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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444605


At the start of 2020, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) invaded the world leading to the death of 3.92 million people. Sadly, to date, no remedy has been discovered for this virus. Preventive vaccines have been under investigation, but were unavailable until December 2020. Clinical deficiencies of nutrients may increase susceptibility to infections. This knowledge may have provided an incentive for some dietary supplement (DS) manufacturers to advertise their products as COVID-19 preventatives or cures without any substantiation, targeting mainly social media fans. The objective of this research was to assess the usage, knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplementation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among Lebanese people. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a convenience sample (N = 2966) and information from participants aged 18 years and above was collected about periods before and during the pandemic. Our findings showed that attitudes towards DSs changed when the pandemic emerged and people believed that DSs can improve their health and strengthen their immunity. Despite the rise in DS prescription by healthcare professionals, the prevalence of DS use decreased from 73.3% before the pandemic to 69.9% during the pandemic (p < 0.001). Study results declared that the weekly or the daily estimated intake had increased during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic, from 14% to 15.6% for antioxidants (p = 0.014), from 35.3% to 42.1% for vitamin C (p < 0.001), from 35.5% to 41% for vitamin D (p < 0.001), from 15.2% to 17.5% for vitamin E (p = 0.002), and from 18.8% to 29.3% for zinc (p < 0.001) and other vitamins and minerals (from 9% to 10.9%, p < 0.001). Binary logistic regression indicated that the use of DSs during the pandemic was 4 times higher among those infected with COVID-19, 30 times higher among those who used to take DSs before pandemic, and 1.5 times higher among those who worked in the medical sector. To conclude, there is a crucial need to increase awareness among Lebanese people regarding the use of DSs.

COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
Open Life Sci ; 14: 448-453, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817180


Background: Herbal medicine is widely used for the prevention and treatment of diseases worldwide including Palestine and may require long term usage. The level of some heavy metals and microbial contaminants in some of these medicinal plants consumed by Palestinians were studied in order to evaluate their quality. Methodology: The level of metals including: Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and Copper were quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Moreover, the bacterial and fungal contaminations were tested for some of the selected plants in Palestine. The procedures of microbial and elemental testing of the plants followed USP. Results: The result of the heavy metals testing showed that copper and cadmium were above the allowable limits in all the tested plants. Zinc metal was above the allowable limit in 78.9% of the tested samples. The microbiological results of the tested plants showed that 63.2% of the tested plants were contaminated by bacteria and 89.5% were contaminated by yeast. Conclusions: Herbal medicine used in the Palestinian markets doesn't meet the international requirement for heavy metal and microbiological limits. Therefore, urgent action has to be taken by the responsible authorities including the Ministry of health to implement importation and registration requirements and perform regular quality checks of sold and imported herbal medicines. Pharmacists as expert professionals must take an active role in selling and advising consumers about the quality and efficacy of the sold plants.

J Environ Biol ; 31(5): 715-20, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21387928


In the present study, specimens of catfish (Clariidae) were collected from a polluted location (Main Basin) and a relatively clean area (East Basin) in Lake Mariut, one of the Nile Delta Lakes in Egypt. Fifteen fish were taken from each site. Liver preparations of fish from the two sources were comparatively examined for cellular changes using transmission electron microscopy. Fish hepatocytes from the polluted area showed accumulation of the heterochromatin, enlarged nucleoli, and an extremely folded nuclear envelope. Perichromatin granules were increased and progressively formed small clusters closely associated with patches of heterochromatin. In the cytoplasm, fractionation, dilation, and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and elevated amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) tubules were noted. The most frequent pathological modifications were the swelling of mitochondria, cristae regression and changes in the electron-transparency of the matrix. Lysosomes showing myelin-like stacks of membraneous material (phospholipidosis), glycogenosomes (i.e., glycogen rosettes enclosed by membranes) and cytoplasmic myelinated bodies were strongly developed. Furthermore, increasing numbers of secondary lysosomes with degraded cell organelles were found. With reference to the storage vesicles, there appeared to be an increase in the lipid droplets (lipidosis) within many hepatocytes. This study reinforces the need to select representative sentinel species from different habitats for biomonitoring purposes and it provides further support for the use of biomarkers in assessing the health of aquatic ecosystems.

Peixes-Gato , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/ultraestrutura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária