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Global Health ; 18(1): 40, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428250


BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that intellectual property legal requirements such as patents and data exclusivity can affect access to medicines, but to date there has not been a comprehensive review of the empirical evidence on this topic. The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) requires Member States to implement minimum standards of intellectual property protection including patents for pharmaceutical products, but also contains 'flexibilities' designed to address barriers to access to medicines. National intellectual property laws can also include TRIPS-plus rules that go beyond what is required by TRIPS. We aimed to systematically review literature that measures the impact of intellectual property rules on access to medicines, whether implemented as a result of TRIPS, TRIPS-plus provisions in other trade agreements, or unilateral policy decisions. METHODS: We searched Proquest, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, JSTOR, Westlaw and Lexis Nexis. Peer reviewed articles, government reports and other grey literature were included. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative, in English, included a measure of cost, price, availability of or access to medicines, were about intellectual property or data exclusivity rules and published between January 1995 and October 2020. Ninety-one studies met our inclusion criteria. We systematically reviewed the studies' findings and evaluated their quality using a modified quality assessment template. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Five broad overarching themes and 11 subthemes were identified based on the articles' foci. They were: trade agreements (divided into EU FTAs and those that include the USA); use of TRIPS flexibilities (divided into compulsory licencing and parallel importation); patent expiry/generic entry/generic pathway (divided into comparative studies and single country studies); patent policies (also divided into comparative studies and single country studies) and TRIPS-plus rules (divided into data exclusivity, patent term extensions and secondary patenting). Most studies focused not on specific trade agreements, but on TRIPS-plus provisions, which can also be found within some trade agreements. The main finding of this review is that the stronger pharmaceutical monopolies created by TRIPs-plus intellectual property rules are generally associated with increased drug prices, delayed availability and increased costs to consumers and governments. There is evidence that TRIPS flexibilities can facilitate access to medicines although their use is limited to date. There were few studies that included resource poor settings, signalling a need for greater research in such settings where the impact on access to medicines is likely to be more damaging.

Comércio , Cooperação Internacional , Indústria Farmacêutica , Medicamentos Genéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual
Aust Health Rev ; 43(1): 36-42, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116927


Objectives The aim of the study was to estimate the potential savings to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and the Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) in 2015-16 if biosimilar versions of selected biologic medicines (biologics) had been available and listed on the PBS. Methods The research involved retrospective analysis of Australian Medicare expenditure data and PBS price data from 2015-16 for biologics, for which biosimilar competition may be available in future, listed on the PBS. Results Australian Government expenditure on biologics on the PBS and RPBS was estimated at A$2.29 billion dollars in 2015-16. If biosimilar versions of these medicines had been listed on the PBS in 2015-16, at least A$367million dollars would have been saved in PBS and RPBS subsidies. Modelling based on price decreases following listing of biosimilars on the PBS suggests that annual PBS outlays on biologics could be reduced by as much as 24% through the timely introduction of biosimilars. Conclusions Biologic medicines represent a large proportion of government expenditure on pharmaceuticals. Reducing the length of monopoly protections on these medicines could generate savings of hundreds of millions of dollars per year. What is known about the topic? Biologics take up an increasing share of pharmaceutical expenditure, but no previous published studies have examined Australian Government expenditure on biologics or the potential savings from reducing the duration of monopoly protection. What does this paper add? This paper provides new evidence about Australian Government expenditure on biologics and potential savings for selected medicines that are still subject to monopoly protection and thus are not yet subject to biosimilar competition. In 2015-16 Australian Government expenditure on biologics through the PBS and RPBS was estimated at A$2.29 billion dollars. If biosimilar versions of these medicines had been listed on the PBS at that time, at least A$367million dollars would have been saved. What are the implications for practitioners? Reducing the duration of monopoly protection on biologic medicines could save hundreds of millions of dollars annually that could be redirected to other areas of the healthcare system.

Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
Glob Public Health ; 13(4): 400-413, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27841097


In the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement negotiations, the USA successfully pursued intellectual property (IP) provisions that will affect the affordability of medicines, including anti-retrovirals (ARV) for HIV. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 TPP countries and in 2013 provided ARVs for only 68% of eligible people living with HIV. Using the current Vietnamese IP regime as our base case, we analysed the potential impact of a regime making full use of legal IP flexibilities, and one based on the IP provisions of the final, agreed TPP text. Results indicate that at current funding levels 82% of Vietnam's eligible people living with HIV would receive ARVs if legal flexibilities were fully utilised, while as few as 30% may have access to ARVs under the TPP Agreement - more than halving the proportion currently treated.

Antirretrovirais/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cooperação Internacional , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual , Negociação , Estados Unidos , Vietnã
Med J Aust ; 202(6): 306-8, 2015 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25832153


Intellectual property (IP) protections proposed by the United States for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) have sparked widespread alarm about the potential negative impact on access to affordable medicines. The most recently leaked draft of the IP chapter shows some shifts in the US position, presumably in response to ongoing resistance from other countries. While some problematic provisions identified in earlier drafts have been removed or mitigated, major concerns remain unresolved. Three of the greatest concerns for Australia in the recent draft include provisions that would further entrench secondary patenting and evergreening, lock in extensions to patent terms and extend monopoly rights over clinical trial data for certain medicines. Data from the 2013 Pharmaceutical Patents Review, and from various submissions made to it, show that pharmaceutical monopoly protections already cost Australian taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Provisions still being considered for the TPPA would further entrench and extend costly monopolies, with serious implications for the budget bottom line and the sustainability of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

Comércio , Participação da Comunidade , Custos de Medicamentos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Propriedade Intelectual , Alocação de Recursos , Impostos , Austrália , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Oceano Pacífico , Estados Unidos