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Materials (Basel) ; 15(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363159


Geopolymers have been intensively explored over the past several decades and considered as green materials and may be synthesised from natural sources and wastes. Global attention has been generated by the use of kaolin and calcined kaolin in the production of ceramics, green cement, and concrete for the construction industry and composite materials. The previous findings on ceramic geopolymer mix design and factors affecting their suitability as green ceramics are reviewed. It has been found that kaolin offers significant benefit for ceramic geopolymer applications, including excellent chemical resistance, good mechanical properties, and good thermal properties that allow it to sinter at a low temperature, 200 °C. The review showed that ceramic geopolymers can be made from kaolin with a low calcination temperature that have similar properties to those made from high calcined temperature. However, the choice of alkali activator and chemical composition should be carefully investigated, especially under normal curing conditions, 27 °C. A comprehensive review of the properties of kaolin ceramic geopolymers is also presented, including compressive strength, chemical composition, morphological, and phase analysis. This review also highlights recent findings on the range of sintering temperature in the ceramic geopolymer field which should be performed between 600 °C and 1200 °C. A brief understanding of kaolin geopolymers with a few types of reinforcement towards property enhancement were covered. To improve toughness, the role of zirconia was highlighted. The addition of zirconia between 10% and 40% in geopolymer materials promises better properties and the mechanism reaction is presented. Findings from the review should be used to identify potential strategies that could develop the performance of the kaolin ceramic geopolymers industry in the electronics industry, cement, and biomedical materials.

Materials (Basel) ; 15(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013650


The depletion of aggregate-related natural resources is the primary concern of all researchers globally. Recent studies emphasize the significance of recycling and reusing various types of natural or by-product material waste from industry as a result of the building industry's rising demand for aggregate as the primary component in concrete production. It has been demonstrated that the geopolymer system has exceptional features, such as high strength, superior durability, and greater resistance to fire exposure, making it a viable alternative to ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete. This study will examine the present method utilized to generate artificial aggregate-based geopolymers, including their physical and mechanical properties, as well as their characterization. The production process of geopolymer derived from synthetic aggregates will be highlighted. In conjunction with the bonding of aggregates and the cement matrix, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is highlighted in this work as an additional important property to be researched in the future. It will be discussed how to improve the properties of geopolymers based on artificial aggregates. It has been demonstrated that cold bonding provides superior qualities for artificial aggregate while conserving energy during production. The creation of ITZ has a significant impact on the bonding strength between artificial aggregates and the cement matrix. Additionally, improvement strategies demonstrate viable methods for enhancing the quality of manufactured aggregates. In addition, other recommendations are discussed in this study for future work.

Materials (Basel) ; 15(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683229


As the demand for nonrenewable natural resources, such as aggregate, is increasing worldwide, new production of artificial aggregate should be developed. Artificial lightweight aggregate can bring advantages to the construction field due to its lower density, thus reducing the dead load applied to the structural elements. In addition, application of artificial lightweight aggregate in lightweight concrete will produce lower thermal conductivity. However, the production of artificial lightweight aggregate is still limited. Production of artificial lightweight aggregate incorporating waste materials or pozzolanic materials is advantageous and beneficial in terms of being environmentally friendly, as well as lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, additives, such as geopolymer, have been introduced as one of the alternative construction materials that have been proven to have excellent properties. Thus, this paper will review the production of artificial lightweight aggregate through various methods, including sintering, cold bonding, and autoclaving. The significant properties of artificial lightweight aggregate, including physical and mechanical properties, such as water absorption, crushing strength, and impact value, are reviewed. The properties of concrete, including thermal properties, that utilized artificial lightweight aggregate were also briefly reviewed to highlight the advantages of artificial lightweight aggregate.