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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691812

RESUMO

Integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies enables identification of candidate genes. However, evaluating whether nearby signals may share causal variants, termed colocalization, is affected by the presence of allelic heterogeneity, different variants at the same locus impacting the same phenotype. We previously identified eQTLs in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 770 participants in the METSIM study and detected 15 eQTL signals that colocalized with GWAS signals for waist-hip ratio (WHRadjBMI) from the GIANT consortium. Here, we reevaluated evidence of colocalization using two approaches, conditional analysis and the Bayesian test COLOC, and show that providing COLOC with approximate conditional summary statistics at multi-signal GWAS loci can reconcile disagreements in colocalization classification between the two tests. Next, we performed conditional analysis on the METSIM subcutaneous adipose tissue data to identify conditionally distinct, or secondary, eQTL signals. We used the two approaches to test for colocalization with WHRadjBMI GWAS signals and evaluated the differences in colocalization classification between the two tests. Through these analyses, we identified four GWAS signals colocalized with secondary eQTL signals for FAM13A, SSR3, GRB14, and FMO1. Thus, at loci with multiple eQTL and/or GWAS signals, analyzing each signal independently enabled additional candidate genes to be identified.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 773-787, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of genetic loci associated with cardiometabolic traits including type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid levels, body fat distribution, and adiposity, although most causal genes remain unknown. We used subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-seq data from 434 Finnish men from the METSIM study to identify 9,687 primary and 2,785 secondary cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL; <1 Mb from TSS, FDR < 1%). Compared to primary eQTL signals, secondary eQTL signals were located further from transcription start sites, had smaller effect sizes, and were less enriched in adipose tissue regulatory elements compared to primary signals. Among 2,843 cardiometabolic GWAS signals, 262 colocalized by LD and conditional analysis with 318 transcripts as primary and conditionally distinct secondary cis-eQTLs, including some across ancestries. Of cardiometabolic traits examined for adipose tissue eQTL colocalizations, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and circulating lipid traits had the highest percentage of colocalized eQTLs (15% and 14%, respectively). Among alleles associated with increased cardiometabolic GWAS risk, approximately half (53%) were associated with decreased gene expression level. Mediation analyses of colocalized genes and cardiometabolic traits within the 434 individuals provided further evidence that gene expression influences variant-trait associations. These results identify hundreds of candidate genes that may act in adipose tissue to influence cardiometabolic traits.

3.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(8): 2521-2533, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186305

RESUMO

Identifying the regulatory mechanisms of genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci affecting adipose tissue has been restricted due to limited characterization of adipose transcriptional regulatory elements. We profiled chromatin accessibility in three frozen human subcutaneous adipose tissue needle biopsies and preadipocytes and adipocytes from the Simpson Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) cell strain using an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-seq). We identified 68,571 representative accessible chromatin regions (peaks) across adipose tissue samples (FDR < 5%). GWAS loci for eight cardiometabolic traits were enriched in these peaks (P < 0.005), with the strongest enrichment for waist-hip ratio. Of 110 recently described cardiometabolic GWAS loci colocalized with adipose tissue eQTLs, 59 loci had one or more variants overlapping an adipose tissue peak. Annotated variants at the SNX10 waist-hip ratio locus and the ATP2A1-SH2B1 body mass index locus showed allelic differences in regulatory assays. These adipose tissue accessible chromatin regions elucidate genetic variants that may alter adipose tissue function to impact cardiometabolic traits.

4.
Bioinformatics ; 35(22): 4724-4729, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099385

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Tens of thousands of reproducibly identified GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) variants, with the vast majority falling in non-coding regions resulting in no eventual protein products, call urgently for mechanistic interpretations. Although numerous methods exist, there are few, if any methods, for simultaneously testing the mediation effects of multiple correlated SNPs via some mediator (e.g. the expression of a gene in the neighborhood) on phenotypic outcome. We propose multi-SNP mediation intersection-union test (SMUT) to fill in this methodological gap. Our extensive simulations demonstrate the validity of SMUT as well as substantial, up to 92%, power gains over alternative methods. In addition, SMUT confirmed known mediators in a real dataset of Finns for plasma adiponectin level, which were missed by many alternative methods. We believe SMUT will become a useful tool to generate mechanistic hypotheses underlying GWAS variants, facilitating functional follow-up. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The R package SMUT is publicly available from CRAN at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=SMUT. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e011922, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070104

RESUMO

Background Recent studies have revealed sexually dimorphic associations between the carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 locus, intermediates of the metabolic pathway leading from choline to urea, and risk of coronary artery disease ( CAD ) in women. Based on evidence from the literature, the atheroprotective association with carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 could be mediated by the strong genetic effect of this locus on increased circulating glycine levels. Methods and Results We sought to identify additional genetic determinants of circulating glycine levels by carrying out a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data in up to 30 118 subjects of European ancestry. Mendelian randomization and other analytical approaches were used to determine whether glycine-associated variants were associated with CAD and traditional risk factors. Twelve loci were significantly associated with circulating glycine levels, 7 of which were not previously known to be involved in glycine metabolism ( ACADM , PHGDH , COX 18- ADAMTS 3, PSPH , TRIB 1, PTPRD , and ABO ). Glycine-raising alleles at several loci individually exhibited directionally consistent associations with decreased risk of CAD . However, these effects could not be attributed directly to glycine because of associations with other CAD -related traits. By comparison, genetic models that only included the 2 variants directly involved in glycine degradation and for which there were no other pleiotropic associations were not associated with risk of CAD or blood pressure, lipid levels, and obesity-related traits. Conclusions These results provide additional insight into the genetic architecture of glycine metabolism, but do not yield conclusive evidence for a causal relationship between circulating levels of this amino acid and risk of CAD in humans.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1156-1171, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009165

RESUMO

A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however, the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, Finnish, and Pakistani families with otitis media. Sixteen novel, damaging A2ML1 variants identified in otitis media patients were rare or low-frequency in population-matched controls. In the indigenous population, both gingivitis and A2ML1 variants including the known duplication variant and the novel splice variant c.4061 + 1 G>C were independently associated with otitis media. Sequencing of salivary RNA samples from indigenous Filipinos demonstrated lower A2ML1 expression according to the carriage of A2ML1 variants. Sequencing of additional salivary RNA samples from US patients with otitis media revealed differentially expressed genes that are highly correlated with A2ML1 expression levels. In particular, RND3 is upregulated in both A2ML1 variant carriers and high-A2ML1 expressors. These findings support a role for A2ML1 in keratinocyte differentiation within the middle ear as part of otitis media pathology and the potential application of ROCK inhibition in otitis media.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 637-653, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388398

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of loci associated with hundreds of complex diseases and traits, and progress is being made toward elucidating the causal variants and genes underlying these associations. Functional characterization of mechanisms at GWAS loci is a multi-faceted challenge. Challenges include linkage disequilibrium and allelic heterogeneity at each locus, the noncoding nature of most loci, and the time and cost needed for experimentally evaluating the potential mechanistic contributions of genes and variants. As GWAS sample sizes increase, more loci are identified, and the complexities of individual loci emerge. Loci can consist of multiple association signals, each of which can reflect the influence of multiple variants, inseparable by association analyses. Each signal within a locus can influence the same or different target genes. Experimental studies of genes and variants can differ on the basis of cell type, cellular environment, or other context-specific variables. In this review, we describe the complexity of mechanisms at GWAS loci-including multiple signals, multiple variants, and/or multiple genes-and the implications these complexities hold for experimental study design and interpretation of GWAS mechanisms.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445632

RESUMO

Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the majority of blood lipid-associated GWAS signals remain elusive. One association signal is located in intron 3 of VLDLR; rs3780181-A is a risk allele associated (P≤2x10-9) with increased TC and LDL-C. We investigated variants, genes, and mechanisms underlying this association signal. We used a functional genetic approach to show that the intronic region spanning rs3780181 exhibited 1.6 to 7.6-fold enhancer activity in human HepG2 hepatocyte, THP-1 monocyte, and SGBS preadipocyte cells and that the rs3780181-A risk allele showed significantly less enhancer activity compared to the G-allele, consistent with the direction of an eQTL in liver. In addition, rs3780181 alleles showed differential binding to multiple nuclear proteins, including stronger IRF2 binding to the rs3780181 G-allele. We used a CRISPR-cas9 approach to delete 475 and 663 bp of the putative enhancer element in HEK293T kidney cells; compared to expression of mock-edited cell lines, the homozygous enhancer deletion cell lines showed 1.2-fold significantly (P<0.04) decreased expression of VLDLR, as well as 1.5-fold decreased expression of SMARCA2, located 388 kb away. Together, these results identify an enhancer of VLDLR expression and suggest that altered binding of one or more factors bound to rs3780181 alleles decreases enhancer activity and reduce at least VLDLR expression, leading to increased TC and LDL-C.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 535-552, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290150

RESUMO

Although recent studies provide evidence for a common genetic basis between complex traits and Mendelian disorders, a thorough quantification of their overlap in a phenotype-specific manner remains elusive. Here, we have quantified the overlap of genes identified through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for 62 complex traits and diseases with genes containing mutations known to cause 20 broad categories of Mendelian disorders. We identified a significant enrichment of genes linked to phenotypically matched Mendelian disorders in GWAS gene sets; of the total 1,240 comparisons, a higher proportion of phenotypically matched or related pairs (n = 50 of 92 [54%]) than phenotypically unmatched pairs (n = 27 of 1,148 [2%]) demonstrated significant overlap, confirming a phenotype-specific enrichment pattern. Further, we observed elevated GWAS effect sizes near genes linked to phenotypically matched Mendelian disorders. Finally, we report examples of GWAS variants localized at the transcription start site or physically interacting with the promoters of genes linked to phenotypically matched Mendelian disorders. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that genes that are disrupted in Mendelian disorders are dysregulated by non-coding variants in complex traits and demonstrate how leveraging findings from related Mendelian disorders and functional genomic datasets can prioritize genes that are putatively dysregulated by local and distal non-coding GWAS variants.

11.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(8): e726-e730, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113565

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Variants in SLC26A4 are an important cause of congenital hearing impairment in the Philippines. BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation is a standard rehabilitation option for congenital hearing impairment worldwide, but places a huge cost burden in lower-income countries. The study of risk factors such as genetic variants that may help determine genetic etiology of hearing loss and also predict cochlear implant outcomes is therefore beneficial. METHODS: DNA samples from 29 GJB2-negative Filipino cochlear implantees were Sanger-sequenced for the coding exons of SLC26A4. Exome sequencing was performed to confirm results. RESULTS: Four cochlear implantees with bilaterally enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA) were homozygous for the pathogenic SLC26A4 c.706C>G (p.Leu236Val) variant, which has a minor allele frequency of 0.0015 in Filipino controls. In patients with the SLC26A4 variant there was no association between cochlear implant outcome and age at implantation or duration of implant. There was also no association between the occurrence of the SLC26A4 variant and postsurgical audiometric thresholds and parents' evaluation of aural/oral performance of children (PEACH) scores. On the other hand, the SLC26A4 variant increased presurgical median audiometric thresholds (p = 0.01), particularly at 500 to 2000 Hz. CONCLUSION: The SLC26A4 c.706C>G (p.Leu236Val) variant is a frequent cause of congenital hearing impairment in Filipinos and is associated with bilateral EVA and increased presurgical audiometric thresholds, but does not adversely affect post-implant outcomes.

12.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3472, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135520

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, Supplementary Table 10 contained incorrect primer sequences for the mobility shift assay for SNP rs4776984. These errors have now been fixed and the corrected version of the Supplementary Information PDF is available to download from the HTML version of the Article.

14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1512, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666371

RESUMO

Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression. We further intersect these data with published genome-wide association studies for BMI and BMI-related metabolic traits to identify the genes that are under genetic cis regulation in human adipocytes via chromosomal interactions. This integrative genomics approach identifies four cis-eQTL-eGene relationships associated with BMI or obesity-related traits, including rs4776984 and MAP2K5, which we further confirm by EMSA, and highlights 38 additional candidate genes.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 620-635, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625024

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and functional genomics approaches implicate enhancer disruption in islet dysfunction and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. We applied genetic fine-mapping and functional (epi)genomic approaches to a T2D- and proinsulin-associated 15q22.2 locus to identify a most likely causal variant, determine its direction of effect, and elucidate plausible target genes. Fine-mapping and conditional analyses of proinsulin levels of 8,635 non-diabetic individuals from the METSIM study support a single association signal represented by a cluster of 16 strongly associated (p < 10-17) variants in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.8) with the GWAS index SNP rs7172432. These variants reside in an evolutionarily and functionally conserved islet and ß cell stretch or super enhancer; the most strongly associated variant (rs7163757, p = 3 × 10-19) overlaps a conserved islet open chromatin site. DNA sequence containing the rs7163757 risk allele displayed 2-fold higher enhancer activity than the non-risk allele in reporter assays (p < 0.01) and was differentially bound by ß cell nuclear extract proteins. Transcription factor NFAT specifically potentiated risk-allele enhancer activity and altered patterns of nuclear protein binding to the risk allele in vitro, suggesting that it could be a factor mediating risk-allele effects. Finally, the rs7163757 proinsulin-raising and T2D risk allele (C) was associated with increased expression of C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, both of which were induced by inflammatory cytokines, in human islets. Together, these data suggest that rs7163757 contributes to genetic risk of islet dysfunction and T2D by increasing NFAT-mediated islet enhancer activity and modulating C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, expression in (patho)physiologic states.

16.
PLoS Genet ; 14(4): e1007275, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621232

RESUMO

To identify genetic contributions to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits (fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HbA1c), we conducted genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) in up to 7,178 Chinese subjects from nine provinces in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). We examined patterns of population structure within CHNS and found that allele frequencies differed across provinces, consistent with genetic drift and population substructure. We further validated 32 previously described T2D- and glycemic trait-loci, including G6PC2 and SIX3-SIX2 associated with fasting glucose. At G6PC2, we replicated a known fasting glucose-associated variant (rs34177044) and identified a second signal (rs2232326), a low-frequency (4%), probably damaging missense variant (S324P). A variant within the lead fasting glucose-associated signal at SIX3-SIX2 co-localized with pancreatic islet expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for SIX3, SIX2, and three noncoding transcripts. To identify variants functionally responsible for the fasting glucose association at SIX3-SIX2, we tested five candidate variants for allelic differences in regulatory function. The rs12712928-C allele, associated with higher fasting glucose and lower transcript expression level, showed lower transcriptional activity in reporter assays and increased binding to GABP compared to the rs12712928-G, suggesting that rs12712928-C contributes to elevated fasting glucose levels by disrupting an islet enhancer, resulting in reduced gene expression. Taken together, these analyses identified multiple loci associated with glycemic traits across China, and suggest a regulatory mechanism at the SIX3-SIX2 fasting glucose GWAS locus.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , China , Jejum , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Locos de Características Quantitativas
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1830-1846, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566149

RESUMO

Most epigenome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in blood. However, metabolic syndrome is mediated by a dysregulation of adiposity and therefore it is critical to study adipose tissue in order to understand the effects of this syndrome on epigenomes. To determine if natural variation in DNA methylation was associated with metabolic syndrome traits, we profiled global methylation levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. We measured association between 32 clinical traits related to diabetes and obesity in 201 people from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men cohort. We performed epigenome-wide association studies between DNA methylation levels and traits, and identified associations for 13 clinical traits in 21 loci. We prioritized candidate genes in these loci using expression quantitative trait loci, and identified 18 high confidence candidate genes, including known and novel genes associated with diabetes and obesity traits. Using methylation deconvolution, we examined which cell types may be mediating the associations, and concluded that most of the loci we identified were specific to adipocytes. We determined whether the abundance of cell types varies with metabolic traits, and found that macrophages increased in abundance with the severity of metabolic syndrome traits. Finally, we developed a DNA methylation-based biomarker to assess type 2 diabetes risk in adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that profiling DNA methylation in adipose tissue is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular effects of metabolic syndrome on adipose tissue, and can be used in conjunction with traditional genetic analyses to further characterize this disorder.

18.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 50: 52-59, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471259

RESUMO

Many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified signals located in non-coding regions, and an increasing number of functional genomics annotations of regulatory elements and assays of regulatory activity have been used to investigate mechanisms. Genome-wide datasets that characterize chromatin structure help detect potential regulatory elements. Assays to experimentally assess candidate variants include transcriptional reporter assays, and recently, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRAs). Additionally, the effect of candidate regulatory elements and variants on gene expression and function can be evaluated using genomic editing with the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. We highlight some recent studies that employed these strategies to identify variant effects and elucidate molecular and/or biological mechanisms at GWAS loci for lipid traits and coronary artery disease.

19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(9): 1664-1674, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481666

RESUMO

Comprehensive metabolite profiling captures many highly heritable traits, including amino acid levels, which are potentially sensitive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis. To better understand the contribution of genetic variation to amino acid levels, we performed single variant and gene-based tests of association between nine serum amino acids (alanine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) and 16.6 million genotyped and imputed variants in 8545 non-diabetic Finnish men from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study with replication in Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We identified five novel loci associated with amino acid levels (P = < 5×10-8): LOC157273/PPP1R3B with glycine (rs9987289, P = 2.3×10-26); ZFHX3 (chr16:73326579, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.42%, P = 3.6×10-9), LIPC (rs10468017, P = 1.5×10-8), and WWOX (rs9937914, P = 3.8×10-8) with alanine; and TRIB1 with tyrosine (rs28601761, P = 8×10-9). Gene-based tests identified two novel genes harboring missense variants of MAF <1% that show aggregate association with amino acid levels: PYCR1 with glycine (Pgene = 1.5×10-6) and BCAT2 with valine (Pgene = 7.4×10-7); neither gene was implicated by single variant association tests. These findings are among the first applications of gene-based tests to identify new loci for amino acid levels. In addition to the seven novel gene associations, we identified five independent signals at established amino acid loci, including two rare variant signals at GLDC (rs138640017, MAF=0.95%, Pconditional = 5.8×10-40) with glycine levels and HAL (rs141635447, MAF = 0.46%, Pconditional = 9.4×10-11) with histidine levels. Examination of all single variant association results in our data revealed a strong inverse relationship between effect size and MAF (Ptrend<0.001). These novel signals provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of amino acid metabolism and potentially, their perturbations in disease.

20.
Diabetes ; 67(2): 334-342, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141982

RESUMO

Rare fully penetrant mutations in AKT2 are an established cause of monogenic disorders of glucose metabolism. Recently, a novel partial loss-of-function AKT2 coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) was identified that is nearly specific to Finns (frequency 1.1%), with the low-frequency allele associated with an increase in fasting plasma insulin level and risk of type 2 diabetes. The effects of the p.Pro50Thr AKT2 variant (p.P50T/AKT2) on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the whole body and in different tissues have not previously been investigated. We identified carriers (N = 20) and matched noncarriers (N = 25) for this allele in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM)study and invited these individuals back for positron emission tomography study with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. When we compared p.P50T/AKT2 carriers to noncarriers, we found a 39.4% reduction in whole-body GU (P = 0.006) and a 55.6% increase in the rate of endogenous glucose production (P = 0.038). We found significant reductions in GU in multiple tissues-skeletal muscle (36.4%), liver (16.1%), brown adipose (29.7%), and bone marrow (32.9%)-and increases of 16.8-19.1% in seven tested brain regions. These data demonstrate that the p.P50T substitution of AKT2 influences insulin-mediated GU in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues and may explain, at least in part, the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in p.P50T/AKT2 carriers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Resistência à Insulina , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Absorção Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Finlândia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
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