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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043251

RESUMO

In this experimental study, seeds of wild tree species namely Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Albizia lebbeck, and Leucaena leucocephala were explored as potential feedstocks for anaerobic digestion and compared with cattle manure which is a commonly used feedstock. These seeds occur abundantly as waste biomass in tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and the USA. An experimental investigation was carried out in large 300-L anaerobic digesters under semi-continuous feed mode for 90 days. The average specific methane production yield observed was 0.208 Nm3/kg volatile solids (VS) for A. nilotica, 0.227 Nm3/kg VS for P. juliflora, 0.219 Nm3/kg VS for A. lebbeck and 0.210 Nm3/kg VS for L. leucocephala which was found to be higher than cattle manure's yield of 0.146 Nm3/kg VS. Experimental analysis revealed an average methane content of more than 52% for all the seeds and a total volatile solid mass removal efficiency of 41.60% for A. nilotica, 44.19% for P. juliflora, 43.76% for A. lebbeck, and 41.41% for L. leucocephala which was higher than 29.7% for cattle manure. The experimental investigations showed that they have a higher biogas production potential than cattle manure indicating their huge scope and suitability as alternative feedstocks, and their use can also mitigate the ecological risk seeds pose by growing into invasive trees.

2.
Diabet Med ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721280

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to explore the association between South Asian ethnicity and complications of type 1 diabetes, and whether this is affected by migration. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on diabetes control and complications were obtained for South Asians in India (South AsiansIndia , n = 2592) and the UK (South AsiansUK , n = 221) and white Europeans in the UK (n = 1431). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between ethnicity and diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy and neuropathy adjusting for age, sex, BMI, disease duration, HbA1c , blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol. RESULTS: South AsiansIndia had significantly greater adjusted odds of diabetic kidney disease [odds ratio (OR) 5.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.6-7.1] and retinopathy (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5), but lower odds of neuropathy (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6) than white Europeans. South AsiansIndia had significantly greater adjusted odds of diabetic kidney disease (OR 3.0, 95% 1.8-5.3) than South AsiansUK , but there was no significant difference in the odds of other complications. CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating study, we report that South Asian ethnicity is associated with greater risk of diabetic kidney disease and retinopathy, and lower risk of neuropathy than white European ethnicity. Part of the excess diabetic kidney disease risk is reduced in South AsiansUK . These associations cannot be accounted for by differences in vascular risk factors. Our findings in South Asians with type 1 diabetes mirror previous findings in type 2 diabetes and now need to be validated in a study of the effect of ethnicity on type 1 diabetes complications where healthcare is provided in the same setting.

3.
J Pediatr Orthop B ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725533

RESUMO

Idiopathic clubfoot is the most common congenital anomaly of the lower extremity. YouTube has emerged as an important source of health-related information for patients and families. Parents seek information about clubfoot on YouTube. However, the quality of these videos remains unknown. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the quality of YouTube videos about clubfoot. We searched YouTube for clubfoot videos using appropriate keywords. English language videos with more than 10 000 views were included. Three fellowship trained pediatric orthopedic surgeons independently assessed the videos and classified them into corporate, hospital, education and private. The quality of information was assessed using the Modified DISCERN and JAMA benchmark scores. The search yielded 12 060 videos of which 42 were analyzed. There were 9 (21%) videos from corporate organizations, 12 (29%) from hospitals, 3 (7%) from educational organizations and 18 (43%) by private individuals. The mean Modified DISCERN score was 2.1 ± 1.07 (range 0.3-4) and mean JAMA benchmark score was 0.9 ± 0.65 (range 0-2). Educational videos had highest mean Modified DISCERN score (3.1 ± 0.85) and private videos, the least (1.43 ± 1). This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Hospital videos had highest mean JAMA benchmark score of 1.3 ± 0.6 as compared with private videos which had the least mean score of 0.5 ± 0.6. This difference was also statistically significant (P = 0.001). The results of our study indicate that the quality of information on idiopathic clubfoot on YouTube needs improvement. Videos from educational and hospital sources should be preferred over private sources.

4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(10): 14-19, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571445

RESUMO

Background: Teneligliptin is widely prescribed dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) in India because of its economical pricing. However, there is no headto-head trial comparing teneligliptin with any other DPP-4i in Indian setting. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin versus sitagliptin as add-on to metformin and/or sulfonylureas in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This prospective, open-label, randomized, active-controlled study enrolled 76 patients (1:1) at 2 centres. Patients received teneligliptin 20 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg orally once daily for 12 weeks as add-on to ongoing metformin or sulfonylurea therapy. Primary endpoint was mean change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline at week 12. Results: Both arms were comparable (p>0.05) at baseline in terms of age, gender, metformin daily dose, sulfonylurea use, HbA1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose (FBG and PPBG). At the end of 12 weeks, statistically significant reductions were observed in both teneligliptin and sitagliptin arms in HbA1c (-1.19 ± 1.16% p<0.0001 and -0.92 ± 0.95%, p<0.0001), in FBG (-28.3 ± 63.0 mg/dL, p= 0.01 and -22.9 ± 47.4 mg/dL, p=0.006) and PPBG (-41.3 ± 85.4 mg/dL, p=0.006 and -54.7 ± 85.6 mg/dL, p=0.0005). The reductions in all glycemic parameters were similar between the arms. Both gliptins were well-tolerated with no difference in the number of adverse events. There was no change in QT/QTc intervals or other ECG parameters at week 12 in both arms. In post-hoc comparison, percentage of patients achieving target HbA1c <7% (as per American Diabetes Association guidelines) at week 12 favored teneligliptin arm over sitagliptin arm (33.3% vs. 19.4% patients). Conclusion: Teneligliptin provided similar glycemic control as compared to sitagliptin and reduced HbA1c, FBG and PPBG values significantly within 12 weeks of treatment. Both gliptins were found to be safe and well-tolerated in Indian patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinas/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Indian J Nucl Med ; 34(4): 284-289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579206

RESUMO

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women all over the world, which accounts to 25% of all cancers. In known cases of breast cancer, the risk of developing another denovo malignancy is more when compared to low risk groups, which might be due to common environmental risk factors, treatment induced risk factors, Genetic susceptibility for mutations, presence of cancer syndromes or better detection due to close surveillance. Objective: To study the profile of Metachronous 2nd primary malignancies suspected on 18F-FDG PET CT in known Breast cancer patients. In this Retrospective study from January 2014 to April 2018, all the consecutive patients with known Breast cancer, who were referred to Nuclear Medicine department for 18F- FDG PET CT for follow up evaluation were included. Suspected 2nd primary malignancies were correlated with Histopathological examination (HPE). Results: During the study period, a total of 233 Breast cancer patients (all are females), with a mean age of 54.2+13.4 years were studied. On 18F-FDG PET CT scan, suspicion for 2nd primary malignancy was observed in 37 patients. HPE was done in 28/37 patients at the site of suspected lesions. 15/28 were positive for second malignancy, and remaining 13/28 were either a benign pathology or a part of metastatic disease from the primary breast cancer. The sites of 2nd primary malignancies included Contralateral breast in 8/15 (53.3%), Ovary in 2/15 (13.3%), Endometrium in 2/15 (13.3%), Lung in 1/15 (6.6%), Stomach in 1/15 (6.6%) and Urinary bladder in 1/15 (6.6%) patients respectively. The incidence of metachronous 2nd primaries in breast cancer is 67.3 per 1000 breast cancer patients. Conclusion: Metachronous second primary cancers in breast cancer patients are not very rare. A high imaging suspicion on 18F-FDG PET CT helps in early detection of 2nd primary cancer, thereby facilitating early and appropriate management.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(19)2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547551

RESUMO

In this report, the electrical properties of plasma polymer films functionalized with ZnO nanoparticles were investigated with respect to their potential applications in biomaterials and microelectronics fields. The nanocomposite films were produced using a single-step method that combines simultaneous plasma polymerization of renewable geranium essential oil with thermal decomposition of zinc acetylacetonate Zn(acac)2. The input power used for the deposition of composites were 10 W and 50 W, and the resulting composite structures were abbreviated as Zn/Ge 10 W and Zn/Ge 50 W, respectively. The electrical properties of pristine polymers and Zn/polymer composite films were studied in metal-insulator-metal structures. At a quantity of ZnO of around ~1%, it was found that ZnO had a small influence on the capacitance and dielectric constants of thus-fabricated films. The dielectric constant of films with smaller-sized nanoparticles exhibited the highest value, whereas, with the increase in ZnO particle size, the dielectric constant decreases. The conductivity of the composites was calculated to be in the in the range of 10-14-10-15 Ω-1 m-1, significantly greater than that for the pristine polymer, the latter estimated to be in the range of 10-16-10-17 Ω-1 m-1.

7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 34-38, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309793

RESUMO

Objective: Widely used in the management of diabetes, insulin therapy is influenced by several patient preferences and physician choices. This article reports the findings of the IMPACT survey, designed to assess insights on various factors which influence the choice of insulin therapy in India. Methods: We administered a questionnaire which focused on the practice and patient profiles and the preferred regimens in specific clinical situations using a case scenario. Respondents were asked about preferred insulin regimens for various phases of life, comorbid conditions, dietary choices and psychological factors. Results: Overall, 314 doctors participated in the survey. Majority were general physicians (51%) and diabetologists (37%). In clinical practice, the most preferred regimens included premix insulin BD in adults (59%) and elderly (53%), and basal bolus therapy in pregnant women (>47%) and in acute illness (62%). Both regimens were equally preferred for symptomatic patients (41% basal bolus and 38% premix insulin) and those with renal or hepatic failure (36% each). Premix insulin was preferred for patients with high carbohydrate intake (73%) while basal bolus was preferred for patients with variable meal timings (39%) and in pronounced postprandial glucose excursions (45%). Insulin co-formulation and high-mix insulins were not a part of the survey questionnaire. Summary: Indian physicians exercise logic in the choice of insulin regimens. Preference is based on patient characteristics including glucophenotype, dietary patterns, psychosocial needs, clinical situations, and comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Gravidez
8.
Indian J Anaesth ; 63(6): 462-468, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263298

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Epidural analgesia (EA) and transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block have been part of multimodal analgesia techniques for postoperative pain relief in abdominal surgeries though EA has been established as gold standard. This study assesses and compares the analgesic efficacy of continuous bilateral TAP catheter infusion and lumbar epidural infusion. Methods: In this randomised, single-blind, prospective, non-inferiority trial, 75 patients were randomised to receive a bolus dose of 15 ml, 0.25% bupivacaine followed by an infusion of 5-12 ml/h of 0.125% bupivacaine via lumbar epidural in EA group and a bolus dose of 0.4 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine bilaterally via TAP catheter followed by continuous infusion at 5ml/h of 0.125% bupivacaine in TAP group postoperatively. VAS scores (primary objective) and sensory dermatome blockade were recorded at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. Total morphine consumption, PONV, incidence of hypotension and patient satisfaction scales were recorded at the end of 24 hours. Results: The median VAS scores were comparable between the groups at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours both at rest (P = 0.11, 0.649, 0.615, 0.280 and 0.191, respectively) and on coughing (p = 0.171, 0.224, 0.207, 0.142 and 0.158, respectively). Total morphine consumption in 24 h between TAP and EA group was comparable (p = 0.366). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of hypotension, PONV and patient satisfaction scale. Conclusion: Continuous bilateral TAP block is as efficacious as the continuous lumbar epidural infusion in relieving postoperative pain in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries.

9.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-20, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315526

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease is an inherited disease caused by point mutation in hemoglobin (ß-globin gene). Under oxygen saturation, sickle hemoglobin form polymers, leading to rigid erythrocytes. The transition of the blood vessels is altered and initiated by the adhesion of erythrocytes, neutrophils and endothelial cells. Sickle Hemoglobin (HbS) polymerization is a major cause in red blood cells (RBC), promoting sickling and destruction of RBCs. Isoquercitrin, a medicinal bioactive compound found in various medicinal plants, has multiple health benefits. The present study examines the potential of isoquercitrin as an anti-sickle agent, showing a significant decrease in the rate of polymerization as well as sickling of RBCs. Isoquercitrin-induced graded alteration in absorbance and fluorescence of HbS, confirmed their interaction. A negative value of ΔG° strongly suggests that it is a spontaneous exothermic reaction induced by entropy. Negative ΔH° and positive ΔS° predicted that hydrogen and hydrophobic binding forces interfered with a hydrophobic microenvironment of ß6Val leading to polymerization inhibition of HbS. HbS-Isoquercitrin complex exhibits helical structural changes leading to destabilization of the HbS polymer as confirmed by CD spectroscopy. MST and DSC results indicate greater changes in thermophoretic mobility and thermal stability of sickle hemoglobin in the presence of isoquercitrin, respectively. These findings were also supported by molecular simulation studies using DOCK6 and GROMACS. Hence, we can conclude that isoquercitrin interacts with HbS through hydrogen bonding, which leads to polymerization inhibition. Consequently, isoquercitrin could potentially be used as a medication for the treatment of sickle cell disease. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 153: 93-102, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150721

RESUMO

AIMS: Guidelines recommend hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a diagnostic test for type 2 diabetes, but its accuracy may differ in certain ethnic groups. METHODS: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes by HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2 h glucose was compared in 3016 participants from Chennai and Delhi, India from the CARRS-2 Study to 757 Indians in the U.S. from the MASALA Study. Type 2 diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L, 2-h glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L, or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Isolated HbA1c diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5% with fasting glucose < 7.0 mmol/L and 2 h glucose < 11.1 mmol/L. RESULTS: The age, sex, and BMI adjusted prevalence of diabetes by isolated HbA1c was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.2-4.0), 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3-4.1), and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.4-1.8) in CARRS-Chennai, CARRS-Delhi, and MASALA, respectively. The proportion of diabetes diagnosed by isolated HbA1c was 19.4%, 26.8%, and 10.8% in CARRS-Chennai, CARRS-Delhi, and MASALA respectively. In CARRS-2, individuals with type 2 diabetes by isolated HbA1c milder cardio-metabolic risk than those diagnosed by fasting or 2-h measures. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian Indians, the use of HbA1c for type 2 diabetes diagnosis could result in a higher prevalence. HbA1c may identify a subset of individuals with milder glucose intolerance.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos Transversais , Jejum , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5973, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979934

RESUMO

Nanocomposites offer attractive and cost-effective thin layers with superior properties for antimicrobial, drug delivery and microelectronic applications. This work reports single-step plasma-enabled synthesis of polymer/zinc nanocomposite thin films via co-deposition of renewable geranium essential oil-derived polymer and zinc nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition of zinc acetylacetonate. The chemical composition, surfaces characteristics and antimicrobial performance of the designed nanocomposite were systematically investigated. XPS survey proved the presence of ZnO in the matrix of formed polymers at 10 W and 50 W. SEM images verified that the average size of a ZnO nanoparticle slightly increased with an increase in the power of deposition, from approximately 60 nm at 10 W to approximately 80 nm at 50 W. Confocal scanning laser microscopy images showed that viability of S. aureus and E.coli cells significantly reduced on surfaces of ZnO/polymer composites compared to pristine polymers. SEM observations further demonstrated that bacterial cells incubated on Zn/Ge 10 W and Zn/Ge 50 W had deteriorated cell walls, compared to pristine polymers and glass control. The release of ZnO nanoparticles from the composite thin films was confirmed using ICP measurements, and can be further controlled by coating the film with a thin polymeric layer. These eco-friendly nanocomposite films could be employed as encapsulation coatings to protect relevant surfaces of medical devices from microbial adhesion and colonization.

12.
Br J Nutr ; 121(12): 1389-1397, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006420

RESUMO

India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25-65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (-0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.

13.
Indian J Anaesth ; 63(1): 36-41, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745611

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Weight-based selection of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) size may be unreliable in some situations. The aim of this study was to compare the ventilation parameters using PLMA during controlled ventilation between weight-based size selection and pinna size-based selection in children. Methods: A total of 204 patients were randomised to receive either pinna size-based (Group P) or weight-based (Group W) size selection of PLMA. We tested the hypothesis that pinna size-based selection of PLMA was better than weight-based selection of PLMA in paediatric patients during controlled ventilation under general anaesthesia in terms of oropharyngeal sealing pressure (the primary end-point) and Brimacombe score. Cuff pressure was maintained at 60 cm of H2O during the study. Secondary outcomes included the number of attempts for successful placement of PLMA, peak airway pressure, gastric tube placement, traumatic insertion, and complications were also compared. Parametric variables were analysed using unpaired t-test and categorical variables were analysed using Mann-Whitney and Chi-square test. Results: In all, 200 patients were analysed. The mean oropharyngeal sealing pressure in Group P was 25.4 ± 3.5 cmH2O and 24.9 ± 3.8 cmH2O in Group W, (P = 0.34). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the secondary outcomes. There were no traumatic insertion or complications reported in both the groups. Conclusion: Pinna-based size selection method can be used in PLMA placement in the paediatric population for positive pressure ventilation and it serves as an alternative method to weight-based selection.

14.
Indian J Nucl Med ; 34(1): 32-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713376

RESUMO

Papillary carcinoma thyroid is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid cancer metastasizes commonly to regional lymph nodes, distant organ involvement is to lungs and bone are rare and is associated with poor prognosis. Metastases to intra-abdominal organs are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 50-year-old female diagnosed with papillary microcarcinoma thyroid who initially treated total thyroidectomy, later presented with metastasis to liver, bone, left adrenal gland, and bilateral lungs. The functioning metastasis was diagnosed by Iodine-131 whole-body scan and later treated with radioiodine.

15.
Indian J Nucl Med ; 34(1): 51-53, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713382

RESUMO

Epidermoid cysts are benign rare congenital cysts which typically present between 3rd and 5th decade of life. They mostly arise from cerebellopontine angle or parasellar region, but sporadic cases arise from cranial dipole. Here, we present a case of 42-year-old female with painful soft swelling in the left frontal region, which on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography is well-circumscribed non-FDG avid lesion. The patient underwent total resection of the cyst, and the defect produced by space-occupying lesion was repaired by cranioplasty.

16.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 37(17): 4614-4631, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558488

RESUMO

Polymerization of hemoglobin S is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease, which leads to sickling and destruction of red blood cell. Alizarin, a bioactive compound from Rubia cordifolia, is reported to be blood purifier. This study investigates the potential of alizarin as an anti-sickling agent, showing a significant decrease in the rate of polymerization, therefore inhibiting the rate of sickling with increasing concentration. Interaction studies indicated that the fluorescence intensity of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) decreases gradually with increasing alizarin concentration. This suggests the static quenching, where binding constant and the number of binding sites were deduced at different temperatures. The negative values of Gibbs energy change (ΔG0) strongly suggest that it is entropy-driven spontaneous and exothermic reaction. Negative enthalpy (ΔH0) and positive entropy (ΔS0) stipulated that hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding forces were interfering in a hydrophobic micro-environment of ß6Val leading to Hb S polymerization inhibition. In circular dichroism (CD) spectra, Hb S in the presence of alizarin shows helical structural changes leading to destabilization of Hb S polymer. These findings were also supported by molecular docking simulation studies using DOCK6 and GROMACS. So, from these findings, we may conclude that alizarin interacts with Hb S through hydrogen bonding and leading to inhibition of Hb S polymerization. Consequently, alizarin may have potential use as an anti-sickle cell medication for sickle cell disorder. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

17.
Diabetes Metab ; 45(3): 276-285, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165157

RESUMO

AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) from extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been proposed as promising biomarkers for a number of diseases. In this study, their potential as urine-based biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was assessed. METHODS: MiRNAs were profiled in urinary EVs from 160 fasting subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and in T2DM patients with either microalbumininuria (MIC) or macroalbuminuria (MAC). RESULTS: A total of 73 miRNAs detected in urinary EVs (NGT) were predicted to target important functions for kidney homoeostasis, thereby validating their use as indicators of kidney dysfunction. Indeed, a urinary EV miRNA signature was found to comprise increased levels of let-7i-3p, miR-24-3p and miR-27b-3p, and decreased levels of miR-15b-5p, to identify patients with MIC. ROC curve analysis confirmed this ability to identify MIC in normo-albuminuria T2DM (T2DM-NA) patients and to differentiate between MAC and T2DM patients. These miRNAs were also predicted to target protein networks involved in the Wnt/ß-catenin signalling cascade, activin receptor signalling and cell differentiation/proliferation, and correlated with eGRF, HbA1c, serum creatinine, urea, albumin and blood pressure. Concentrations of miR-30a-5p were specifically modified in urinary EVs from patients with MAC, but not MIC, suggesting that miR-30a-5p could be related to severe kidney damage. CONCLUSION: Urinary EV miRNAs correlate with the degree of MIC. As they are also thought to regulate pathways that are targets of pharmacological agents to prevent DN (reticulum stress, activin receptors), they may also serve as non-invasive 'liquid biopsies' to stratify patients at risk of developing MAC and to monitor treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Adulto , Albuminúria/urina , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
18.
J Clin Anesth ; 52: 105-110, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243061

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided single-shot caudal block with ultrasound-guided single-shot paravertebral block in children undergoing renal surgeries. DESIGN: Randomised, interventional, blinded clinical trial. SETTING: Operating rooms of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. PATIENTS: 50 children aged 2-10 years, of ASA status I/II, posted for elective renal surgeries. INTERVENTIONS: The children were randomised into two groups (Group C-caudal block, Group P-paravertebral block). After induction of general anesthesia, single-shot caudal or paravertebral block was performed under ultrasound guidance, with 0.2% ropivacaine with 1:200000 adrenaline. MEASUREMENTS: Time to first rescue analgesia, time to perform blocks, intraoperative and post-operative hemodynamics, post-operative FLACC scores, incidence of complications, parental satisfaction scores were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Children in Group P had significantly longer duration of analgesia (p < 0.0004) than Group C. Post-operative FLACC scores (p < 0.005) and analgesic requirements (p < 0.0004) were lower in Group P. The mean fentanyl requirement over 24 h in group P was 0.56 ±â€¯0.82 µg/kg, compared to 1.8 ±â€¯1.2 µg/kg in group C. Parents in Group P reported greater satisfaction (p < 0.02). No complications were seen in either of the groups. CONCLUSION: This study showed superior analgesia and parental satisfaction with single-shot paravertebral block in comparison to single-shot caudal block for renal surgeries in children. However, the block performance in children requires adequate expertise and practice.


Assuntos
Anestesia Caudal/métodos , Rim/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Locais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ropivacaina , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
19.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev ; 2(9): e037, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465037

RESUMO

We report on a rare case of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from Mastisol liquid adhesive. We are aware of a few reports in the medical literature, but none describes an allergic reaction during the third exposure to the offending agent. Our patient was a 20-year-old Caucasian man with a history of cerebral palsy spastic hemiplegia who underwent single-event multilevel soft-tissue surgery to optimize function of his left upper extremity. He developed a severe cutaneous allergic reaction after his third exposure to Mastisol. He was subsequently admitted to the inpatient service and managed without further complications by a multidisciplinary team comprising orthopedics, pediatrics, and dermatology. We discuss the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this entity, and we also review relevant available literature on the subject. We aim at creating further awareness of allergic reactions because of exposure to available skin-prepping and wound-dressing agents.

20.
Indian J Nucl Med ; 33(4): 342-344, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386059

RESUMO

F-18 FDG is a tracer of glucose metabolism, which is commonly used in PET/CT for oncological diagnosis and staging. F-18 FDG uptake represents the glycolytic activity in the cell. Physiological FDG concentration may be noted often in the muscles of head and neck, tongue, muscles on mastication, extra ocular muscles due to eye movements, cricopharyngeus and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles on phonation, etc. Here we report a case of Awake Bruxism, who came for F-18 FDG PET/CT for evaluation of Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO), showing intense F-18 FDG uptake symmetrically in masticator muscles. Bruxism is a habit of involuntary spasmodic grinding or clenching of teeth. Many factors like psychosocial, genetic, certain medications and sleep disorders are known to be associated with bruxism. Therefore knowledge of physiological F-18 FDG uptake as well as artifactual uptake is essential for nuclear medicine physicians, to avoid ambiguity in diagnosis.

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