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BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 463, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795984


BACKGROUND: Nutritional status of women during pregnancy has been considered an important prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pattern of gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their risk factors among a cohort of Emirati and Arab women residing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A secondary objective was to investigate pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and its socio-demographic correlates among study participants. METHODS: Data of 256 pregnant women participating in the cohort study, the Mother-Infant Study Cohort (MISC) were used in this study. Healthy pregnant mothers with no history of chronic diseases were interviewed during their third trimester in different hospitals in UAE. Data were collected using interviewer-administered multi-component questionnaires addressing maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Maternal weight, weight gain, and GDM were recorded from the hospital medical records. RESULTS: Among the study participants, 71.1% had inadequate GWG: 31.6% insufficient and 39.5% excessive GWG. 19.1% reported having GDM and more than half of the participants (59.4%) had a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. The findings of the multiple multinomial logistic regression showed that multiparous women had decreased odds of excessive gain as compared to primiparous [odds ratio (OR): 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.54]. Furthermore, women with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 had increased odds of excessive gain (OR: 2.23; 95%CI: 1.00-5.10) as compared to those with pre-pregnancy BMI < 25 kg/m2. Similarly, women who had a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were at higher risk of having GDM (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.10-5.12). As for the associations of women's characteristics with pre-pregnancy BMI, age and regular breakfast consumption level were significant predictors of higher pre-pregnancy BMI. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed alarming prevalence rates of inadequate, mainly excessive, GWG and GDM among the MISC participants. Pre-pregnancy BMI was found a risk factor for both of these conditions (GWG and GDM). In addition, age and regular breakfast consumption were significant determinants of pre-pregnancy BMI. Healthcare providers are encouraged to counsel pregnant women to maintain normal body weight before and throughout pregnancy by advocating healthy eating and increased physical activity in order to reduce the risk of excessive weight gain and its associated complications.

Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597293


Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5-15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers' transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895806


The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia. Data consisted of maternal sociodemographic details, anthropometry and clinical biochemistry analysis; and the infant’s anthropometry and feeding patterns. Maternal fasting serum and breast milk samples were analysed for adiponectin and leptin levels. Data collection was performed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, and continued with follow-up visits at birth, two, six, and 12 months postpartum. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed to examine the associations between maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin and leptin and infant adiposity development. MLR models showed that, in the first year, as maternal serum and breast milk adiponectin increased, infant weight, BMI-for-age Z scores and abdominal circumference significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Maternal serum and/or breast milk adiponectin was associated with first-year infant adiposity development.

Adiponectina/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/metabolismo , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leptina/metabolismo , Malásia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 22(2): 241-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23635368


Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (ß =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 µg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

Adiponectina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta/métodos , Índice Glicêmico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
J Glob Infect Dis ; 4(1): 10-4, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22529621


BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. AIM: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. RESULTS: Out of 79 samples, 29 (37%) were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less) (P=0.015), eating raw salad (P=0.03), and no physical activities (P=0.03) were found independent risk factors for the child's helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019). In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02) and eating raw salad (P=0.04) remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother's poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.