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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 282: 112632, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690462

RESUMO

This study explored financial hardship, defined as difficulty in obtaining food, shelter, or medicine in the past 12 months and its personal and clinical correlates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) in a sample of 271 adults with SMI newly admitted to two inner city community mental health centers. The study found that 59 percent (n = 161) reported experiencing financial hardship in the past 12 months. Patients with financial hardship were more likely to be female, to experience self-stigma, to experience medical care delays, and to use emergency services. Patients who experienced financial hardship typically had more severe psychiatric symptoms, including depressive symptoms, emotional lability, and interpersonal problems. Financial hardship persisted in nearly half of those with hardship interviewed a year later. The findings highlight the role of multiple social and economic challenges that the SMI patients face in recovery from serious mental illness and the importance of awareness of such challenges by providers treating this population. Though mental health treatment may help alleviate the psychiatric symptoms it alone is not sufficient in addressing persistent hardship. These findings highlight the need for multidisciplinary interventions in order to better serve this vulnerable population.

2.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips201900261, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined the use of telepsychiatry in U.S. mental health facilities between 2010 and 2017. METHODS: Changes over time in the availability of telepsychiatry were examined by using multiple waves of a national survey of mental health facilities. State and facility correlates of offering telepsychiatry in 2017 were examined. RESULTS: The proportion of state facilities that self-reported offering telepsychiatry increased significantly from 15.2% in 2010 to 29.2% in 2017, with wide variability among states.. In 2017, facilities with telepsychiatry were more commonly publicly owned than to have others forms of ownership (odds ratio [OR]=2.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.47-2.99, p<0.001), although the percentage of privately owned facilities offering telepsychiatry has increased significantly since 2010 (OR=2.94, 95% CI=2.14-4.05, p<.001). Facilities offering telepsychiatry had lower odds of receiving funding from Medicaid (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.75-0.98, p<0.001) but higher odds of receiving funding from all other sources. Facilities in states that did not fund telepsychiatry had lower odds of offering these services in 2017 (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.51-0.62, p<0.001). Telepsychiatry was more commonly offered in states with higher proportions of rural population (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.45-1.85, p<0.001) and designated medically underserved areas (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.25-1.47, p<0.001), compared with other states. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly twice as many U.S. mental health facilities offered telepsychiatry in 2017 than in 2010. Medicaid funding lagged behind other funding sources, suggesting state administrative barriers. Telepsychiatry was commonly used by facilities in medically underserved and rural areas.

4.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(10): 854-862, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503175

RESUMO

Symptom relapse in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is common and has a negative impact on the course of illness. Here, we describe the development of Texting for Relapse Prevention, a scalable, cost-effective text messaging relapse prevention program that queries patients' "early warning signs" daily. Results of development focus groups and content advisory teams with 25 patients and 19 providers suggest that patients were enthusiastic about the program and thought that receiving daily messages about their symptoms would help them feel supported. Providers also were positive about the idea but worried that the program might interfere with patient-provider communication if patients thought that the messages were coming from providers. Patients found the content positive and actionable. The program was improved to address this feedback. This iterative development process that included multiple stakeholders ensured that the program is feasible and acceptable to both patients and providers.

5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509167

RESUMO

Importance: Social media use may be a risk factor for mental health problems in adolescents. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated this association, and none have quantified the proportion of mental health problems among adolescents attributable to social media use. Objective: To assess whether time spent using social media per day is prospectively associated with internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study of 6595 participants from waves 1 (September 12, 2013, to December 14, 2014), 2 (October 23, 2014, to October 30, 2015), and 3 (October 18, 2015, to October 23, 2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study, a nationally representative cohort study of US adolescents, assessed US adolescents via household interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Data analysis was performed from January 14, 2019, to May 22, 2019. Exposures: Self-reported time spent on social media during a typical day (none, ≤30 minutes, >30 minutes to ≤3 hours, >3 hours to ≤6 hours, and >6 hours) during wave 2. Main Outcomes and Measure: Self-reported past-year internalizing problems alone, externalizing problems alone, and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems during wave 3 using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Short Screener. Results: A total of 6595 adolescents (aged 12-15 years during wave 1; 3400 [51.3%] male) were studied. In unadjusted analyses, spending more than 30 minutes of time on social media, compared with no use, was associated with increased risk of internalizing problems alone (≤30 minutes: relative risk ratio [RRR], 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94-1.78; >30 minutes to ≤3 hours: RRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.36-2.64; >3 to ≤6 hours: RRR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.74-3.49; >6 hours: RRR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.88-4.26) and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems (≤30 minutes: RRR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.82; >30 minutes to ≤3 hours: RRR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.83-3.00; >3 to ≤6 hours: RRR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.43-4.09; >6 hours: RRR, 4.29; 95% CI, 3.22-5.73); associations with externalizing problems were inconsistent. In adjusted analyses, use of social media for more than 3 hours per day compared with no use remained significantly associated with internalizing problems alone (>3 to ≤6 hours: RRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.11-2.31; >6 hours: RRR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.15-2.77) and comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems (>3 to ≤6 hours: RRR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.51-2.66; >6 hours: RRR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.73-3.43) but not externalizing problems alone. Conclusions and Relevance: Adolescents who spend more than 3 hours per day using social media may be at heightened risk for mental health problems, particularly internalizing problems. Future research should determine whether setting limits on daily social media use, increasing media literacy, and redesigning social media platforms are effective means of reducing the burden of mental health problems in this population.

6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care providers encounter a large proportion of the population with depression. Yet, many primary care patients with depression remain undiagnosed and untreated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine depression screening patterns and the role of screening in depression diagnosis and treatment in the outpatient primary care setting. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data of visits to outpatient physician offices from the 2005 to 2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included the first visit in the past year to a primary care provider by patients 12 years and older (N = 16,887). METHODS: The associations of visit characteristics with depression screening and of depression screening with depression diagnosis and treatment during the visit were assessed using logistic regression. Logistic regression with propensity score weighting was used to estimate the odds of depression diagnosis and treatment under the counterfactual scenario in which patients who visited providers with lower depression screening rates had visited providers with higher screening rates instead. All models were adjusted for patient and visit characteristics. KEY RESULTS: A small proportion of sample visits involved depression screening (3.0%). Visits by patients with depressive symptom complaints were associated with higher odds of depression screening than other visits. When visits were weighted to have similar demographic and clinical characteristics, visits to providers with higher screening rates had higher odds of diagnosis (OR = 1.99, p < 0.001) and treatment (OR = 1.61, p = 0.001) compared to visits to providers with lower screening rates. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians appear to use depression screening selectively based on patients' presenting symptoms. Higher screening rates were associated with higher odds of depression diagnosis and treatment, and even modest increases in screening rates could meaningfully increase population-level rates of depression identification and treatment in primary care. Future research is needed to identify barriers to depression care and implement systematic interventions to improve services and patient outcomes.

7.
J Adolesc ; 76: 48-54, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442814

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is highly prevalent among adolescents. However, little research has examined the relationship between e-cigarette use and sleep-related complaints in this population. The objective of this study was to assess whether exclusive e-cigarette, exclusive combusted cigarette, and dual-product use are associated with sleep-related complaints among adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 9,588 U.S. adolescents from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, a nationally representative cohort, followed from 2013 through 2015. Using logistic regression, we examined the cross-sectional association between past-year e-cigarette, combusted cigarette, or dual-product use and past-year sleep-related complaints (bad dreams, sleeping restlessly, or falling asleep during the day), both measured at Wave 2. We controlled for Wave 1 demographic characteristics, emotional and behavioral health, and prior history of e-cigarette use, combusted cigarette use, and sleep-related complaints. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, e-cigarette, combusted cigarette, and dual-product use were significantly associated with greater odds of sleep-related complaints, compared to use of neither product (e-cigarettes: OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.34-1.94; combusted cigarettes: OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.26-2.09; dual-product use: OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.63-2.46). Associations between e-cigarette and dual-product use and sleep-related complaints remained significant in fully adjusted analyses (e-cigarettes: aOR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59; dual-product use: aOR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.24-1.99), whereas associations with combusted cigarette use were significant in all models except the fully adjusted model (aOR = 1.30, 95% CI 0.98-1.71). CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette and dual-product use are significantly associated with greater odds of reporting sleep-related complaints among adolescents. Future research should evaluate whether this association may be causal.

8.
Alcohol ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is important to incorporate a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use into primary and other health care settings. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) is one of the most commonly used of such tests. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of AUDIT, and to determine the best cut-off points for detection of hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders. METHODS: We translated the AUDIT to Persian and assessed its face and content validity, reliability and criterion validity against the diagnosis of alcohol use disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic guidelines, as assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). We determined the best cut-off points for detection of hazardous use, harmful use, and dependence using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Psychometric properties were assessed in a sample of 400 participants attending medium-term residential drug treatment centers located in Tehran, Iran. RESULTS: The Persian AUDIT had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84). The questionnaire also had excellent face and content validity as well as criterion validity when compared with CIDI. The best cut-off points for alcohol dependence, harmful use, and hazardous use were 11 (sensitivity = 95.6, specificity = 80.4), 7 (sensitivity = 85.5, specificity = 84.2), and 5 (sensitivity = 87.6, specificity = 92.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Persian version of the AUDIT has excellent psychometric properties as a screening tool for alcohol use disorders and hazardous alcohol use in settings in which alcohol use is common. Further research on the AUDIT in the general population and in primary health care settings is warranted.

9.
Trials ; 20(1): 405, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child and youth mental health problems are leading causes of disability and particular problems in low- and middle-income countries where populations are young and child mental health services are in short supply. Collaborative care models that support primary care providers' efforts to detect and treat child mental health problems offer one way to address this need. However, collaborative care for child mental health can be more complex than collaboration for adults for a number of reasons, including two-generational aspects of care, high degrees of co-morbidity, and variations in presentation across developmental stages. METHODS: The study takes advantage of an existing collaborative care network in Tehran, Iran, in which general practitioners are supported by community mental health centers to care for adult mental health problems. At present, those practitioners are asked to refer children with mental health problems to the collaborating centers rather than treating them themselves. We are conducting a cluster randomized trial in which practitioners in the network will be randomized to receive training in child/youth mental health treatment or a booster training on recognition and referral. Children/youth aged 5-15 years making visits to the practitioners will be screened using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; those found positive will be followed for six months to compare outcomes between those treated by trained or control practitioners. DISCUSSION: If the trial demonstrates superior outcomes among children treated by trained practitioners, it will support the feasibility of expanding collaborative care networks to include children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03144739 . Registered on 8 May 2017.

10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(13): 2167-2176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299872

RESUMO

Background: With the changing context of marijuana use, it is critical to identify effects of use. We extend previous work by examining whether marijuana use influences progression and remission through alcohol involvement stages for men and women. Methods: Data come from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n = 34,432). We assess the potential influence of marijuana use at Wave 1 on transitions across three latent statuses of alcohol involvement between waves. We apply propensity score weighting to account for shared risk factors. Results: Marijuana use was associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with alcohol involvement statuses for both sexes. After propensity score adjustment, men with marijuana histories were 3.50 times as likely as men without such histories to transition from no to severe problems across waves relative to staying in the same status (p < .001). Women with marijuana histories were 1.74 times as likely as women without such histories to transition from no problems at Wave 1 to moderate problems at Wave 2 (p = .030) and 0.13 times as likely as women without such histories to transition from severe problems to no problems (p = .006). Conclusions: Results suggest that marijuana use impacts progression to more serious stages of alcohol involvement for both men and women, as well as hinders remission among women. Findings point to the importance of screening those with marijuana histories for alcohol problems, as well as the need to understand the mechanism of why marijuana use may increase the risk of alcohol problems.

11.
Med Care ; 57(8): 567-573, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, millions of Americans lose their health insurance and remain uninsured for various reasons, potentially impacting access to medical services. OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in health insurance loss in the periods shortly before and after implementation of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and to assess the association of past-year health insurance loss with access to health services and medications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Trends in health insurance loss were examined in 176,961 nonelderly adult participants of the National Health Interview Survey 2011-2017-a representative cross-sectional annual survey of US general population. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine access to health services and medications. MEASURES: Loss of private insurance or Medicaid in the past year; use of emergency room services and hospitalizations; contact with medical providers; affording medical care or medications; cost-related medication nonadherence. RESULTS: Private health insurance loss decreased from 3.9%-4.0% in 2011-2013 to 2.7% to 3.1% in 2014-2017 (P<0.001); Medicaid loss decreased from 8.5%-8.9% to 4.6%-6.4% in this period (P<0.001). Nevertheless, as late as 2017, ∼6 million uninsured adults reported having lost private insurance or Medicaid in the past year. Loss of either type of health insurance was associated with lower odds of accessing medical providers, but higher odds of not affording medical care and poor adherence to medication regimens to save costs. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of ACA was associated with lower risk of health insurance loss. Nevertheless, health insurance loss remains a major barrier to accessing health services and prescribed medications.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(10): 948-951, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined change in availability of assertive community treatment (ACT) and associated services over time. METHODS: Change over time in the availability of facilities in the United States offering ACT and its associated services was examined by using 2010 and 2016 data from the National Mental Health Services Survey. RESULTS: The proportion of facilities that self-reported provision of ACT and its associated services declined between 2010 and 2016 (odds ratio [OR]=0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.63-0.86, p<0.001). Although a higher proportion of facilities that provided ACT reported offering all the required services in 2016 (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.04-1.66, p=0.026) compared with 2010, this proportion accounted for less than 20% of the programs. Compared with 2010, in 2016 increases were observed in peer (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.38-2.13, p<0.001) and co-occurring disorders services (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.08-1.42, p=0.004) as well as in secondary services, such as tobacco cessation (OR=4.53, 95% CI=3.51-5.84, p<0.001) and telemedicine (OR=2.08, 95% CI=1.67-2.57, p<0.001). Continuous education for staff was required at more facilities with ACT in 2016 compared with 2010. CONCLUSIONS: Although the proportion of facilities with ACT that offer all the required core services has increased in recent years, such programs remain a minority, and the overall number of facilities with ACT has declined.

13.
Prev Med ; 126: 105744, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173803

RESUMO

There was an increase in the number and coverage of state and local clean indoor air laws in the US during the past fifteen years. These laws coincided with increases in federal, state, and local cigarette excise taxes. In light of these changes, the objective of this study was to examine the association between clean indoor air laws, cigarette excise taxes and smoking patterns between 2003 and 2011. Using data on 62,165 adult participants in the 2003 and 2010/2011 Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement who reported smoking cigarettes in the past year, we examined the association of state and county workplace, bar, and restaurant clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes with quitting and current every-day smoking. Between 2003 and 2011, quitting increased and daily smoking among those who continued to smoke decreased significantly. Participants living in states and counties with higher excise taxes and more comprehensive clean indoor air laws had a higher likelihood of quitting and lower likelihood of everyday smoking. Based on the assumption of no uncontrolled confounding, changes in taxes and laws accounted for 64.8% of the increase in smoking cessation and all of the reduction in everyday smoking. Implementation of state and county-level clean indoor air laws and cigarette taxes appears to have achieved the intended goal of encouraging smokers to either quit or reduce their frequency of smoking.

14.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During adolescence, mental health problems may increase the risk of initiating combustible cigarette use. However, it is unknown if this association extends to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with initiation of e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual-product use among adolescents. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, a nationally representative longitudinal study of US adolescents followed from 2013 to 2015. The study sample included 7702 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who at baseline reported no lifetime use of tobacco products. We examined the respective associations between baseline internalizing and externalizing problems and initiating use of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, or both at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with adolescents with low externalizing problems, adolescents with high externalizing problems were significantly more likely to initiate use of e-cigarettes (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76-4.40), combustible cigarettes (aRRR = 5.59; 95% CI: 2.63-11.90), and both products (aRRR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.15-4.31). Adolescents with high internalizing problems were at increased risk of initiating use of e-cigarettes (aRRR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.12-2.33) but not combustible cigarettes or both products. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are associated with increased risk for initiating e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual-product use in adolescence. This association is more consistent for externalizing problems than internalizing problems. Addressing mental health problems could be a promising target for preventing initiation of nicotine- and/or tobacco-product use by adolescents.

15.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 28(3): e1789, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the (a) probability of transition between stages of alcohol involvement and (b) influence of tobacco use and nicotine dependence on transitions. METHODS: Data came from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Latent transition analysis estimated the probability of transitioning between stages of alcohol involvement across waves and the impact of tobacco use and nicotine dependence at Wave 1 on transitions. RESULTS: Males reporting current tobacco use but no dependence at Wave 1 were more likely to progress from No Problems to Moderate Problems (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.44, 2.22]) and from No Problems to Severe Problems (aOR = 2.44; 95% CI [1.25, 4.77]) than nontobacco users. Females reporting current tobacco use but no dependence were more likely to progress from No Problems to Moderate Problems (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.37, 2.94]) and from No Problems to Severe Problems (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI [1.34, 6.13]). Females reporting current tobacco use and dependence were more likely than females not using tobacco to transition from Moderate to No Problems (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI [1.04, 4.22]). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that tobacco use is a preceding correlate of progression in alcohol involvement among males and females. Among females, tobacco use and nicotine dependence are also related to alcohol involvement recovery.

16.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(7): 617-620, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035894

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined whether the use of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) for treatment of opioid use disorder in specialty substance use treatment settings increased following Medicaid expansion. METHODS: Administrative data on 943,430 admissions from the Treatment Episodes Data Set-Admissions (2010-2016) were used to examine the association between Medicaid expansion and the use of OAT and to assess whether this association was mediated by increased proportion of admissions with Medicaid in expansion states. RESULTS: From 2010-2013 to 2014-2016, OAT use among patients with opioid use disorder increased in both expansion (39.1% and 50.2%, respectively) and nonexpansion (39.9% and 40.5%, respectively) states. The effect of Medicaid expansion on OAT use was mainly mediated through a larger proportion of admissions with Medicaid in expansion states. CONCLUSIONS: As the nation grapples with the opioid epidemic, expanding Medicaid coverage has the potential to promote greater access to evidence-based treatment.

17.
18.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(3): 345-353, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723973

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported misuse of prescribed-opioid medications in the US general population. METHOD: In 31 068 adult participants of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2015 and 2016 who reported using opioids in the past year, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of self-reported misuse of prescribed opioids, defined as using a larger dose, more frequently, or longer than prescribed. Multivariable logistic-regression models and the machine-learning method of boosted regression were used to identify the correlates of misuse. RESULTS: On the basis of weighted NSDUH estimates, of more than 89 million US adults who used prescription opioids every year, close to 3.9 million (4.4%) reported misused the prescribed medications. Prescribed-opioid misuse was most strongly associated with co-occurring misuse of opioids without a prescription, misuse of benzodiazepines, other drug-use disorders, history of illegal activity, and psychological distress. Misuse of prescribed opioids was also strongly associated with prescription opioid-use disorder, especially among those who misused more potent opioids or started misusing opioids before the current year. CONCLUSIONS: Misuse of prescribed opioids is associated with other high-risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes. The findings call for better monitoring of opioid prescription in clinical practice.

19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(1): 14-23, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615514

RESUMO

Medication treatment (MT) is one of the few evidence-based strategies proposed to combat the current opioid epidemic. We examined national trends and correlates of offering MT in substance use treatment facilities in the United States. According to data from national surveys, the proportion of these facilities that offered any MT increased from 20.0 percent in 2007 to 36.1 percent in 2016-mainly the result of increases in offering buprenorphine and extended-release naltrexone. Only 6.1 percent of facilities offered all three MT medications in 2016. Facilities in states with higher opioid overdose death rates, facilities that accepted health insurance overall (and, more specifically, those that accepted Medicaid in states that opted to expand eligibility for Medicaid), and facilities in states with more comprehensive coverage of MT under their Medicaid plans had higher odds of offering MT. The findings highlight the persistent unmet need for MT nationally and the role of expansion of health insurance in the dissemination of these treatments.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(4): 271-278, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined the availability and characteristics of assertive community treatment (ACT) programs across mental health treatment facilities in the United States. METHODS: Prevalence and correlates of facilities that reported offering ACT, broadly defined as intensive community services for serious mental illness provided by multidisciplinary teams in the clients' natural settings and including both ACT and "ACT-like" programs, were examined by using data from the National Mental Health Services Survey. Availability of services essential to the ACT model in these facilities was also examined. RESULTS: Of the 12,826 surveyed facilities, 13.4% reported offering ACT, with significant variability among states. Of the facilities with ACT, 19.2% reported offering all core ACT services. Few facilities offered peer support, employment, and housing services. Compared with programs at facilities that did not offer all core ACT services, facilities with ACT programs that offered these services had higher odds of being publicly owned (odds ratio [OR]=2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.64-2.74) and of receiving federal (OR=3.60, CI=2.17-5.98) or grant funding (OR=1.87, CI=1.45-2.41). Facilities with ACT that offered all core services also had higher odds of offering other services important to individuals with serious mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences existed in availability of ACT and ACT-like programs among states, with evidence of a large unmet need overall, even when a very broad and inclusive definition of ACT was used. Few ACT programs offered all core services. Legislative, administrative, and funding differences may explain some of the variability.

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