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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238673, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153461

RESUMO

Abstract Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Resumo A coccidiose continua sendo um dos maiores problemas em aves de todo o mundo. Dados muito limitados sobre drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens estão disponíveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo compreender a eficácia comparativa da sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho em pombos selvagens do distrito de Dir, no Paquistão, que sofrem de coccidiose. A matéria fecal dos pombos selvagens foi comprada no mercado local para infecção por coccídios. Os resultados revelaram que 88,8% (16/18) foram encontrados infectados com Eimeria spp. Três grupos positivos foram tratados com sulfadimidina (0,2mg / L), amprólio (25mg / L) e triquenho. A sulfadimidina foi mais eficaz (45%), seguida pelo amprólio (44,6%), enquanto o triquenho (24,0%) apresentou menor efetividade contra a coccidiose em pombos. O número de oocistos foram 79, 81 e 80 antes do tratamento e 60, 44 e 44 após o tratamento com sulfadimidina, amprólio e triquenho, respectivamente. Este estudo mostrou que sulphadimidine, amprolium e triquen não poderiam reduzir significativamente a coccidiose em pombos. Mais estudos são necessários para limpar o mecanismo de drogas anticoccidiais em pombos selvagens.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

RESUMO

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Verduras , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Solo
5.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0180269, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854247

RESUMO

Heterothermy, the ability to allow body temperature (Tb) to fluctuate, has been proposed as an adaptive mechanism that enables large ungulates to cope with the high environmental temperatures and lack of free water experienced in arid environments. By storing heat during the daytime and dissipating it during the night, arid-adapted ungulates may reduce evaporative water loss and conserve water. Adaptive heterothermy in large ungulates should be particularly pronounced in hot environments with severely limited access to free water. In the current study we investigated the effects of environmental temperature (ambient, Ta and soil, Ts) and water stress on the Tb of wild, free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in two different sites in Saudi Arabia, Mahazat as-Sayd (MS) and Uruq Bani Ma'arid (UBM). Using implanted data loggers wet took continuous Tb readings every 10 minutes for an entire calendar year and determined the Tb amplitude as well as the heterothermy index (HI). Both differed significantly between sites but contrary to our expectations they were greater in MS despite its lower environmental temperatures and higher rainfall. This may be partially attributable to a higher activity in an unfamiliar environment for translocated animals in UBM. As expected Tb amplitude and HI were greatest during summer. Only minor sex differences were apparent that may be attributable to sex-specific investment into reproduction (e.g. male-male competition) during rut. Our results suggest that the degree of heterothermy is not only driven by extrinsic factors (e.g. environmental temperatures and water availability), but may also be affected by intrinsic factors (e.g. sex and/or behaviour).


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , Clima Desértico , Feminino , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Estações do Ano
6.
Neuroscience ; 277: 724-33, 2014 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25106130

RESUMO

A previous study investigating potential adult hippocampal neurogenesis in microchiropteran bats failed to reveal a strong presence of this neural trait. As microchiropterans have a high field metabolic rate and a small body mass, it is possible that capture/handling stress may lead to a decrease in the detectable presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Here we looked for evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemical techniques for the endogenous marker doublecortin (DCX) in 10 species of microchiropterans euthanized and perfusion fixed at specific time points following capture. Our results reveal that when euthanized and perfused within 15 min of capture, abundant putative adult hippocampal neurogenesis could be detected using DCX immunohistochemistry. Between 15 and 30 min post-capture, the detectable levels of DCX dropped dramatically and after 30 min post-capture, immunohistochemistry for DCX could not reveal any significant evidence of putative adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Thus, as with all other mammals studied to date apart from cetaceans, bats, including both microchiropterans and megachiropterans, appear to exhibit substantial levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The present study underscores the concept that, as with laboratory experiments, studies conducted on wild-caught animals need to be cognizant of the fact that acute stress (capture/handling) may induce major changes in the appearance of specific neural traits.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Abrigo para Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neocórtex/fisiopatologia , Fotomicrografia , Restrição Física , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Wildl Dis ; 46(4): 1165-71, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20966267

RESUMO

During March 2009, we evaluated the hemostatic profile and platelet indices of 18 Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) and compared the results with those from humans and camels (Camelus dromedarius). Gazelles and camels had shorter activated partial thromboplastin times, lower proconvertin and higher antihemophilic factor coagulation activity, and plasma fibrinogen levels than humans. Prothrombin time was longer in sand gazelles and shorter in camels than it was in humans. Plasma thromboplastin component, Stuart factor, and plasma thromboplastin antecedent were similar in gazelles, humans, and camels, whereas the platelet count of the sand gazelle was significantly higher than it was for camels and humans.


Assuntos
Antílopes/sangue , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Camelus/sangue , Animais , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/veterinária , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial/veterinária , Contagem de Plaquetas/veterinária , Arábia Saudita
8.
Vet Rec ; 146(8): 218-21, 2000 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10731071

RESUMO

The prevalence of Sarcocystis species in muscle samples from gazelles kept as breeding groups at the King Khalid Wildlife Research Centre, Saudi Arabia, was determined by fibreoptic examination, pepsin digestion and histological techniques. No macroscopic sarcocysts were detected by fibreoptic examination, and the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis was 66 x 7 per cent by pepsin digestion, and 39 x 9 per cent by histological examination. By digestion, the tongue contained the highest density of bradyzoites in Gazella dorcas, and Gazella gazella erlangeri, the oesophagus in Gazella subgutturosa marica and skeletal muscle in Gazella gazella and Gazella thomsoni. Skeletal muscle was least affected in G dorcas, the oesophagus in G gazella, and the diaphragm in G g erlangeri, G s marica and G thomsoni. By histology, the heart contained most microcysts, except in G g erlangeri, in which the tongue was most affected. No single tissue type was therefore suitable for the diagnosis of sarcocystosis in this multispecies collection, although digestion was more sensitive in detecting infection than histology. The level of Sarcocystis infection was significantly higher in free-ranging gazelles kept in a main enclosure than in gazellas kept in breeding pens, and higher in adult gazelles than in juveniles.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/patogenicidade , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Prevalência , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/patologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
9.
Parasitology ; 118 ( Pt 4): 357-62, 1999 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10340325

RESUMO

The phylogenetic relationships amongst Hammondia, Neospora and Toxoplasma were investigated by DNA sequence comparisons of the D2/D3 domain of the large subunit ribosomal DNA and the internal transcribed spacer 1. The results obtained allow us to reject the hypothesis that N. caninum and H. heydorni are the same species and show that Hammondia hammondi is probably the sister taxon to Toxoplasma gondii.


Assuntos
Eimeriida/genética , Neospora/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/análise , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eimeriida/classificação , Eimeriida/isolamento & purificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Alinhamento de Sequência
10.
J Parasitol ; 82(2): 356-7, 1996 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8604118

RESUMO

Three young Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) were each infected with 20,000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria rheemi collected from a naturally infected rheem gazelle. Both prepatent and patent periods were 7 days and the infected animals consistently passed large numbers of oocysts in their feces during patency. Infection with E. rheemi at this dose was associated with clinical coccidiosis in the form of 2 days of diarrhea before patency, continuing to day 15 postinoculation. The diarrhea stopped without treatment.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 30(4): 560-2, 1994 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7760490

RESUMO

We determined the antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii infections) in antelopes in Saudi Arabia. Serum samples from 324 Gazella subgutturosa marica, 202 Gazella gazella, 70 Gazella dorcas, and 12 Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 13(4.0%) G. subgutturosa marica, 12(5.9%) G. gazella, 3(4.3%) G. dorcas, and in none of the Arabian oryx sampled. More adult gazelles were seropositive than juveniles; males and females were similar. The highest reciprocal antibody titer recorded (262,144) was in a G. subgutturosa marica serum.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Testes de Hemaglutinação/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Vet Res Commun ; 12(4-5): 325-7, 1988.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3195046

RESUMO

The role of several species of ants as intermediate hosts for poultry cestodes in the Sudan was investigated by a search for cysticercoids in specimens from poultry houses in various localities in the country. Pachycondyla sennaarensis, Messor galla and Acantholepis sp. were the only species collected from the areas surveyed. All these ants were examined for cysticercoids of poultry tapeworms but only P. sennaarensis was found to carry cysticercoids, all of which were identical to those of the poultry cestode, Raillietina tetragona. This tapeworm was recovered from all chicks fed the cysticercoids obtained from P. sennaarensis. R. tetragona cysticercoids were present in 63.3% of the P. sennaarensis sampled with 1-40 cysticercoids per ant, which is the heaviest recorded infestation of an ant species with these cysticeroids.


Assuntos
Formigas/parasitologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cestoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Galinhas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Sudão
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