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1.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 292, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a common treatment for hospitalized patients. However, the effects of RBC transfusion on microvascular function remain controversial. METHODS: In a medical ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital, we prospectively included anemic patients requiring RBC transfusion. Skin microvascular reactivity was measured before and 30 min after RBC transfusion. Plasma was collected to analyze intravascular hemolysis and draw the lipidomic and cytokine profiles. RESULTS: In a cohort of 59 patients, the median age was 66 [55-81] years and SAPS II was 38 [24-48]. After RBC transfusion, endothelium-dependent microvascular reactivity improved in 35 (59%) patients, but worsened in 24 others (41%). Comparing clinical and biological markers revealed that baseline blood leucokyte counts distinguished improving from worsening patients (10.3 [5.7; 19.7] vs. 4.6 [2.1; 7.3] × 109/L; p = 0.001) and correlated with variations of microvascular reactivity (r = 0.36, p = 0.005). Blood platelet count was also higher in improving patients (200 [97; 280] vs 160 [40; 199] × 103/mL, p = 0.03) but did not correlate with variations of microvascular reactivity. We observed no intravascular hemolysis (HbCO, heme, bilirubin, LDH), but recorded a significant increase in RBC microparticle levels specific to improving patients after transfusion (292 [108; 531] vs. 53 [34; 99] MP/µL; p = 0.03). The improvement in microvascular dilation was positively correlated with RBC microparticle levels (R = 0.83, p < 0.001) and conversion of arachidonic acid into vasodilating eicosanoids. CONCLUSIONS: Patients displaying an improved microvascular reactivity after RBC transfusion had high blood leukocyte counts, increased RBC microparticle formation, and enhanced metabolism of arachidonic acid into vasodilating lipids. Our data suggested a contribution of recipient leukocytes to the vascular impact of RBC transfusion.

3.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498883

RESUMO

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haploSCT) is becoming a major transplant modality for lymphoma. To assess the effects of donor characteristics, stem cell source and conditioning on outcomes, we identified 474 adults with Hodgkin (HL; 240), peripheral T-cell (PTCL; 88), diffuse large B-cell (77), mantle cell (40) or follicular lymphoma (FL; 29), who received haploSCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. Median follow-up of alive patients was 32 months. On multivariate analysis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade 2-4 was lower with offspring donors or bone marrow cells, whereas extensive chronic GVHD was higher in partial response at haploSCT or when using sisters, haploidentical donors beyond first degree, or female donors in male patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was better for FL, HL and PTCL, whereas overall survival (OS) was better for HL and PTCL. Complete remission at haploSCT improved PFS and OS whereas these were negatively affected by cytomegalovirus donor positive/recipient positive status. No other donor characteristics (age, gender, human leucocyte antigen mismatch, ABO incompatibility) affected PFS or OS except use of haploidentical donors beyond first degree, which negatively affected OS. PFS and OS are mostly influenced by disease status and lymphoma subtype, supporting the use of any first degree haploidentical family member as a donor.

4.
Lancet Haematol ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of donors other than HLA-matched siblings has been a pivotal change in stem cell transplantation. We aimed to assess the evolution of outcomes within donor groups over time and explore whether donor-recipient HLA disparity might be advantageous in patients with aggressive disease. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre study, we assessed the outcomes for adult patients (≥18 years) with haematological malignancies who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between Jan 3, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The donor types studied were matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and cord blood donors. Unrelated non-cord-blood donors and recipients were typed at the allelic level for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. We evaluated trends in overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, progression-free survival, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free and relapse-free survival following transplantation from various donor types (matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and umbilical cord blood), and compared transplantation outcomes across three epochs (epoch 1: 2001-05; epoch 2: 2006-10; and epoch 3: 2011-15). We used Kaplan-Meier estimators for survival probabilities and cumulative incidence functions accounting for competing risks for probabilities of GHVD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality, using multiple imputations by chained equations to deal with missing data. In epoch 3, we directly compared outcomes by donor group, stratified by a novel three-level disease-risk scheme. FINDINGS: We included 106 188 patients in our analysis. The median follow-up was 4·1 years (IQR 1·7-7·7). Overall survival at 3 years increased with all donor groups between epochs 2 and 3 (matched sibling: 54·0% [95% CI 53·1-54·8] to 54·6% [53·6-55·6]; matched unrelated: 49·1% [48·0-50·2] to 51·6% [50·7-52·6]; mismatched unrelated: 37·4% [35·7-39·2] to 41·3% [39·5-43·1]; haploidentical: 34·5% [31·4-37·9] to 44·2% [42·1-46·3]; and cord blood 36·3% [33·9-39] to 43·7% [40·8-46·8]). Improvement in overall survival seems to be driven by a reduction in non-relapse mortality, except in cord blood HSCT recipients, who had a lower relapse incidence. Comparing donor groups across disease-risk strata using the novel disease-risk scheme, overall survival among recipients of matched sibling transplantations remained better than other donor groups except in high-risk disease, where overall survival with matched unrelated transplantations was not different. INTERPRETATION: Overall survival following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is improving with substantial progress among recipients of haploidentical and cord blood HSCT. Nonetheless, the traditional donor hierarchy of matched sibling donors followed by matched unrelated donors and then other donors holds. Our findings warrant further investigation and could inform decision making and the development of donor-selection algorithms. FUNDING: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center in Haemato-Oncology, Tel Aviv University, and the Shalvi Foundation for Research.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446199

RESUMO

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YESCARTA®, Kite Pharma, a Gilead Company) and tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH®, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp.) are two CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CD19 CAR T) products that are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan) and Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia) for treatment of specific subtypes of relapsed/ refractory aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). While this approval has been transformative in the use of cellular immunotherapy in lymphoma, there are concerns regarding appropriate utilization of this novel therapy, as well as short- and long-term toxicities. To address these issues, representatives of American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (ASTCT) convened to recognize and address key issues surrounding the clinical application of CD19 CAR T cell therapy in B cell lymphomas, in collaboration with worldwide experts and members of International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), American Society of Hematology (ASH), Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). The aim of this article is to provide consensus opinion from experts in the fields of hematopoietic cell transplantation, cellular immunotherapy, and lymphoma regarding key clinical questions pertinent to the utilization of CD19 CAR T for the treatment of NHL. As the clinical practice using CAR T cells grows worldwide, we anticipate that this guidance will be relevant for hematology/oncology physicians who care for patients with lymphomas.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435031

RESUMO

We performed a single-centre retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of Toxoplasma gondii prevention strategies after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. The charts of 138 allogeneic stem-cell recipients over a 4-year period were reviewed. Forty-nine percent of patients were not receiving optimal trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis at day +30, mainly due to persistent cytopenia. Six months after transplantation, the rate of toxoplasmosis reactivation was 11.6%, including nine cases of Toxoplasma infection and seven cases of Toxoplasma disease. Fifty-six percent of cases of reactivation occurred before day +30. Thirty-eight percent occurred in patients receiving atovaquone prophylaxis. In 57% of patients presenting with Toxoplasma disease, signs of disease were present at first evidence of Toxoplasma DNA in peripheral blood samples. This study illustrates the limitations inherent to currently used toxoplasmosis prevention strategies and argues for the use of a combined prophylactic and preemptive approach. After performing the initial study, we limited the use of atovaquone in favour of TMP-SMZ when possible, and implemented an early prevention strategy consisting of the introduction of prophylaxis starting on day of engraftment. Over the following 16 months, 88.9% of eligible Toxoplasma-seropositive patients were receiving TMP-SMZ at day +30, and the rate of early Toxoplasma reactivation was 1.5%.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435032

RESUMO

The efficacy of anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been investigated by many clinical studies over the past decade, including some randomized controlled trials. Intriguingly, although ATG is commonly used as prophylaxis for GVHD, there is still controversy about the optimal dose of ATG for prophylaxis of GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Indeed, the dose and formulation of ATG, as well as the degree of clinical benefit, has varied among studies, which makes it difficult to fully determine the clinical benefit of ATG. The aim of this review is to summarize the information regarding the optimal ATG dose of each formulation according to stem cell source, and to discuss how best to determine the personalized optimal dose of ATG in each allo-HCT recipient.

8.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439677

RESUMO

Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia comprises two subtypes with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22). Since long-term response to chemotherapy in those leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. To evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic transplantation in this indication, we studied 631 patients in reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between the years 2000 and 2014. Leukemia-free survival probabilities at 2 and 5 years were 59.1% and 54.1%, while overall survival probabilities were 65% and 58.2% respectively. The incidence of relapse and risk of non-relapse mortality at the same time-points were 19.8% and 22.5% for relapse and 20.9% and 23.3% for non-relapse mortality respectively. The most important adverse factors influencing leukemia-free and overall survival were leukemia with t(8;21), presence of 3 or more additional chromosomal abnormalities and Karnofsky performance score <80. Relapse risk was increased in t(8;21) leukemia and associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities as well as reduced intensity conditioning. Measurable residual disease in molecular evaluation before transplantation was associated with increased risk of relapse and inferior leukemia-free survival.

9.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427719

RESUMO

Unmanipulated haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) has become an attractive alternative for patients lacking HLA-matched sibling or unrelated donors. However, data of outcome in ALL is still scarce. The outcomes of 1234 adult patients with ALL in first complete remission (CR1) who underwent Allo-SCT between 2007 and 2016 were analyzed. Comparison was done between haploidentical donor (Haplo) (136 patients), matched unrelated donor (MUD 10/10) (809 patients), and mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD 9/10) (289 patients). Univariate analysis showed similar outcomes in Haplo, MUD, and MMUD, including OS, LFS, RI, NRM, AGVHD, and CGVHD. In multivariate analysis, Haplo was not associated with worse outcomes compared to MUD 10/10 and MMUD 9/10. Indeed, compared to Haplo, the hazard ratio (HR) for LFS, OS, RI, NRM, AGVHD, and CGVHD were 1.1 (p = 0.7), 0.9 (p = 0.4), 1.35 (p = 0.2), 0.7 (p = 0.2), 1.1 (p = 0.8), and 0.8 (p = 0.2) for MUD, respectively, and 1.1 (p = 0.8), 1.0 (p = 1.0), 1.2 (p = 0.3), 0.8 (p = 0.4), 1.2 (p = 0.3), and 0.9 (p = 0.6) for MMUD, respectively. In conclusion, outcomes of adult patients with ALL in CR1 receiving Haplo Allo-SCT are comparable to MUD or MMUD transplants. Haplo should be considered as a clinically relevant option for patients lacking a matched sibling donor.

10.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427722

RESUMO

Patients with multiple myeloma are generally older and vary in fitness levels, which may influence the clinical benefit of treatment. Patients from the large, phase 3 FIRST trial in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) were retrospectively investigated to determine outcomes based on frailty using scores for age, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), instead of the EQ-5D quality-of-life questionnaire, as previously reported. ECOG PS (n = 1618) was investigated in frailty groups: frail (49%) and nonfrail (51%). Frail patients experienced worse progression-free and overall survival vs nonfrail patients. Prognostic assessment was improved when combining frailty and International Staging System stage (I/II vs III). Frail patients had a higher risk of developing grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events. Treatment effects observed in the FIRST trial were confirmed per frailty group and per frailty and ISS group. The use of this ECOG PS-containing frailty scale as a predictive measure of clinical outcomes in patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM is supported by data from the FIRST trial. This score, based on age, CCI, and ECOG PS, can be easily replicated and may help design future myeloma studies in frail or nonfrail elderly patients.

11.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455853

RESUMO

Most patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) have been treated with drug combinations including a proteasome inhibitor (PI) and/or an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD). The goal of therapy for such patients is therefore to achieve disease control with acceptable toxicity and patient-defined decent quality of life. Physicians face a difficult task not only deciding who to treat, but also when to treat and how to treat, utilizing knowledge of previously administered therapies, patient comorbidities, potential adverse events, and patient wishes to make such a critical decision. New drugs and combination regimens are continuously underway thus broadening the options for therapy and giving way to a more individualized approach for patients with RRMM. The integration of novel agents into the treatment paradigm has shifted the perception of multiple myeloma (MM) from an incurable, fatal disease to a manageable, chronic one. This comprehensive review addresses the results and challenges posed by many of the newer agents for the treatment of RRMM. It attempts to propose a universal strategy for optimal therapy decision-making thus answering three simple fundamental questions-when to treat, how to treat, and how long to treat for.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455899

RESUMO

Information on incidence, and factors associated with mortality is a prerequisite to improve outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, 55'668 deaths in 114'491 patients with HSCT (83.7% allogeneic) for leukemia were investigated in a landmark analysis for causes of death at day 30 (very early), day 100 (early), at 1 year (intermediate) and at 5 years (late). Mortality from all causes decreased from cohort 1 (1980-2001) to cohort 2 (2002-2015) in all post-transplant phases after autologous HSCT. After allogeneic HSCT, mortality from infections, GVHD, and toxicity decreased up to 1 year, increased at 5 years; deaths from relapse increased in all post-transplant phases. Infections of unknown origin were the main cause of infectious deaths. Lethal bacterial and fungal infections decreased from cohort 1 to cohort 2, not unknown or mixed infections. Infectious deaths were associated with patient-, disease-, donor type, stem cell source, center, and country- related factors. Their impact varied over the post-transplant phases. Transplant centres have successfully managed to reduce death after HSCT in the early and intermediate post-transplant phases, and have identified risk factors. Late post-transplant care could be improved by focus on groups at risk and better identification of infections of "unknown origin".

13.
N Engl J Med ; 381(8): 727-738, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selinexor, a selective inhibitor of nuclear export compound that blocks exportin 1 (XPO1) and forces nuclear accumulation and activation of tumor suppressor proteins, inhibits nuclear factor κB, and reduces oncoprotein messenger RNA translation, is a potential novel treatment for myeloma that is refractory to current therapeutic options. METHODS: We administered oral selinexor (80 mg) plus dexamethasone (20 mg) twice weekly to patients with myeloma who had previous exposure to bortezomib, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, pomalidomide, daratumumab, and an alkylating agent and had disease refractory to at least one proteasome inhibitor, one immunomodulatory agent, and daratumumab (triple-class refractory). The primary end point was overall response, defined as a partial response or better, with response assessed by an independent review committee. Clinical benefit, defined as a minimal response or better, was a secondary end point. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients in the United States and Europe were included in the modified intention-to-treat population (primary analysis), and 123 were included in the safety population. The median age was 65 years, and the median number of previous regimens was 7; a total of 53% of the patients had high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. A partial response or better was observed in 26% of patients (95% confidence interval, 19 to 35), including two stringent complete responses; 39% of patients had a minimal response or better. The median duration of response was 4.4 months, median progression-free survival was 3.7 months, and median overall survival was 8.6 months. Fatigue, nausea, and decreased appetite were common and were typically grade 1 or 2 (grade 3 events were noted in up to 25% of patients, and no grade 4 events were reported). Thrombocytopenia occurred in 73% of the patients (grade 3 in 25% and grade 4 in 33%). Thrombocytopenia led to bleeding events of grade 3 or higher in 6 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Selinexor-dexamethasone resulted in objective treatment responses in patients with myeloma refractory to currently available therapies. (Funded by Karyopharm Therapeutics; STORM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02336815.).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Hidrazinas/administração & dosagem , Carioferinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409921

RESUMO

Large differences in patient and transplant backgrounds make it difficult to identify consistent prognostic factors of unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) among different populations. Thus, we performed a collaborative study between Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT and JSHCT/JDCHCT. Adults with acute leukaemia who underwent a single UCBT were eligible. In total, 3764 and 1027 patients of the JSHCT/JDCHCT and Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT registries, respectively, were included. The median ages of the Japanese and European cohorts were 51 and 38 years, respectively. Three or more HLA mismatches were more frequently observed in the Japanese cohort. The median total nucleated cell (TNC) counts were 2.58 and 3.51 × 107/kg in the Japanese and European cohorts, respectively. Anti-thymocyte globulin was used in only 2% of the Japanese cohort compared with 65% of the European cohort. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 41% in JSHCT/JDCHCT and 33% in Eurocord/ALWP-EBMT. In the multivariate analysis, TNC dose and HLA matching had no significant effect on OS in either cohort, whereas year of transplantation, age, and refined disease risk index affected OS in both cohorts. Despite considerable differences in characteristics between the Japanese and European cohorts, we observed similar prognostic factors affecting UCBT outcomes in adult patients with acute leukaemia in both registries.

15.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413093

RESUMO

We compared severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival and other transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin, versus peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin after myeloablative conditioning. In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from a human-leukocyte-antigen matched sibling donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,021) and those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,633) presented comparable severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free (HR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.1, P=0.5) and overall (HR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.2, P=0.8) survival. They had however, a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9; P=0.01). In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from human-leukocyte-antigen matched unrelated donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=2,318) had better severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=303) (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.001). They also had a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8, P=0.0006) and better overall survival (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0, P=0.04). In summary, these data suggest that peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin results in comparable (in the case of sibling donor) or significantly better (in the case of unrelated donor) severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission receiving grafts after myeloablative conditioning.

16.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2389-2398, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392462

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is considered an effective way to prevent relapse in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study aimed to assess general trends in the use of various types of HSCTs performed between 2001 and 2015 in Europe, based on data reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry. We also evaluated HSCT rates with respect to ALL incidence in selected countries. Altogether, 15,346 first allogeneic (n = 13,460) or autologous (n = 1886) HSCTs were performed in the study period. Comparing 2013-2015 and 2001-2003, the number of allogeneic HSCTs performed in first complete remission increased by 136%, most prominently for transplantations from unrelated (272%) and mismatched related donors (339%). The number of HSCTs from matched sibling donors increased by 42%, while the total number of autologous HSCTs decreased by 70%. Increased use of allogeneic HSCT was stronger for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive (166%) than for Ph-negative ALL (38%) and for patients aged > 55 years (599%) than for younger adults (59%). The proportion of allogeneic HSCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) increased from 6 to 27%. The age-standardized rates of allogeneic HSCT per ALL incidence varied strongly among countries. Our analysis showed a continued trend toward increased allogeneic HSCT use for adults with ALL, which may be attributed to increasing availability of unrelated donors, wider use of RIC regimens, and improving efficacy of pretransplant therapy, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors for Ph-positive ALL. Allogeneic HSCT remains a major tool in the fight against ALL in adults.

17.
Leukemia ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363160

RESUMO

Allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) may be curative in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in second complete remission (CR2) but the impact of reduced intensity (RIC) versus myeloablative conditioning (MAC) is uncertain. The Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry studied an AML CR2 cohort characterised by age ≥ 18 years, first allo-HCT 2007-2016, available cytogenetic profile at diagnosis, donors who were matched family, volunteer unrelated with HLA antigen match 10/10 or 9/10 or haplo-identical. The 1879 eligible patients included 1010 (54%) MAC allo-HCT recipients. In patients <50 years (y), two year outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent with leukaemia-free survival (LFS) 54% for each, overall survival (OS), 61% vs 62%, non-relapse mortality (NRM) 18% vs 15% and graft versus host disease relapse-free survival (GRFS) 38% vs 42%. In patients ≥50 y, 2 y outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent for LFS 52% vs 49%, OS 58% vs 55% and GRFS 42.4% vs 36%. However, NRM was significantly inferior after MAC allo-HCT, 27% vs 19% (P = 0.01) despite worse cGVHD after RIC-allo (32% vs 39%). These data support the need for ongoing prospective study of conditioning intensity and GVHD mitigation in AML.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445182

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-like) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a relatively new entity characterized by high cytokine receptor and tyrosine kinase signaling resulting in multiple downstream pathway stimulation. The standard diagnostic method, gene expression profiling, is not widely available. Efforts are ongoing to establish easy and clinically applicable diagnostic pathways to facilitate the accurate identification of these patients and thus enable a better understanding of the prognosis and outcomes with different treatment approaches. The rates of complete remission in ALL patients are consistently above 90% with the different induction protocols; however, maintaining remission depends on the risk group of the patient and consolidation therapy. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) is particularly beneficial when the risk of relapse is very high and the expected complications with transplant are low. Data on the outcomes of allo-HCT for Ph-like ALL are scarce. In this article we review the published literature on outcomes of Ph-like ALL patients treated using different therapeutic approaches and make recommendations about transplant consideration for these patients.

19.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2127-2143, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341235

RESUMO

Carfilzomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor (PI), is approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Combination regimens incorporating a PI and immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) have been associated with deep responses and extended survival in patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM). Carfilzomib-based combinations with immunomodulators are being extensively studied in the frontline setting. The objective of this review was to describe efficacy and safety data for carfilzomib-based, PI/immunomodulatory combinations in NDMM. Information sources were articles indexed in PubMed and abstracts from key hematology/oncology congresses published between January 2012 and December 2018. PubMed and congresses were searched for prospective clinical studies assessing the combination of carfilzomib with an IMiD for NDMM treatment. Retrospective and preclinical reports, case reports/series, reviews, and clinical studies not evaluating carfilzomib-immunomodulator combinations in NDMM were excluded based on review of titles and abstracts. A total of nine articles and 72 abstracts were deemed relevant and included in the review. A total of six distinct carfilzomib-based, PI/immunomodulator combination regimens have been evaluated in 12 clinical trials. Overall, treatment with these regimens has resulted in deep responses, including high rates of negativity for minimal residual disease. These deep responses have translated to long progression-free survival and overall survival rates. Efficacy results for these regimens have generally been consistent across subgroups defined by age, transplant eligibility, and cytogenetic risk. The safety profile of carfilzomib in NDMM is consistent with that observed in the relapsed-refractory MM setting. Clinical studies have found that carfilzomib-based combinations with immunomodulators are highly active with a favorable safety profile in NDMM. The carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) drug backbone is a promising foundation for treatment strategies aimed at achieving long-term, deep responses (functional cures) in the frontline setting. Several ongoing studies are evaluating KRd, with or without anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326611

RESUMO

Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a rare complication with no curative option. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) may be considered for eligible patients and has been understudied in t-MDS. We report 47 consecutive patients with t-MDS after an ASCT who underwent allo-HSCT with a median age of 58 years (range, 30 to 71 years) at transplantation and a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 0.7 to 107). The median overall survival (OS) was 6.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 0 to 19 months). OS rates were 45% (29% to 60%) and 30% (15% to 45%) at 1 and 3 years after transplantation, respectively. On univariate analysis, prior therapy for t-MDS before allo-HSCT (P = .02) and mismatched donors (P = .004) were associated with poor OS. Three-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse rates were 44% (25% to 63%) and 41% (22% to 61%), respectively. Mismatched donors (P < .001) were associated with higher NRM and a high-risk MDS (P = .008) with a higher relapse risk. On multivariate analysis, HLA mismatch was associated with higher NRM (hazard ratio, 6.21; 95% CI, 1.63 to 23.62; P = .007). In conclusion, our results suggest that one third of the patients who develop t-MDS after an ASCT for lymphoma are cured after an allo-HSCT. The use of mismatched donors with standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis should be avoided in such an indication for allo-HSCT. It will be worthwhile to see if the implementation of cyclophosphamide post-transplantation will improve the outcome with mismatched donors.

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