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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371877

RESUMO

Pathological mechanisms underlining diabetic bone defects include oxidative damage and insulin/IGF-1 imbalance. Morin is a bioflavonoid with antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. This study evaluates morin's protective effects against altered bone histomorphometry in diabetic rats through assessing insulin/IGF-1 pathway as a potential mechanism. Diabetic animals were administered two morin doses (15 and 30 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Different serum hepatic and renal functions tests were assessed. Bone density and histomorphometry in cortical and trabecular tissues were evaluated histologically. The expressions of insulin, c-peptide and IGF-1 were estimated. In addition, the enzymatic activities of the major antioxidant enzymes were determined. Diabetic-associated alterations in serum glucose, aminotransferases, urea and creatinine were attenuated by morin. Diabetic bone cortical and trabecular histomorphometry were impaired with increased fibrosis, osteoclastic functions, osteoid formation and reduced mineralization, which was reversed by morin; particularly the 30 mg/kg dose. Insulin/IGF-1 levels were diminished in diabetic animals, while morin treatment enhanced their levels significantly. Diabetes also triggered systemic oxidative stress noticeably. The higher dose (30 mg/kg) of morin corrected the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities in diabetic rats. Findings indicate the potential value of morin supplementation against hyperglycemia-induced skeletal impairments. Activation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling could be the underlining mechanism behind these effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Fêmur/metabolismo , Fêmur/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101103, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229218

RESUMO

Practical methods for preventing embryotoxicity in chickens that are caused by aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) are currently rare. Binding absorbers are commonly used in feeding stuff to reduce laying hens' exposure to off-contaminated diets, thus reducing residue exposure to fertilized eggs. Nonetheless, several adsorbents have been shown to affect the use of nutrients and the absorption of minerals in poultry. Thus, seeking an effective strategy to counter or control embryotoxicity in broiler chicks caused by AFB1 is a problem. A total of 180 embryonated eggs were injected with 36 ng AFB1 with or without 5.90 mg L-methionine (Met) 30 embryonated eggs each, followed by incubation in an incubator until hatching time. The in ovo injection of Met significantly reduced toxicity caused by AFB1 in broiler embryos by enhancing the liver and kidney functions, lipid profiles, and alleviated oxidative stress during the incubation period. Furthermore, the relative gene expressions (SSTR5, TSH-ß, Bcl-2, GSH-Px, GST-a, and SOD in the liver) were up-regulated with in ovo injection of AFB1+Met compared to AFB1 alone. Moreover, there was a dowin-regulated trend in Bax, Caspases-3, Caspases-7, Caspases-9, CYP1A1, CYP2H1, and P53 gene expression with in ovo injection of AFB1+Met compared to AFB1 alone. The in ovo injection of Met led to less apoptotic cells in liver tissues. Such results might be necessary for the poultry industry as it is focused on managing the embryotoxicity of AFB1, which affecting poultry production and welfare. Results from this study demonstrated that in ovo Met injection could alleviate AF-induced toxicity in chicken embryos.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Galinhas , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Fígado , Metionina , Óvulo
3.
Saudi Pharm J ; 29(8): 833-842, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177315

RESUMO

The impact of different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality rates have been studied extensively around the world; however, there is a dearth of data on the impact of different clinical and sociodemographic variables on the COVID-19-related outcomes in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to identify those at high risk of worse clinical outcomes, such as hospitalization and longer length of stay (LOS) among young and middle-aged adults (18 to 55 years). In this questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, 706 patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed COVID-19 infection were interviewed. Patients' demographic characteristics, dietary habits, medical history, and lifestyle choices were collected through phone interviews. Patients with chronic health conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, reported a higher rate of hospitalization, ICU admission, oxygen-support needs, and a longer period of recovery and LOS. Multiple logistic regression showed that diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease (e.g., asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization and longer LOS. Multiple logistic regression showed that symptoms of breathlessness, loss of smell and/or taste, diarrhea, and cough were associated with a longer recovery period. Similarly, breathlessness, vomiting, and diarrhea were associated with higher rates of hospitalization. The findings of this study confirm the similarity of the factors associated with worse clinical outcomes across the world. Future studies should use more robust designs to investigate the impact of different therapies on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in Saudi Arabia.

4.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(4): 505-512, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327903

RESUMO

Flavonoids represent a large diverse group of natural products that are used as a traditional medicine against various infectious diseases. They possess many biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic activities. Commercially, flavonoids are mainly obtained from plants, however, several challenges are faced during their extraction. Microorganisms have been known as natural sources of a wide range of bioactive compounds including flavonoids. Actinobacteria are the most prolific group of microorganisms for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, thus facilitating the production of flavonoids. The screening programs for bioactive compounds revealed the potential application of actinobacteria to produce flavonoids with interesting biological activities, especially anticancer activities. Since marine actinobacteria are recognized as a potential source of novel anticancer agents, they are highly expected to be potential producers of anticancer flavonoids with unusual structures and properties. In this review, we highlight the production of flavonoids by actinobacteria through classical fermentation, engineering of plant biosynthetic genes in a recombinant actinobacterium and the de novo biosynthesis approach. Through these approaches, we can control and improve the production of interesting flavonoids or their derivatives for the treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Antineoplásicos , Produtos Biológicos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3193725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381547

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most debilitating neurological disorders with inadequate therapeutic options. It affects all age groups globally leading to post-TBI behavioral challenges and life-long disabilities requiring interventions for these health issues. In the current study, C57BL/6J mice were induced with TBI through the weight-drop method, and outcomes of acutely administered ketamine alone and in combination with perampanel were observed. The impact of test drugs was evaluated for post-TBI behavioral changes by employing the open field test (OFT), Y-maze test, and novel object recognition test (NOR). After that, isolated plasma and brain homogenates were analyzed for inflammatory modulators, i.e., NF-κB and iNOS, through ELISA. Moreover, metabolomic studies were carried out to further authenticate the TBI rescuing potential of drugs. The animals treated with ketamine-perampanel combination demonstrated improved exploratory behavior in OFT (P < 0.05), while ketamine alone as well as in combination yielded anxiolytic effect (P < 0.05-0.001) in posttraumatic mice. Similarly, the % spontaneous alternation and % discrimination index were increased after the administration of ketamine alone (P < 0.05) and ketamine-perampanel combination (P < 0.01-0.001) in the Y-maze test and NOR test, respectively. ELISA demonstrated the reduced central and peripheral expression of NF-κB (P < 0.05) and iNOS (P < 0.01-0.0001) after ketamine-perampanel polypharmacy. The TBI-imparted alteration in plasma metabolites was restored by drug combination as evidenced by metabolomic studies. The outcomes were fruitful with ketamine, but the combination therapy proved more significant in improving all studied parameters. The benefits of this new investigated polypharmacy might be due to their antiglutamatergic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective capacity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(18): 3098-3106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173431

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Although diabetic-induced hepatotoxicity is less common, it can be included in the list of target organ pathologies associated with diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic role of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) in modulating oxidative and inflammatory injuries and liver fibrosis in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats in comparison to valsartan alone. Materials and Methods: Following the induction of diabetes using a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ), STZ-induced hyperglycemic animals were administered LCZ696 or valsartan for 6 weeks. Glucose, transaminases, lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), and interleukin - 6 (IL-6), were estimated using the obtained serum. Oxidative stress biomarkers including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured in the liver homogenate. Additionally, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and nuclear factor - kappa ß (NF-κB) levels were estimated in hepatic tissue. To assess the general histopathological changes, harvested liver tissue was treated with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson's trichrome staining to detect fibrosis. Results: STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats demonstrated high blood glucose, dyslipidemia, and significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, proinflammatory cytokines, NF-κB, lipid peroxidation, and hepatic fibrosis, with impairment in antioxidant enzymes. In STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats, the administration of LCZ696 ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, improved liver functions, and boosted antioxidants enzymes. Furthermore, LCZ696 therapy attenuated oxidation, inflammation, progression of liver injury, and hepatic fibrosis. LCZ696 was superior to valsartan in reducing AST, hepatic fibrosis, tissue IL-1ß, TNF-α and NF-κB. In addition, compared with the valsartan group, LCZ696 significantly increased the antioxidant parameters such as GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx. Conclusion: Collectively, our data demonstrated that LCZ696 could suppress the progression of diabetes-induced hepatic fibrosis, correlating with reduced oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation and NF-κB compared with valsartan alone.

7.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167395

RESUMO

Animals fed with a high amount of a wide range of antioxidants in their diet are significantly protected against oxidative stress. Powerful antioxidant substances such as vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids are present naturally in red-hot pepper (RHP). This study hypothesized that using RHP may provide protection against oxidative stress and enhance animal physiological responses. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of feeding New Zealand white rabbits with RHP-supplemented diets on their physiological and biochemical responses. New Zealand White rabbits (age = 6 weeks, n = 48) were split equally into three groups (n = 16 in each group). One group was fed a basal diet only (control group), with the other two groups fed a basal diet along with 1 and 2% RHP. Mass spectrometric analysis for the RHP methanolic extract showed some phenolic compounds, such as p-coumaric, sinapinic acids, vanillic, and luteolin, as well as catechin and its isomers. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GSH-Px, and CAT) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) by feeding rabbits diets supplemented with 1 or 2% RHP. The addition of RHP significantly enhanced immune-responses; phagocytic activity, chemotaxis, TIg, IgG, IgM, and IgA increased when growing rabbits were fed RHP compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 1 or 2% RHP may play a role as an enhancer of growth and immune response in growing rabbits.

8.
PeerJ ; 8: e9196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596035

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is among the most common microvascular complications of diabetes resulting in end-stage renal disease and therefore search for candidates which can ameliorate the kidney function is needed simultaneously with standard diabetic pharmacotherapy. The current study was aimed to investigate the effect of long term sacubitril/valsartan therapy (LCZ696) in diabetic rats to assess its ameliorative impact against various pathological parameters such as oxidative stress, inflammation and glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic DN. Methods: A single dose (60 mg/kg/day) of STZ was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male wistar rats. 2 weeks after diabetes induction, these rats were treated orally with valsartan (31 mg/kg) or LCZ696 (68 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At end of the treatment period, serum and kidney samples were collected and analyzed. The serum levels of glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were estimated. In renal tissue homogenate, the levels of inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, NF-kB along with oxidative stress biomarkers including thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARs), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assessed. Histological changes were observed in kidney. Results: Time course therapy withLCZ696 and valsartan in diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction of serum glucose, urea and creatinine levels (P < 0.05). Additionally, serum of treated diabetic rats showed a diminution in inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6) and increment in anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines levels (P < 0.05). Tissue homogenate of the kidney extracted from LCZ696 and valsartan treated diabetic rats revealed a substantial reduction in the levels of inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, NF-kB and sufficient restoration of anti-oxidant enzyme levels (P < 0.05). Finally, in the histological sections of the kidney, prevention of renal injury was observed with limited necrosis and inflammatory cells infiltration. Conclusion: Present data suggest that LCZ696 has sufficient therapeutic potential to restrict DN progression through inhibiting inflammation, oxidative stress and glomerulosclerosis.

9.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(9): 1156-1166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547311

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as it triggers oxidative and pro-inflammatory cascades. Baicalein (BL) is a natural flavone with multiple therapeutic properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of BL supplementation in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for six weeks and then orally administered BL at two doses (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight/day) for four weeks. Serum lipids, liver enzymes, cardiac enzymes, renal markers, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-10 (IL-10), caspase-3, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin-2 (PGE-2) were measured. In renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissues, thiobarbituric acid-reactive (TBARS) substance, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured. The altered levels of lipoproteins, aminotransferases, creatine kinases, and urea in hypercholesterolemic animals were significantly corrected by BL. Inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers were also markedly attenuated in the HCD group following BL treatment. Hypercholesterolemia considerably induced the lipid peroxidation product, TBARS, and oxidative radicals in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues, which were attenuated by BL treatment, particularly, at the 50 mg/kg/day dose. BL enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase that were suppressed by HCD. Histological alterations induced by cholesterol overload in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues were ameliorated by BL supplementation. Our results show that the BL treatments (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) to HCD fed rats improved all the altered parameters. These results demonstrate that BL treatment improves cardiac, renal and hepatic dysfunctions in hypercholesterolaemic rats by activation of cellular antioxidant enzymes and/or suppression of inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Redox Rep ; 25(1): 51-58, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396454

RESUMO

ABSTRACTObjectives: This study explores the protective role of losartan (LT) against oxidative and inflammatory damages in different physiological systems including heart, liver, and kidney tissue in hypercholesterolemic rats.Methods: After induction of hypercholesterolemia by high cholesterol diet for 6 weeks, LT was administered for 4 weeks. In serum, the levels of lipoproteins, aminotransferases, creatine kinases, urea, apoptosis, and inflammatory markers were measured. In cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues, lipid peroxidation product and GSH as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assayed. Finally, histopathological assessment evaluated the structural damage in cardiac, hepatic, and renal tissues.Results: Serum markers of cardiac, hepatic, and renal toxicities including creatine kinases, aminotransferases, and urea were attenuated by LT in hypercholesterolemic animals. Moreover, LT markedly corrected the elevated levels of lipoproteins, apoptosis, and inflammatory biomarkers. Hypercholesterolemia-induced lipid peroxidation, low GSH levels, and diminished activities of antioxidant enzymes were prominently improved in LT treated animals. Histopathological alterations by hypercholesterolemia in heart, liver, and kidney tissues were ameliorated by LT.Conclusion: This study confirmed the pathological enrollment of renin-angiotensin system in hypercholesterolemia-associated metabolic alterations. LT had a significant cardiac, hepatic, and renal protective role against these impairments through down-regulation of oxidative damage, inflammation and necrosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Colesterol na Dieta/toxicidade , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Losartan/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113681, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843238

RESUMO

Metalaxyl is a broad-spectrum chiral fungicide that used for the protection of plants, however extensive use of metalaxyl resulted in serious environmental problems. Thus, a study on the detoxification mechanism in algae/cyanobacteria and their ability for phycoremediation is highly recommended. Here, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of two cyanobacterial species; Anabaena laxa and Nostoc muscorum to R-metalaxyl toxicity as well as their ability as phycoremediators. Two different levels of R-metalaxyl, at mild (10 mg/L) and high dose (25 mg/L), were applied for one-week. We found that A. laxa absorbed and accumulated more intracellular R-metalaxyl compared to N. muscorum. R-metalaxyl, which triggered a dose-based reduction in cell growth, photosynthetic pigment content, and photosynthetic key enzymes' activities i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and ribulose‒1,5‒bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo). These decreases were significantly less pronounced in A. laxa. On the other hand, R-metalaxyl significantly induced oxidative damage markers, e.g., H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation (MDA), protein oxidation and NADPH oxidase activity. However, these increases were also lower in A. laxa compared to N. muscorum. To alleviate R-metalaxyl toxicity, A. laxa induced the polyphenols, flavonoids, tocopherols and glutathione (GSH) levels as well as peroxidase (POX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) enzyme activities. On the contrary, the significant induction of antioxidants in N. muscorum was restricted to ascorbate, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) enzyme activities. Although A. laxa accumulated more R-metalaxyl, it experienced less stress due to subsequent induction of antioxidants. Therefore, A. laxa may be a promising R-metalaxyl phycoremediator. Our results provided basic data for understanding the ecotoxicology of R-metalaxyl contamination in aquatic habitats and the toxicity indices among cyanobacteria.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Alanina/toxicidade , Ascorbato Peroxidases , Catalase , Glutationa , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese
12.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113765, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884208

RESUMO

We utilized volcanic CO2 vents at Castello Aragonese off Ischia Island as a natural laboratory to investigate the effect of lowered pH/elevated CO2 on the bioactivities of extracts from fleshy brown algae Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh. We analysed the carbohydrate levels, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anticancer properties and antimutagenic potential of the algae growing at the acidified site (pH âˆ¼ 6.7) and those of algae growing at the nearby control site Lacco Ameno (pH∼8.1). The results of the present study show that the levels of polysaccharides fucoidan and alginate were higher in the algal population at acidified site. In general, extracts for the algal population from the acidified site showed a higher antioxidant capacity, antilipidperoxidation, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anticancer activities and antimutagenic potential compared to the control population. The increased bioactivity in acidified population could be due to elevated levels of bioactive compounds of algae and/or associated microbial communities. In this snapshot study, we performed bioactivity assays but did not characterize the chemistry and source of presumptive bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, the observed improvement in the medicinal properties of S. vulgare in the acidified oceans provides a promising basis for future marine drug discovery.


Assuntos
Ácidos/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Sargassum/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Ilhas , Alga Marinha , Erupções Vulcânicas
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488745

RESUMO

Earlier studies revealed the potential therapeutic values of Loranthus regularis (L. regularis). This study evaluated Loranthus regularis (L. regularis) extract systemic antidiabetic effects and benefits against diabetic hepatocellular injuries through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways using the streptozotocin (STZ) model in Wistar albino rats. After diabetes induction, animals were orally treated with L. regularis extract for 4 weeks. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were estimated. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), caspase-3, nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2) were estimated in serum. In liver, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reeducates (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were assayed. Finally, the degree of hepatic tissue damage was evaluated histologically. Treatment of the diabetic rats with L. regularis extract markedly reduced the elevated serum levels of glucose, ALT, AST, TC, TG, LDL, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, caspase-3, NO, and PGE-2. L. regularis extract also improved serum levels of insulin and HDL. The elevated TBARS, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 levels in hepatic tissue of diabetic animals were reduced by L. regularis. Moreover, L. regularis extract significantly restored the diminished hepatic GSH level and enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST in diabetic animals. The biochemical protective effects of L. regularis were associated with improved histological hepatocellular integrity and architecture. Taken together, L. regularis has therapeutic effects against diabetic-induced hepatic complications. The restored liver functions and cellular damage might be mediated through free radicals scavenging and proinflammatory cytokine inhibition.

14.
Pharmaceutics ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694244

RESUMO

The physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approach facilitates the construction of novel drug-disease models by allowing incorporation of relevant pathophysiological changes. The aim of the present work was to explore and identify the differences in rifampicin pharmacokinetics (PK) after the application of its single dose in healthy and diseased populations by using PBPK drug-disease models. The Simcyp® simulator was used as a platform for modeling and simulation. The model development process was initiated by predicting rifampicin PK in healthy population after intravenous (i.v) and oral administration. Subsequent to successful evaluation in healthy population, the pathophysiological changes in tuberculosis and cirrhosis population were incorporated into the developed model for predicting rifampicin PK in these populations. The model evaluation was performed by using visual predictive checks and the comparison of mean observed/predicted ratios (ratio(Obs/pred)) of the PK parameters. The predicted PK parameters in the healthy population were in adequate harmony with the reported clinical data. The incorporation of pathophysiological changes in albumin concentration in the tuberculosis population revealed improved prediction of clearance. The developed PBPK drug-disease models have efficiently described rifampicin PK in tuberculosis and cirrhosis populations after administering single drug dose, as the ratio(Obs/pred) for all the PK parameters were within a two-fold error range. The mechanistic nature of the developed PBPK models may facilitate their extension to other diseases and drugs.

15.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(7)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284654

RESUMO

The current study examined the influence of Citrus limon (dry lemon) on the hemato-biochemical profiles, and antioxidant indices of growing rabbits. Forty-eight growing New Zealand White rabbits (age, eight weeks; weight, 1543.33 ± 25 g) were allocated into three groups (16 animals each), the first group was (control) fed a basal diet, whereas the second and third groups were supplemented with dried lemon, 1% or 2% DLP, respectively. A GC-MS analysis of more than 27 active constituents was performed. Feed conversion efficiency was (p < 0.05) better with diets containing 1% or 2% dry lemon, compared to the control group. Hematological indexes were increased significantly with the addition of DLP compared to those in the control group. Adding 1% or 2% dry lemon to rabbit diet increased (p < 0.05) enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities (TAC, SOD, GSH, GST, and CAT) in serum and liver tissues. Taken together, these data reveal the advantages and antioxidant effects of dry lemon supplementation for growing rabbits once supplemented at a maximum of 2% in their daily diet.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24010-24019, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222653

RESUMO

Actinomycetes are a group of the Gram-positive bacteria famous for their antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-parasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of two bacterial extracts derived from two soil actinomycete strains (S19 and G30) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats. Sixty-four male rats were assigned to four groups of 16 rats in each group. The 1st group was kept as a normal (control) group and given corn oil combined with the used production medium, while the 2nd group received only CCl4 (CCl4 group). On the other hand, the 3rd group (CCl4+S19) was administered CCl4 and the extract of the actinomycete strain S19 and the 4th group (CCl4+G30) received CCl4 and the extract of the actinomycete strain G30, both treatments for 8 weeks. The results revealed that the two actinomycete extracts S19 and G30 could significantly (p < 0.01) lower the elevated levels of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid caused by the CCl4 administration. Additionally, the two actinomycete extracts improved the decreased serum total protein. Interestingly, treatment of the CCl4-intoxicated rats with S19 and G30 extracts remarkably reversed the lowered renal glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), peroxidase (Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and the elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. The histopathological examination of the treated kidney revealed that the two actinomycete extracts improved rats against CCl4-induced kidney lesions. The present results suggested that the protective effect of the two actinomycete extracts may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress and improving the antioxidant defense system.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Fatores Biológicos/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
17.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(2): 534-546, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597625

RESUMO

Using nutritional antioxidants in livestock systems is considered the key in improving animal production. The current study assumes that dietary tomato powder (TP) supplementation positively affects haemato-immunological, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters for New Zealand rabbits. A total of 30 rabbits (45 days old) were assigned to three groups, including a diet with no additives (control), and two dietary treatments with the providing of 1% or 2% TP. Mass spectrometric study for TP methanolic extract showed some phenolic compounds. Consumption of TP supplemented diets significantly (p < 0.001) affected body weight gain and feed efficiency. Red blood cells and white blood cells count exhibited a significant increase (p < 0.001) in both TP groups compared with the control. In addition to, feeding rabbits on TP enhanced cell-mediated and humoral immune responses through a significant increase in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and levels of immunoglobulins (TIg, IgG, IgM and IgA). Supplementation of TP significantly (p < 0.01) reduced lipid profile induces except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values. A remarkable significant (p < 0.001) effect on serum and hepatic oxidative stress responses were observed with TP addition. Ultimately, TP supplementation could play a potential role as a growth and health enhancer for fattening rabbits.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lycopersicon esculentum , Pós , Coelhos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Estresse Oxidativo
18.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(1): 26-34, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064281

RESUMO

Previous studies have brought to light the toxic effect of cerium chloride (CeCl3) but very little is known about the oxidative brain injury caused by this metal. Medical plants have a well-recognized role in the management of damage caused by pollutants such as CeCl3. Syzygium aromaticum, a potent natural source of bioactive compounds and rich in secondary metabolites, has a broad range of biological functions. The aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract (ESA) to improve the adverse effects of CeCl3 in the brain tissue. Adult mice were exposed to CeCl3 (20 mg/kg body weight [BW]), with or without ESA, for 60 days. We investigate mice's behavior, damages of cholinergic system and oxidative stress parameters in mice brain. In the present study, in vitro test confirmed that ESA has antioxidant capacity attributed to the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins contents. In vivo study showed that CeCl3 caused brain injuries manifested in memory impairment, increase in acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid, proteins, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems), and histopathological alteration in brain tissue. Addition of ESA repaired memory impairment, decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, restored oxidative state, and prevented histopathological alteration. In conclusion, the experimental results showed the protective effects of ethanol extract of Syzygium aromaticum against cerium-induced brain damage.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cério/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Syzygium/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(4): 3834-3847, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539391

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of two extracts derived from two soil actinomycete strains, designated S19 and G30, against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Sixty-four male rats were divided into four groups of 16 rats per group. The first group was a control group given corn oil and the nutritive medium which is composed of a mixture of the two used media. The second group received CCl4 only, the third group was administered CCl4 and the extract S19, and the fourth group was administered CCl4 and the extract G30. The results were taken after a treatment period of 8 weeks. Our data demonstrated that the two actinomycete extracts significantly (P < 0.01) lowered the CCl4-induced elevation of serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after 8 weeks of treatment. The extract S19 had no effect on serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total bilirubin, whereas the extract G30 significantly decreased (P < 0.01) the elevated levels of these parameters in the serum, especially after 4 weeks of treatment. The levels of hepatic glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), peroxidase (Px), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased (P < 0.01), while those of malondialdehyde (MDA) markedly decreased in rats treated with the two extracts. Furthermore, histopathological lesions in the liver, including necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, hydropic degeneration, and congestion of the central vein, were partially reversed by treatment with the two microbial extracts. Our results provided evidence for the protective effect of the two used actinomycete extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage occurred through the reduction of oxidative stress and improvement of antioxidant defense markers.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Ratos
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 68(1): 217-222, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125456

RESUMO

Strains SYSU D8007T and SYSU D8014T were isolated from desert soil collected from Saudi Arabia. The two isolates were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, aerobic and non-spore-forming. These strains were able to grow at 4-45 °C and in the presence of up to 8 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain SYSU D8007T could grow at pH 6.0-10.0, and strain SYSU D8014T at pH 5.0-10.0. They shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Microbacterium marinilacus YM11-607T and Microbacterium paludicola US15T. Menaquinones MK-11 and MK-12 were detected as the respiratory quinones. The polar lipid profiles of strains SYSU D8007T and SYSU D8014T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, but differed in the number of unidentified glycolipids. Strain SYSU D8007T contained anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 as the predominant fatty acids, while strain SYSU D8014T contained anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as the major fatty acids (>10 %). While glucose, rhamnose and ribose were detected in strain SYSU D8007T as the whole-cell sugars, galactose, glucose and rhamnose were present in strain SYSU D8014T. The genomic DNA G+C content of strains SYSU D8007T and SYSU D8014T was 72.2 and 73.6 mol%, respectively. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, it can be concluded that strains SYSU D8007T and SYSU D8014T represent two novel species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the names Microbacterium album sp. nov. and Microbacterium deserti sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. The type strains are SYSU D8007T (=CGMCC 1.15794T=KCTC 39990T) and SYSU D8014T (=CPCC 204619T=KCTC39991T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Clima Desértico , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
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