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1.
Genetics ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067325

RESUMO

The laboratory mouse is the most widely used animal model for biomedical research, due in part to its well annotated genome, wealth of genetic resources and the ability to precisely manipulate its genome. Despite the importance of genetics for mouse research, genetic quality control (QC) is not standardized, in part due to the lack of cost effective, informative and robust platforms. Genotyping arrays are standard tools for mouse research and remain an attractive alternative even in the era of high-throughput whole genome sequencing. Here we describe the content and performance of a new iteration of the Mouse Universal Genotyping Array, MiniMUGA, an array-based genetic QC platform with over 11,000 probes. In addition to robust discrimination between most classical and wild-derived laboratory strains, MiniMUGA was designed to contain features not available in other platforms: 1) chromosomal sex determination, 2) discrimination between substrains from multiple commercial vendors, 3) diagnostic SNPs for popular laboratory strains, 4) detection of constructs used in genetically engineered mice, and 5) an easy-to-interpret report summarizing these results. In-depth annotation of all probes should facilitate custom analyses by individual researchers. To determine the performance of MiniMUGA we genotyped 6,899 samples from a wide variety of genetic backgrounds. The performance of MiniMUGA compares favorably with three previous iterations of the MUGA family of arrays both in discrimination capabilities and robustness. We have generated publicly available consensus genotypes for 241 inbred strains including classical, wild-derived and recombinant inbred lines. Here we also report the detection of a substantial number of XO and XXY individuals across a variety of sample types, new markers that expand the utility of reduced complexity crosses to genetic backgrounds other than C57BL/6, and the robust detection of 17 genetic constructs. We provide preliminary evidence that the array can be used to identify both partial sex chromosome duplication and mosaicism, and that diagnostic SNPs can be used to determine how long inbred mice have been bred independently from the relevant main stock. We conclude that MiniMUGA is a valuable platform for genetic QC and an important new tool to the increase rigor and reproducibility of mouse research.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4912, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999275

RESUMO

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in the stretch enhancers most strongly implicated in GWAS signal location; (c) enrichment of islet cis-eQTL signals with T2D risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies; and (d) colocalization between 47 islet cis-eQTLs and variants influencing T2D or glycemic traits, including DGKB and TCF7L2. Our findings illustrate the advantages of performing functional and regulatory studies in disease relevant tissues.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diacilglicerol Quinase/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009019, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915782

RESUMO

Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can include multiple distinct association signals. We sought to identify the molecular basis of multiple association signals for adiponectin, a hormone involved in glucose regulation secreted almost exclusively from adipose tissue, identified in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study. With GWAS data for 9,262 men, four loci were significantly associated with adiponectin: ADIPOQ, CDH13, IRS1, and PBRM1. We performed stepwise conditional analyses to identify distinct association signals, a subset of which are also nearly independent (lead variant pairwise r2<0.01). Two loci exhibited allelic heterogeneity, ADIPOQ and CDH13. Of seven association signals at the ADIPOQ locus, two signals colocalized with adipose tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for three transcripts: trait-increasing alleles at one signal were associated with increased ADIPOQ and LINC02043, while trait-increasing alleles at the other signal were associated with decreased ADIPOQ-AS1. In reporter assays, adiponectin-increasing alleles at two signals showed corresponding directions of effect on transcriptional activity. Putative mechanisms for the seven ADIPOQ signals include a missense variant (ADIPOQ G90S), a splice variant, a promoter variant, and four enhancer variants. Of two association signals at the CDH13 locus, the first signal consisted of promoter variants, including the lead adipose tissue eQTL variant for CDH13, while a second signal included a distal intron 1 enhancer variant that showed ~2-fold allelic differences in transcriptional reporter activity. Fine-mapping and experimental validation demonstrated that multiple, distinct association signals at these loci can influence multiple transcripts through multiple molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Alelos , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009018, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925908

RESUMO

Reverse causality has made it difficult to establish the causal directions between obesity and prediabetes and obesity and insulin resistance. To disentangle whether obesity causally drives prediabetes and insulin resistance already in non-diabetic individuals, we utilized the UK Biobank and METSIM cohort to perform a Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in the non-diabetic individuals. Our results suggest that both prediabetes and systemic insulin resistance are caused by obesity (p = 1.2×10-3 and p = 3.1×10-24). As obesity reflects the amount of body fat, we next studied how adipose tissue affects insulin resistance. We performed both bulk RNA-sequencing and single nucleus RNA sequencing on frozen human subcutaneous adipose biopsies to assess adipose cell-type heterogeneity and mitochondrial (MT) gene expression in insulin resistance. We discovered that the adipose MT gene expression and body fat percent are both independently associated with insulin resistance (p≤0.05 for each) when adjusting for the decomposed adipose cell-type proportions. Next, we showed that these 3 factors, adipose MT gene expression, body fat percent, and adipose cell types, explain a substantial amount (44.39%) of variance in insulin resistance and can be used to predict it (p≤2.64×10-5 in 3 independent human cohorts). In summary, we demonstrated that obesity is a strong determinant of both prediabetes and insulin resistance, and discovered that individuals' adipose cell-type composition, adipose MT gene expression, and body fat percent predict their insulin resistance, emphasizing the critical role of adipose tissue in systemic insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
5.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) susceptibility has significant heritability; however, the role of rare variants in OM is mostly unknown. Our goal is to identify novel rare variants that confer OM susceptibility. METHODS: We performed exome and Sanger sequencing of >1000 DNA samples from 551 multiethnic families with OM and unrelated individuals, RNA-sequencing and microbiome sequencing and analyses of swabs from the outer ear, middle ear, nasopharynx and oral cavity. We also examined protein localisation and gene expression in infected and healthy middle ear tissues. RESULTS: A large, intermarried pedigree that includes 81 OM-affected and 53 unaffected individuals cosegregates two known rare A2ML1 variants, a common FUT2 variant and a rare, novel pathogenic variant c.1682A>G (p.Glu561Gly) within SPINK5 (LOD=4.09). Carriage of the SPINK5 missense variant resulted in increased relative abundance of Microbacteriaceae in the middle ear, along with occurrence of Microbacteriaceae in the outer ear and oral cavity but not the nasopharynx. Eight additional novel SPINK5 variants were identified in 12 families and individuals with OM. A role for SPINK5 in OM susceptibility is further supported by lower RNA counts in variant carriers, strong SPINK5 localisation in outer ear skin, faint localisation to middle ear mucosa and eardrum and increased SPINK5 expression in human cholesteatoma. CONCLUSION: SPINK5 variants confer susceptibility to non-syndromic OM. These variants potentially contribute to middle ear pathology through breakdown of mucosal and epithelial barriers, immunodeficiency such as poor vaccination response, alteration of head and neck microbiota and facilitation of entry of opportunistic pathogens into the middle ear.

6.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(6): 601-610, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511796

RESUMO

In observational genomics data sets, there is often confounding of the effect of an exposure on gene expression. To adjust for confounding when estimating the exposure effect, a common approach involves including potential confounders as covariates with the exposure in a regression model of gene expression. However, when the exposure and confounders interact to influence gene expression, the fitted regression model does not necessarily estimate the overall effect of the exposure. Using inverse probability weighting (IPW) or the parametric g-formula in these instances is straightforward to apply and yields consistent effect estimates. IPW can readily be integrated into a genomics data analysis pipeline with upstream data processing and normalization, while the g-formula can be implemented by making simple alterations to the regression model. The regression, IPW, and g-formula approaches to exposure effect estimation are compared herein using simulations; advantages and disadvantages of each approach are explored. The methods are applied to a case study estimating the effect of current smoking on gene expression in adipose tissue.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(6): 1383-1393, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868224

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies in human liver are crucial for elucidating how genetic variation influences variability in disease risk and therapeutic outcomes and may help guide strategies to obtain maximal efficacy and safety of clinical interventions. Associations between expression microarray and genome-wide genotype data from four human liver eQTL studies (n = 1,183) were analyzed. More than 2.3 million cis-eQTLs for 15,668 genes were identified. When eQTLs were filtered against a list of 1,496 drug response genes, 187,829 cis-eQTLs for 1,191 genes were identified. Additionally, 1,683 sex-biased cis-eQTLs were identified, as well as 49 and 73 cis-eQTLs that colocalized with genome-wide association study signals for blood metabolite or lipid levels, respectively. Translational relevance of these results is evidenced by linking DPYD eQTLs to differences in safety of chemotherapy, linking the sex-biased regulation of PCSK9 expression to anti-lipid therapy, and identifying the G-protein coupled receptor GPR180 as a novel drug target for hypertriglyceridemia.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 112-120, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883642

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (∼38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (∼10% and ∼1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(24): 4161-4172, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691812

RESUMO

Integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies enables identification of candidate genes. However, evaluating whether nearby signals may share causal variants, termed colocalization, is affected by the presence of allelic heterogeneity, different variants at the same locus impacting the same phenotype. We previously identified eQTL in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 770 participants in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study and detected 15 eQTL signals that colocalized with GWAS signals for waist-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits consortium. Here, we reevaluated evidence of colocalization using two approaches, conditional analysis and the Bayesian test COLOC, and show that providing COLOC with approximate conditional summary statistics at multi-signal GWAS loci can reconcile disagreements in colocalization classification between the two tests. Next, we performed conditional analysis on the METSIM subcutaneous adipose tissue data to identify conditionally distinct or secondary eQTL signals. We used the two approaches to test for colocalization with WHRadjBMI GWAS signals and evaluated the differences in colocalization classification between the two tests. Through these analyses, we identified four GWAS signals colocalized with secondary eQTL signals for FAM13A, SSR3, GRB14 and FMO1. Thus, at loci with multiple eQTL and/or GWAS signals, analyzing each signal independently enabled additional candidate genes to be identified.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 773-787, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of genetic loci associated with cardiometabolic traits including type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid levels, body fat distribution, and adiposity, although most causal genes remain unknown. We used subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-seq data from 434 Finnish men from the METSIM study to identify 9,687 primary and 2,785 secondary cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL; <1 Mb from TSS, FDR < 1%). Compared to primary eQTL signals, secondary eQTL signals were located further from transcription start sites, had smaller effect sizes, and were less enriched in adipose tissue regulatory elements compared to primary signals. Among 2,843 cardiometabolic GWAS signals, 262 colocalized by LD and conditional analysis with 318 transcripts as primary and conditionally distinct secondary cis-eQTLs, including some across ancestries. Of cardiometabolic traits examined for adipose tissue eQTL colocalizations, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and circulating lipid traits had the highest percentage of colocalized eQTLs (15% and 14%, respectively). Among alleles associated with increased cardiometabolic GWAS risk, approximately half (53%) were associated with decreased gene expression level. Mediation analyses of colocalized genes and cardiometabolic traits within the 434 individuals provided further evidence that gene expression influences variant-trait associations. These results identify hundreds of candidate genes that may act in adipose tissue to influence cardiometabolic traits.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Expressão Gênica , Obesidade/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Finlândia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
Nat Metab ; 1(6): 630-642, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538139

RESUMO

Identifying gene-environment interactions (GxEs) contributing to human cardiometabolic disorders is challenging. Here we apply a reverse GxE candidate search by deriving candidate variants from promoter-enhancer interactions that respond to dietary fatty acid challenge through altered chromatin accessibility in human primary adipocytes. We then test all variants residing in the lipid-responsive open chromatin sites within adipocyte promoter-enhancer contacts for interaction effects between the genotype and dietary saturated fat intake on body mass index (BMI) in the UK Biobank. We discover 14 novel GxE variants in 12 lipid-responsive promoters, including well-known lipid genes (LIPE, CARM1, and PLIN2) and novel genes, such as LDB3, for which we provide further functional and integrative genomics evidence. We further identify 24 GxE variants in enhancers, totaling 38 new GxE variants for BMI in the UK Biobank, demonstrating that molecular genomics data produced in physiologically relevant contexts can discover new functional GxE mechanisms in humans.

12.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(8): 2521-2533, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186305

RESUMO

Identifying the regulatory mechanisms of genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci affecting adipose tissue has been restricted due to limited characterization of adipose transcriptional regulatory elements. We profiled chromatin accessibility in three frozen human subcutaneous adipose tissue needle biopsies and preadipocytes and adipocytes from the Simpson Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) cell strain using an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (ATAC-seq). We identified 68,571 representative accessible chromatin regions (peaks) across adipose tissue samples (FDR < 5%). GWAS loci for eight cardiometabolic traits were enriched in these peaks (P < 0.005), with the strongest enrichment for waist-hip ratio. Of 110 recently described cardiometabolic GWAS loci colocalized with adipose tissue eQTLs, 59 loci had one or more variants overlapping an adipose tissue peak. Annotated variants at the SNX10 waist-hip ratio locus and the ATP2A1-SH2B1 body mass index locus showed allelic differences in regulatory assays. These adipose tissue accessible chromatin regions elucidate genetic variants that may alter adipose tissue function to impact cardiometabolic traits.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Idoso , Alelos , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(10): e011922, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070104

RESUMO

Background Recent studies have revealed sexually dimorphic associations between the carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 locus, intermediates of the metabolic pathway leading from choline to urea, and risk of coronary artery disease ( CAD ) in women. Based on evidence from the literature, the atheroprotective association with carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 could be mediated by the strong genetic effect of this locus on increased circulating glycine levels. Methods and Results We sought to identify additional genetic determinants of circulating glycine levels by carrying out a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data in up to 30 118 subjects of European ancestry. Mendelian randomization and other analytical approaches were used to determine whether glycine-associated variants were associated with CAD and traditional risk factors. Twelve loci were significantly associated with circulating glycine levels, 7 of which were not previously known to be involved in glycine metabolism ( ACADM , PHGDH , COX 18- ADAMTS 3, PSPH , TRIB 1, PTPRD , and ABO ). Glycine-raising alleles at several loci individually exhibited directionally consistent associations with decreased risk of CAD . However, these effects could not be attributed directly to glycine because of associations with other CAD -related traits. By comparison, genetic models that only included the 2 variants directly involved in glycine degradation and for which there were no other pleiotropic associations were not associated with risk of CAD or blood pressure, lipid levels, and obesity-related traits. Conclusions These results provide additional insight into the genetic architecture of glycine metabolism, but do not yield conclusive evidence for a causal relationship between circulating levels of this amino acid and risk of CAD in humans.

14.
Bioinformatics ; 35(22): 4724-4729, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099385

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Tens of thousands of reproducibly identified GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) variants, with the vast majority falling in non-coding regions resulting in no eventual protein products, call urgently for mechanistic interpretations. Although numerous methods exist, there are few, if any methods, for simultaneously testing the mediation effects of multiple correlated SNPs via some mediator (e.g. the expression of a gene in the neighborhood) on phenotypic outcome. We propose multi-SNP mediation intersection-union test (SMUT) to fill in this methodological gap. Our extensive simulations demonstrate the validity of SMUT as well as substantial, up to 92%, power gains over alternative methods. In addition, SMUT confirmed known mediators in a real dataset of Finns for plasma adiponectin level, which were missed by many alternative methods. We believe SMUT will become a useful tool to generate mechanistic hypotheses underlying GWAS variants, facilitating functional follow-up. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The R package SMUT is publicly available from CRAN at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=SMUT. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1156-1171, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009165

RESUMO

A genetic basis for otitis media is established, however, the role of rare variants in disease etiology is largely unknown. Previously a duplication variant within A2ML1 was identified as a significant risk factor for otitis media in an indigenous Filipino population and in US children. In this report exome and Sanger sequencing was performed using DNA samples from the indigenous Filipino population, Filipino cochlear implantees, US probands, Finnish, and Pakistani families with otitis media. Sixteen novel, damaging A2ML1 variants identified in otitis media patients were rare or low-frequency in population-matched controls. In the indigenous population, both gingivitis and A2ML1 variants including the known duplication variant and the novel splice variant c.4061 + 1 G>C were independently associated with otitis media. Sequencing of salivary RNA samples from indigenous Filipinos demonstrated lower A2ML1 expression according to the carriage of A2ML1 variants. Sequencing of additional salivary RNA samples from US patients with otitis media revealed differentially expressed genes that are highly correlated with A2ML1 expression levels. In particular, RND3 is upregulated in both A2ML1 variant carriers and high-A2ML1 expressors. These findings support a role for A2ML1 in keratinocyte differentiation within the middle ear as part of otitis media pathology and the potential application of ROCK inhibition in otitis media.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Mutação , Otite Média/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , alfa-Macroglobulinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Linhagem , Filipinas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(6): 888-895, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445632

RESUMO

Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the majority of blood lipid-associated genome-wide association studies signals remain elusive. One association signal is located in intron 3 of VLDLR; rs3780181-A is a risk allele associated (P ≤ 2 × 10-9) with increased TC and LDL-C. We investigated variants, genes and mechanisms underlying this association signal. We used a functional genetic approach to show that the intronic region spanning rs3780181 exhibited 1.6-7.6-fold enhancer activity in human HepG2 hepatocyte, THP-1 monocyte and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) preadipocyte cells and that the rs3780181-A risk allele showed significantly less enhancer activity compared with the G allele, consistent with the direction of an expression quantitative trait locus in liver. In addition, rs3780181 alleles showed differential binding to multiple nuclear proteins, including stronger IRF2 binding to the rs3780181 G allele. We used a CRISPR-cas9 approach to delete 475 and 663 bp of the putative enhancer element in HEK293T kidney cells; compared to expression of mock-edited cell lines, the homozygous enhancer deletion cell lines showed 1.2-fold significantly (P < 0.04) decreased expression of VLDLR, as well as 1.5-fold decreased expression of SMARCA2, located 388 kb away. Together, these results identify an enhancer of VLDLR expression and suggest that altered binding of one or more factors bound to rs3780181 alleles decreases enhancer activity and reduces at least VLDLR expression, leading to increased TC and LDL-C.


Assuntos
Alelos , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores de LDL/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequência Conservada , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fator Regulador 2 de Interferon/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 637-653, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388398

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of loci associated with hundreds of complex diseases and traits, and progress is being made toward elucidating the causal variants and genes underlying these associations. Functional characterization of mechanisms at GWAS loci is a multi-faceted challenge. Challenges include linkage disequilibrium and allelic heterogeneity at each locus, the noncoding nature of most loci, and the time and cost needed for experimentally evaluating the potential mechanistic contributions of genes and variants. As GWAS sample sizes increase, more loci are identified, and the complexities of individual loci emerge. Loci can consist of multiple association signals, each of which can reflect the influence of multiple variants, inseparable by association analyses. Each signal within a locus can influence the same or different target genes. Experimental studies of genes and variants can differ on the basis of cell type, cellular environment, or other context-specific variables. In this review, we describe the complexity of mechanisms at GWAS loci-including multiple signals, multiple variants, and/or multiple genes-and the implications these complexities hold for experimental study design and interpretation of GWAS mechanisms.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 535-552, 2018 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290150

RESUMO

Although recent studies provide evidence for a common genetic basis between complex traits and Mendelian disorders, a thorough quantification of their overlap in a phenotype-specific manner remains elusive. Here, we have quantified the overlap of genes identified through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for 62 complex traits and diseases with genes containing mutations known to cause 20 broad categories of Mendelian disorders. We identified a significant enrichment of genes linked to phenotypically matched Mendelian disorders in GWAS gene sets; of the total 1,240 comparisons, a higher proportion of phenotypically matched or related pairs (n = 50 of 92 [54%]) than phenotypically unmatched pairs (n = 27 of 1,148 [2%]) demonstrated significant overlap, confirming a phenotype-specific enrichment pattern. Further, we observed elevated GWAS effect sizes near genes linked to phenotypically matched Mendelian disorders. Finally, we report examples of GWAS variants localized at the transcription start site or physically interacting with the promoters of genes linked to phenotypically matched Mendelian disorders. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that genes that are disrupted in Mendelian disorders are dysregulated by non-coding variants in complex traits and demonstrate how leveraging findings from related Mendelian disorders and functional genomic datasets can prioritize genes that are putatively dysregulated by local and distal non-coding GWAS variants.


Assuntos
Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3472, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135520

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, Supplementary Table 10 contained incorrect primer sequences for the mobility shift assay for SNP rs4776984. These errors have now been fixed and the corrected version of the Supplementary Information PDF is available to download from the HTML version of the Article.

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