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Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14879-14899, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533177


Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a poor prognosis and urgently needs better therapeutic approaches. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is already used in the clinic for several cancers but not yet well investigated for CRC. Currently, systemic administration of ALA offers a limited degree of tumour selectivity, except for intracranial tumours, limiting its wider use in the clinic. The combination of effective ALA-PDT and chemotherapy may provide a promising alternative approach for CRC treatment. Herein, theranostic Ag2S quantum dots (AS-2MPA) optically trackable in near-infrared (NIR), conjugated with endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting Cetuximab (Cet) and loaded with ALA for PDT monotherapy or ALA/5-fluorouracil (5FU) for the combination therapy are proposed for enhanced treatment of EGFR(+) CRC. AS-2MPA-Cet exhibited excellent targeting of the high EGFR expressing cells and showed a strong intracellular signal for NIR optical detection in a comparative study performed on SW480, HCT116, and HT29 cells, which exhibit high, medium and low EGFR expression, respectively. Targeting provided enhanced uptake of the ALA loaded nanoparticles by strong EGFR expressing cells and formation of higher levels of PpIX. Cells also differ in their efficiency to convert ALA to PpIX, and SW480 was the best, followed by HT29, while HCT116 was determined as unsuitable for ALA-PDT. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 2D cell cultures and 3D spheroids of SW480 and HT29 cells using AS-2MPA with either electrostatically loaded, hydrazone or amide linked ALA to achieve different levels of pH or enzyme sensitive release. Most effective phototoxicity was observed in SW480 cells using AS-2MPA-ALA-electrostatic-Cet due to enhanced uptake of the particles, fast ALA release and effective ALA-to-PpIX conversion. Targeted delivery reduced the effective ALA concentration significantly which was further reduced with codelivery of 5FU. Delivery of ALA via covalent linkages was also effective for PDT, but required a longer incubation time for the release of ALA in therapeutic doses. Phototoxicity was correlated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic/necrotic cell death. Hence, both AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet based PDT and AS-2MPA-ALA-Cet-5FU based chemo/PDT combination therapy coupled with strong NIR tracking of the nanoparticles demonstrate an exceptional therapeutic effect on CRC cells and excellent potential for synergistic multistage tumour targeting therapy.

Neoplasias Colorretais , Fotoquimioterapia , Pontos Quânticos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imagem Óptica , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1207, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139700


The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major threat to the practice of modern medicine. Photobactericidal agents have obtained significant attention as promising candidates to kill bacteria, and they have been extensively studied. However, to obtain photobactericidal activity, an intense white light source or UV-activation is usually required. Here we report a photobactericidal polymer containing crystal violet (CV) and thiolated gold nanocluster ([Au25(Cys)18]) activated at a low flux levels of white light. It was shown that the polymer encapsulated with CV do not have photobactericidal activity under white light illumination of an average 312 lux. However, encapsulation of [Au25(Cys)18] and CV into the polymer activates potent photobactericidal activity. The study of the photobactericidal mechanism shows that additional encapsulation of [Au25(Cys)18] into the CV treated polymer promotes redox reactions through generation of alternative electron transfer pathways, while it reduces photochemical reaction type-ІІ pathways resulting in promotion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production.

Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Ouro/farmacologia , Luz , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Violeta Genciana/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
Nanoscale ; 10(4): 1570-1581, 2018 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29308480


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the subject of considerable research in experimental cancer models mainly for the treatment of solid cancerous tumours. Recent studies on the use of nanoparticles as photosensitiser carriers have demonstrated improved PDT efficacy in experimental cancer therapy. Experiments typically employ conventional monolayer cell culture but there is increasing interest in testing PDT using three dimensional (3D) cancer models. 3D cancer models can better mimic in vivo models than 2D cultures by for example enabling cancer cell interactions with a surrounding extracellular matrix which should enable the treatment to be optimised prior to in vivo studies. The aim of this review is to discuss recent research using PDT in different types of 3D cancer models, from spheroids to nano-fibrous scaffolds, using a range of photosensitisers on their own or incorporated in nanoparticles and nanodelivery systems.

Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem