathers in this study accompanied women to clinic appointments, so they were less well-informed about feeding than mothers. Fathers usually deferred to mothers in feeding decision making. One-third of mothers wanted fathers to be more involved in child feeding. CONCLUSION: Malawian mothers' and fathers' roles in feeding decision making in the context of HIV align with local gender norms. Strategies are needed to improve fathers' knowledge of and involvement in child feeding, as desired by mothers.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Malaui , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Matern Child Nutr ; 14(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296240

RESUMO

Before the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program was widely implemented in Malawi, HIV-positive women associated exclusive breastfeeding with accelerated disease progression and felt that an HIV-positive woman could more successfully breastfeed if she had a larger body size. The relationship between breastfeeding practices and body image perceptions has not been explored in the context of the Option B+ PMTCT program, which offers lifelong antiretroviral therapy. We conducted in-depth interviews with 64 HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi to investigate body size perceptions, how perceptions of HIV and body size influence infant feeding practices, and differences in perceptions among women in PMTCT and those lost to follow-up. Women were asked about current, preferred, and healthy body size perceptions using nine body image silhouettes of varying sizes, and vignettes about underweight and overweight HIV-positive characters were used to elicit discussion of breastfeeding practices. More than 80% of women preferred an overweight, obese, or morbidly obese silhouette, and most women (83%) believed that an obese or morbidly obese silhouette was healthy. Although nearly all women believed that an HIV-positive overweight woman could exclusively breastfeed, only about half of women thought that an HIV-positive underweight woman could exclusively breastfeed. These results suggest that perceptions of body size may influence beliefs about a woman's ability to breastfeed. Given the preference for large body sizes and the association between obesity and risk of noncommunicable diseases, we recommend that counseling and health education for HIV-positive Malawian women focus on culturally sensitive healthy weight messaging and its relationship with breastfeeding practices.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Magreza , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui , Obesidade/psicologia
10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 4(1): e000195, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883928

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality among children in low-resource settings. Mortality is greatest among children with high-risk conditions including HIV infection or exposure, severe malnutrition and/or severe hypoxaemia. WHO treatment recommendations include low-flow oxygen for children with severe pneumonia. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a non-invasive support modality that provides positive end-expiratory pressure and oxygen. bCPAP is effective in the treatment of neonates in low-resource settings; its efficacy is unknown for high-risk children with severe pneumonia in low-resource settings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: CPAP IMPACT is a randomised clinical trial comparing bCPAP to low-flow oxygen in the treatment of severe pneumonia among high-risk children 1-59 months of age. High-risk children are stratified into two subgroups: (1) HIV infection or exposure and/or severe malnutrition; (2) severe hypoxaemia. The trial is being conducted in a Malawi district hospital and will enrol 900 participants. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality rate of children treated with standard care as compared with bCPAP. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: CPAP IMPACT has approval from the Institutional Review Boards of all investigators. An urgent need exists to determine whether bCPAP decreases mortality among high-risk children with severe pneumonia to inform resource utilisation in low-resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02484183; Pre-results.

11.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175590, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410374

RESUMO

To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi's Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32). They were recruited from four government clinics in Lilongwe District and had a child aged 0-23 months. Women in Option B+ had better disclosure experiences and more social support than LTFU women. The most common reasons for LTFU were fear of HIV disclosure, anticipated or experienced stigma, and insufficient social support. Other reasons included: non-acceptance of HIV status, antiretroviral therapy (ART) side effects, lack of funds for transport, and negative experiences with clinic staff. Worries about possible transmission, even while on ART, influenced timing of weaning for some women in Option B+. Despite their knowledge of the risk of HIV transmission to the child, most LTFU women continued to breastfeed after stopping ART because they considered breastmilk to be an important source of nutrients for the child. Given that HIV-positive Malawian women LTFU from Option B+ breastfeed in the absence of ART, efforts are needed to use evidence-based strategies to address the barriers to Option B+ participation and avert preventable transmission through breastmilk.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malaui , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
12.
AIDS Behav ; 20(11): 2612-2623, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27022939

RESUMO

This study examined infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling, decision-making, and practices among HIV-infected women with children 0-23 months participating in Malawi's Option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program. We conducted 160 survey interviews, 32 in-depth interviews, and 32 observations of PMTCT visits. Surveys indicated that exclusive breastfeeding was common (75 %) among children <6 months, while minimum dietary diversity (41 %) and minimum acceptable diet (40 %) for children 6-23 months occurred less often. In-depth interviews supported these findings. Most women felt comfortable with current breastfeeding recommendations, but chronic food insecurity made it difficult for them to follow complementary feeding guidelines. Women trusted IYCF advice from health workers, but mainly received it during pregnancy. During observations of postnatal PMTCT visits, health workers infrequently advised on breastfeeding (41 % of visits) or complementary feeding (29 % of visits). This represents a missed opportunity for health workers to support optimal IYCF practices within Option B+.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevista Psicológica , Malaui , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Lancet HIV ; 2(11): e483-91, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26520928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Couples HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is encouraged but is not widely done in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to compare two strategies for recruiting male partners for CHTC in Malawi's option B+ prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme: invitation only versus invitation plus tracing and postulated that invitation plus tracing would be more effective. METHODS: We did an unblinded, randomised, controlled trial assessing uptake of CHTC in the antenatal unit at Bwaila District Hospital, a maternity hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. Women were eligible if they were pregnant, had just tested HIV-positive and therefore could initiate antiretroviral therapy, had not yet had CHTC, were older than 18 years or 16-17 years and married, reported a male sex partner in Lilongwe, and intended to remain in Lilongwe for at least 1 month. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the invitation only group or the invitation plus tracing group with block randomisation (block size=4). In the invitation only group, women were provided with an invitation for male partners to present to the antenatal clinic. In the invitation plus tracing group, women were provided with the same invitation, and partners were traced if they did not present. When couples presented they were offered pregnancy information and CHTC. Women were asked to attend a follow-up visit 1 month after enrolment to assess social harms and sexual behaviour. The primary outcome was the proportion of couples who presented to the clinic together and received CHTC during the study period and was assessed in all randomly assigned participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02139176. FINDINGS: Between March 4, 2014, and Oct 3, 2014, 200 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the invitation only group (n=100) or the invitation plus tracing group (n=100). 74 couples in the invitation plus tracing group and 52 in the invitation only group presented to the clinic and had CHTC (risk difference 22%, 95% CI 9-35; p=0.001) during the 10 month study period. Of 181 women with follow-up data, two reported union dissolution, one reported emotional distress, and none reported intimate partner violence. One male partner, when traced, was confused about which of his sex partners was enrolled in the study. No other adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: An invitation plus tracing strategy was highly effective at increasing CHTC uptake. Invitation plus tracing with CHTC could have many substantial benefits if brought to scale. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Características da Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Gravidez
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 15: 328, 2015 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We established Safeguard the Family (STF) to support Ministry of Health (MoH) scale-up of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) and to strengthen the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) through maternal ART provision and post-delivery early infant HIV diagnosis (EID). To these ends, we implemented the following interventions in 5 districts: 1) health worker training and mentorship; 2) couples' HTC and male partner involvement; 3) women's psychosocial support groups; and 4) health and laboratory system strengthening for EID. METHODS: We conducted a serial cross-sectional study using facility-level quarterly (Q) program data and individual-level infant HIV-1 DNA PCR data to evaluate STF performance on PMTCT indicators for project years (Y) 1 (April-December 2011) through 3 (January-December 2013), and compared these results to national averages. RESULTS: Facility-level uptake of HTC, ART, infant nevirapine prophylaxis, and infant DNA PCR testing increased significantly from quarterly baselines of 66 % (n/N = 32,433/48,804), 23 % (n/N = 442/1,958), 1 % (n/N = 10/1,958), and 52 % (n/N = 1,385/2,644) to 87 % (n/N = 39,458/45,324), 96 % (n/N = 2,046/2,121), 100 % (n/N = 2,121/2,121), and 62 % (n/N = 1,462/2,340), respectively, by project end (all p < 0.001). Quarterly HTC, ART, and infant nevirapine prophylaxis uptake outperformed national averages over years 2-3. While transitioning EID laboratory services to MoH, STF provided first-time HIV-1 DNA PCR testing for 2,226 of 11,261 HIV-exposed infants (20 %) tested in the MoH EID program in STF districts from program inception (Y2) through Y3. Of these, 78 (3.5 %) tested HIV-positive. Among infants with complete documentation (n = 608), median age at first testing decreased from 112 days (interquartile range, IQR: 57-198) in Y2 to 76 days (IQR: 46-152) in Y3 (p < 0.001). During Y3 (only year with national data for comparison), non-significantly fewer exposed infants tested HIV-positive (3.6 %) at first testing in STF districts than nationally (4.1 %) (p = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: STF interventions, integrated within the MoH Option B+ program, achieved favorable HTC, maternal ART, infant prophylaxis, and EID services uptake, and a low proportion of infants found HIV-infected at first DNA PCR testing. Continued investments are needed to strengthen the PMTCT cascade, particularly around EID.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Masculino , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS ; 29(16): 2131-8, 2015 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess nevirapine (NVP) resistance in infants who became infected in the three arms of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study: daily infant NVP prophylaxis, triple maternal antiretrovirals or no extra intervention for 28 weeks of breastfeeding. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: The latest available plasma or dried blood spot specimen was tested from infants who became HIV-positive between 3 and 48 weeks of age. Population sequencing was used to detect mutations associated with reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. Sequences were obtained from 22 out of 25 transmissions in the infant-NVP arm, 23 out of 30 transmissions in the maternal-antiretroviral arm and 33 out of 38 transmissions in the control arm. RESULTS: HIV-infected infants in the infant-NVP arm were significantly more likely to have NVP resistance than infected infants in the other two arms of the trial, especially during breastfeeding through 28 weeks of age (56% in infant-NVP arm vs. 6% in maternal-antiretroviral arm and 11% in control arm, P»0.004). There was a nonsignificant trend, suggesting that infants with NVP resistance tended to be infected earlier and exposed to NVP while infected for a greater duration than infants without resistance. CONCLUSION: Infants on NVP prophylaxis during breastfeeding are at a reduced risk of acquiring HIV, but are at an increased risk of NVP resistance if they do become infected. These findings point to the need for frequent HIV testing of infants while on NVP prophylaxis, and for the availability of antiretroviral regimens excluding NVP for treating infants who become infected while on such a prophylactic regimen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Mutação , Nevirapina/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Clin Trials ; 12(2): 156-65, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25518956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retaining patients in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV studies can be challenging in resource-limited settings, where high lost to follow-up rates have been reported. In this article, we describe the effectiveness of methods used to encourage retention in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study and analyze factors associated with lost to follow-up in the study. METHODS: The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of three different mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention strategies. Lower than expected participant retention prompted enhanced efforts to reduce lost to follow-up during the conduct of the trial. Following study completion, we employed regression modeling to determine predictors of perfect attendance and variables associated with being lost to follow-up. RESULTS: During the study, intensive tracing efforts were initiated after the first 1686 mother-infant pairs had been enrolled, and 327 pairs were missing. Of these pairs, 60 were located and had complete data obtained. Among the 683 participants enrolling after initiation of intensive tracing efforts, the lost to follow-up rate was 3.4%. At study's end, 290 (12.2%) of the 2369 mother-infant pairs were lost to follow-up. Among successfully traced missing pairs, relocation was common and three were deceased. Log-binomial regression modeling revealed higher maternal hemoglobin and older maternal age to be significant predictors of perfect attendance. These factors and the presence of food insecurity were also significantly associated with lower rates of lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: In this large HIV prevention trial, intensive tracing efforts centered on reaching study participants at their homes succeeded in finding a substantial proportion of lost to follow-up participants and were very effective in preventing further lost to follow-up during the remainder of the trial. The association between food insecurity and lower rates of lost to follow-up is likely related to the study's provision of nutritional support, including a family maize supplement, which may have contributed to patient retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Perda de Seguimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
17.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 18(2): 97-104, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022146

RESUMO

In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 - December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7%, to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Parceiros Sexuais , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Gravidez
18.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 18(1): 27-34, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24796166

RESUMO

The objective of our intervention was to examine the benefits of incorporating traditional birth attendants (TBA) in HIV Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) service delivery. We developed a training curriculum for TBAs related to PMTCT and current TBA roles in Malawi. Fourteen TBAs and seven TBA assistants serving 4 urban health centre catchment areas were assessed, trained and supervised. Focus group discussions with the TBAs were conducted after implementation of the program. From March 2008 to August 2009, a total of 4017 pregnant women visited TBAs, out of which 2133 (53.1%) were directly referred to health facilities and 1,884 (46.9%) women delivered at TBAs and subsequently referred. 168 HIV positive women were identified by TBAs. Of these, 86/168 (51.2%) women received nevirapine and 46/168 (27.4%) HIV exposed infants received nevirapine. The challenges in providing PMTCT services included lack of transportation for referrals and absence of a reporting system to confirm the woman's arrival at the health center. Non-disclosure of HIV status by patients to the TBAs resulted in inability to assist nevirapine uptake. TBAs, when trained and well-supervised, can supplement efforts to provide PMTCT services in communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Tocologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Papel Profissional
19.
Health Policy Plan ; 29(1): 115-26, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23325584

RESUMO

Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes' locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider-based notification strategies are potentially cost-effective for identifying new cases of HIV. These strategies offer a simple, effective and easily implementable opportunity to control HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/economia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet ; 379(9835): 2449-2458, 2012 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22541418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings where no safe alternative to breastfeeding exists, WHO recommends that antiretroviral prophylaxis be given to either HIV-infected mothers or infants throughout breastfeeding. We assessed the effect of 28 weeks of maternal or infant antiretroviral prophylaxis on postnatal HIV infection at 48 weeks. METHODS: The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) Study was undertaken in Lilongwe, Malawi, between April 21, 2004, and Jan 28, 2010. 2369 HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers with a CD4 count of 250 cells per µL or more and their newborn babies were randomly assigned with a variable-block design to one of three, 28-week regimens: maternal triple antiretroviral (n=849); daily infant nevirapine (n=852); or control (n=668). Patients and local clinical staff were not masked to treatment allocation, but other study investigators were. All mothers and infants received one dose of nevirapine (mother 200 mg; infant 2 mg/kg) and 7 days of zidovudine (mother 300 mg; infants 2 mg/kg) and lamivudine (mothers 150 mg; infants 4 mg/kg) twice a day. Mothers were advised to wean between 24 weeks and 28 weeks after birth. The primary endpoint was HIV infection by 48 weeks in infants who were not infected at 2 weeks and in all infants randomly assigned with censoring at loss to follow-up. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00164736. FINDINGS: 676 mother-infant pairs completed follow-up to 48 weeks or reached an endpoint in the maternal-antiretroviral group, 680 in the infant-nevirapine group, and 542 in the control group. By 32 weeks post partum, 96% of women in the intervention groups and 88% of those in the control group reported no breastfeeding since their 28-week visit. 30 infants in the maternal-antiretroviral group, 25 in the infant-nevirapine group, and 38 in the control group became HIV infected between 2 weeks and 48 weeks of life; 28 (30%) infections occurred after 28 weeks (nine in maternal-antiretroviral, 13 in infant-nevirapine, and six in control groups). The cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission by 48 weeks was significantly higher in the control group (7%, 95% CI 5-9) than in the maternal-antiretroviral (4%, 3-6; p=0·0273) or the infant-nevirapine (4%, 2-5; p=0·0027) groups. The rate of serious adverse events in infants was significantly higher during 29-48 weeks than during the intervention phase (1·1 [95% CI 1·0-1·2] vs 0·7 [0·7-0·8] per 100 person-weeks; p<0·0001), with increased risk of diarrhoea, malaria, growth faltering, tuberculosis, and death. Nine women died between 2 weeks and 48 weeks post partum (one in maternal-antiretroviral group, two in infant-nevirapine group, six in control group). INTERPRETATION: In resource-limited settings where no suitable alternative to breastfeeding is available, antiretroviral prophylaxis given to mothers or infants might decrease HIV transmission. Weaning at 6 months might increase infant morbidity. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1 , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/administração & dosagem
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