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1.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113723, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521003

RESUMO

Zeolite impeded geopolymer (Z/G) was synthesized from natural kaolinite and diatomite. The structure (Z/G) was characterized as an enhanced adsorbent for PO43- and NH4+ ions from aqueous solutions, groundwater, and sewage water. The synthetic Z/G structure exhibits sequestration capacities of 206 mg/g and 140 mg/g for PO43- and NH4+, respectively which are higher values than the recognized results for the geopolymer and other adsorbents in literature. The sequestration reactions of PO43- and NH4+ by Z/G are of Pseudo-Second order kinetic behavior considering both the Chi-squared (χ2) and correlation coefficient (R2) values. The sequestration reactions occur in homogenous and monolayer forms considering their agreement with Langmuir behavior. The Gaussian energies (12.4 kJ/mol (PO43-) and 10.47 kJ/mol (NH4+)) demonstrate the operation of a chemical sequestration mechanism that might be involved zeolitic ion exchange process and chemical complexation. Additionally, these reactions are exothermic processes of spontaneous and favorable properties based on thermodynamic studies. The Z/G structure is of significant affinity for both PO43- and NH4+ even in the existence of other anions as Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, and NO3-. Finally, the structure used effectively in the purification of groundwater and sewage water from PO43- and NH4+ in addition to nitrate, sulfate, and some metal ions.

2.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(10): 1474-1480, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a high risk for disease exposure. Given the limited availability of nucleic acid testing by PCR in low resource settings, serological assays can provide useful data on the proportion of HCWs who have recently or previously been infected. Therefore, in this study, we conducted an immunologic study to determine the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in two university hospitals in Egypt. METHODS: in this cross sectional study, HCWs who were working in SARS-CoV-2 Isolation Hospitals were interviewed. Estimating specific antibodies (IgM and IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 was carried out using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay targeting the Spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2 virus. RESULTS: Out of 111, 82 (74%) HCWs accepted to participate with a mean age of 31.5 ± 8.5 years. Anti-SARS-COV2 antibodies were detected in 38/82 (46.3%) of cases with a mean age of 31 years and female HCWs constituted 57.6% of cases. The highest rate of seropositivity was from the nurses (60.5%), and physicians (31.6%) with only (7.9%) technicians. Only 28/82 (34.1%) HCWs reported previous history of COVID19. We reported a statistically significant difference in the timing of exposure (p = 0.010) and the frequency of contact with COVID-19 cases (p = 0.040) between previously infected and on-infected HCWs. Longer time of recovery was reported from IgG positive HCWs (p = 0.036). CONCLUSION: The high frequency of seropositive HCWs in investigated hospitals is alarming, especially among asymptomatic personnel. Confirmation of diseased HCWs (among seropositive ones) are warranted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Estudos Transversais , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biochip J ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394845

RESUMO

As continues increasing the COVID-19 infections, there is an urgent need for developing fast, simple, selective, and accurate COVID-19 biosensors. A highly uniform gold (Au) microcuboid pattern was used as a microelectrode that allowed monitoring a small analyte. The electrochemical biosensor was used to monitor the COVID-19 S protein within a concentration range from 100 to 5 pmol L-1; it showed a lower detection limit of 276 fmol L-1. Finally, the developed COVID-19 sensor was used to detect a positive sample from a human patient obtained through a nasal swab; the results were confirmed using the PCR technique. The results showed that the SWV technique showed high sensitivity towards detecting COVID-19 and good efficiency for detecting COVID-19 in a positive human sample.

4.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1454-1471, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210212

RESUMO

A new set of 4,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-5(1H)-ones were designed as cytotoxic agents against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and synthesised under ultrasonic irradiation using chitosan decorated copper nanoparticles (CS/CuNPs) catalyst. The new compounds 4b, 4j, 4k, and 4e exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity of IC50 values (0.002 - 0.004 µM) comparing to Staurosporine of IC50; 0.005 µM. The latter derivatives exhibited a promising safety profile against the normal human WI38 cells of IC50 range 0.0149 - 0.048 µM. Furthermore, the most promising cytotoxic compounds 4b, 4j were evaluated as multi-targeting agents against the RTK protein kinases; EGFR, HER-2, PDGFR-ß, and VEGFR-2. Compound 4j showed promising inhibitory activity against HER-2 and PDGFR-ß of IC50 values 0.17 × 10-3, 0.07 × 10-3 µM in comparison with the reference drug sorafenib of IC50; 0.28 × 10-3, 0.13 × 10-3 µM, respectively. In addition, 4j induced apoptotic effect and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase preventing the mitotic cycle in MCF-7 cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Química Verde , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolonas/síntese química , Análise Espectral/métodos
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203117

RESUMO

Three phosphate glass compositions, VF1, VF2, and VF3, containing macro and micronutrients with different [K2O/(CaO+MgO)] ratio, were formulated to be used as controlled release fertilizers for tomato crop, depending on their chemical durability in water and their propriety with respect to the standards of controlled-release fertilizers. This study investigated the influence of [K2O/(CaO+MgO)] ratio variation on glass properties. For this, the elaborated glasses have undergone a chemical characterization using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, a thermal characterization using differential thermal analysis, a physicochemical characterization based on density and molar volume measurements, and a structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the chemical durability was determined by measuring the percentage of weight loss and the pH. Results revealed that the glass structure and composition have the mean role in controlling the release of nutrients in water. By increasing [K2O/(CaO+MgO)] ratio, the dissolution rates of the glasses increased due to the shrinking in the rate of crosslinking between phosphate chains, accompanied with a diminution in transition and crystallization temperatures, and an increase in the molar volume. An agronomic valorization of VF1 and VF2 glass fertilizers, which showed dissolution profiles adequate to the criteria of controlled-release fertilizers, was carried out to evaluate their efficiency on tomato crops. These glass fertilizers improved soil mineral content and tomato performances in comparison to the control and NPK treatments with the distinction of VF2. The results highlight the effectiveness of these smart fertilizers toward their potential large-scale application to improve crop production and quality for high nutritional value foods.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vidro/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatos , Solo , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Fosfatos/química , Fosfatos/farmacologia
6.
Egypt J Immunol ; 28(1): 46-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147053

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a fundamental role in maintaining immune homeostasis to balance between the tissue-damaging and protective effects of the immune response. There are strong evidences that Treg cells and their cytokines may play an important role in the induction of tolerance in the liver and progression of HCV infection. Herein, we investigated the frequency of Treg cells and interleukin 35 (IL-35) level in blood and their potential relationship to the various chronic hepatitis C (CHC) complications and outcomes. A total of 36 HCV infected patients subdivided into, CHC complicated with cirrhosis (HCV LC; n = 18), CHC complicated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV- HCC; n=18) and apparently healthy control group (n=18) were enrolled in this study. Treg cells percentages were determined by flow cytometric analysis and ELISA was used to measure IL35 serum levels. A significant increase in the frequency of peripheral Tregs and serum IL35 level was found in HCV HCC, and HCV LC groups compared with the control group. The frequency of peripheral Tregs and plasma (IL-35) levels were significantly positively correlated with viral load along with disease progression. We conclude that the higher percentage of Tregs and IL35 level in peripheral blood of HCV HCC and HCV LC groups compared to the control group may suggest their contribution to viral persistence and progression of HCV infection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Linfócitos T Reguladores
7.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 112984, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098152

RESUMO

Diatomite/kaolinite-based geopolymer (GP) was synthesized and incorporated in zeolitization process (Z/GP) to investigate the role of the zeolite phases in inducing its retention capacity of the dissolved Sr (II) ions in water. The retention of Sr (II) ions using Z/GP in comparison with GP was evaluated based on both batch and fixed-bed column studies. In the batch study, the zeolitized geopolymer (Z/GP) shows enhancement in the Sr (II) retention capacity (193.7 mg/g) as compared to the normal geopolymer (102 mg/g). Moreover, the recyclability studies demonstrate higher stability for Z/GP than GP with a retention percentage higher than 90% for five reusing runs. The kinetic and the equilibrium properties of the occurred Sr (II) retention reactions follow the assumption of the Pseudo-Second order model (R2 > 0.96) and Langmuir model (R2 > 0.97), respectively. The Gaussian energies (15.4 kJ/mol (GP) and 11.47 kJ/mol (Z/GP)) related to retention mechanism of chemical type and within the suggested range for the zeolitic ion exchange processes. The Sr (II) retention reactions by GP and Z/GP are of spontaneous and exothermic properties which qualifies the products to be used at low-temperature conditions (20 °C). The column studies also declared higher performance for the Z/GP fixed bed as compared to the normal GP bed considering the total Sr (II) retention percentage (72.9%), treated volume (8 L), saturation time (1620 min), and a maximum capacity of Z/GP particles in the bed (567.6 mg/g).


Assuntos
Caulim , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Terra de Diatomáceas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Cinética , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 278: 114311, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111536

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Iris is the largest genus in the family Iridaceae. Iris plants are distributed in tropical regions of the world. They are used as ornamentals and traditionally used to treat a variety of ailments. AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids isolated from Iris spuria L. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The isolated flavonoids (1-4) were identified on the basis of different spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR) and co-TLC with authentic samples. The anti-inflammatory effect was tested on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production from rat-isolated peritoneal macrophages. Modeling and docking simulations of the compounds were performed using Molecular Operating Environment software and the crystal structure of the murine inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). RESULTS: Four flavonoids (1-4) had been isolated from the rhizomes of Iris spuria L. (Hocka Hoona) for the first time. They were characterized as 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone (1), tectorigenin 7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), tectorigenin 4'-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (3), and tectorigenin 4'-O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl(1 â†’ 6)-ß-D-glucopyranoside] (4). The selective inducible NO synthase inhibitor; aminoguanidine was used as a positive control. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner of the isolated compounds along with isoflavonoids (5-9) previously isolated from Iris spuria L. (Calizona). A concentration of 60 µg/ml of all tested compounds showed a significant inhibitory effect compared to media with LPS. Molecular modeling experiments supported the obtained biological data. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that flavonoids isolated from I. spuria L. (Hocka Hoona) and I. spuria L. (Calizona) appear to have a potential anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of iNOS.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10751, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031472

RESUMO

We aimed to isolate Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) from wound infections, determine their resistance and virulence profile, and assess the impact of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the bacterial growth, virulence and biofilm-related gene expression. AgNPs were synthesized and characterized using TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. A. baumannii (n = 200) were isolated and identified. Resistance pattern was determined and virulence genes (afa/draBC, cnf1, cnf2, csgA, cvaC, fimH, fyuA, ibeA, iutA, kpsMT II, PAI, papC, PapG II, III, sfa/focDE and traT) were screened using PCR. Biofilm formation was evaluated using Microtiter plate method. Then, the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was evaluated by the well-diffusion method, growth kinetics and MIC determination. Inhibition of biofilm formation and the ability to disperse biofilms in exposure to AgNPs were evaluated. The effect of AgNPs on the expression of virulence and biofilm-related genes (bap, OmpA, abaI, csuA/B, A1S_2091, A1S_1510, A1S_0690, A1S_0114) were estimated using QRT-PCR. In vitro infection model for analyzing the antibacterial activity of AgNPs was done using a co-culture infection model of A. baumannii with human fibroblast skin cell line HFF-1 or Vero cell lines. A. baumannii had high level of resistance to antibiotics. Most of the isolates harbored the fimH, afa/draBC, cnf1, csgA and cnf2, and the majority of A. baumannii produced strong biofilms. AgNPs inhibited the growth of A. baumannii efficiently with MIC ranging from 4 to 25 µg/ml. A. baumannii showed a reduced growth rate in the presence of AgNPs. The inhibitory activity and the anti-biofilm activity of AgNPs were more pronounced against the weak biofilm producers. Moreover, AgNPs decreased the expression of kpsMII , afa/draBC,bap, OmpA, and csuA/B genes. The in vitro infection model revealed a significant antibacterial activity of AgNPs against extracellular and intracellular A. baumannii. AgNPs highly interrupted bacterial multiplication and biofilm formation. AgNPs downregulated the transcription level of important virulence and biofilm-related genes. Our findings provide an additional step towards understanding the mechanisms by which sliver nanoparticles interfere with the microbial spread and persistence.

10.
Hum Immunol ; 82(9): 634-639, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020830

RESUMO

The monocyte/macrophage lineage cells were found involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) disease. The naïve macrophages are activated either to M1 cells with proinflammatory roles or to M2 cells that function to resolve inflammation with tissue repair. Recently, cells with dual phenotypes were detected in SSc disease. So, we aimed in this study to demonstrate different monocyte/macrophage phenotypes in peripheral cells from a group of Egyptian SSc patients, correlating percentages of these cells with the clinical findings in patients. The study participants comprised 41 patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc disease and 25 healthy individuals as controls. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory tests were conducted for SSc patients. Different phenotypes of the monocyte/macrophage subsets were identified in peripheral blood of patients and controls by flow cytometry for characteristic M1 (CD80, CD86, and TLR4) and M2 (CD204, CD163 and CD206) markers. SSc patients showed higher percentages of peripheral cells of the M1, M2, and mixed M1/M2 phenotypes within the monocyte/macrophage lineage compared to controls. Different cell phenotypes were associated significantly with the disease duration, modified Rodnan's score, the Medsger skin score, and the Medsger lung in SSc patients. Some cells with the M1/M2 phenotypes were higher in SSc patients with pitting scars, arthritis, and myalgia.

11.
Coron Artery Dis ; 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010184

RESUMO

The great saphenous vein (GSV) graft remains a frequently used conduit for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The optimal technique for GSV harvesting has been the subject of on-going controversy. We therefore sought to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available GSV harvesting techniques in CABG. A systematic search of 12 electronic databases was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of any GSV harvesting technique, including conventional vein harvesting (CVH), no-touch, standard bridging technique (SBT) and endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) techniques. We investigated safety and long-term efficacy outcomes. All outcomes were analyzed using the frequentist network meta-analysis. A total of 6480 patients from 34 RCTs were included. For safety outcomes, EVH reduced 91% and 77% risk of wound infection compared to no-touch and CVH, respectively. EVH and SBT also significantly reduced the risk of sensibility disorder and postoperative pain. The techniques were not significantly different regarding long-term efficacy outcomes, including mortality, myocardial infarction and graft patency. For GSV harvesting for CABG, EVH techniques are the most favorable, but in case of using an open technique, no-touch is more recommended than CVH. More effective and safer procedures should be investigated for GSV harvesting in CABG.

12.
Virulence ; 12(1): 1334-1344, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002677

RESUMO

HEV-Ag ELISA assay is a reliable diagnostic test in resource-limited areas. HEV genotype 1 (HEV-1) infections are either self-limited or progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and death if anti-HEV therapy is delayed. Limited data is available about the diagnostic utility of HEV Ag on HEV-1 infections. Herein wWe aimed to study the kinetics of HEV Ag during HEV-1 infections at different stages, i.e., acute HEV infection, recovery, and progression to FHF. Also, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of this marker to predict the outcomes of HEV-1 infections. Plasma of acute hepatitis E (AHE) patients were assessed for HEV RNA by RT-qPCR, HEV Ag, and anti-HEV IgM by ELISA. The kinetics of HEV Ag was monitored at different time points; acute phase of infection, recovery, FHF stage, and post-recovery. Our results showed that the level of HEV Ag was elevated in AHE patients with a significantly higher level in FHF patients than recovered patients. We identified a plasma HEV Ag threshold that can differentiate between self-limiting infection and FHF progression with 100% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity. HEV Ag and HEV RNA have similar kinetics during the acute phase and self-limiting infection. In the FHF stage, HEV Ag and anti-HEV IgM have similar patterns of kinetics which could be the cause of liver damage. In conclusion, the HEV Ag assay can be used as a biomarker for predicting the consequences of HEV-1 infections which could be diagnostically useful for taking the appropriate measures to reduce the complications, especially for high-risk groups.

13.
Chemistry ; 27(34): 8875-8885, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848016

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis of nickel-layered double hydroxide amalgamated Y-zeolite (NiLDH@YZ) hybrids and the evaluation of the synergistic effect of various NiLDH@YZ catalysts and mechanochemical agitation on Glaser homocoupling reactions. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments were carried out to estimate the surface area and porosity of NiLDH@YZ hybrids. The basicity and acidity of these hybrids were determined by CO2 -TPD and NH3 -TPD experiments respectively and this portrayed good acid-base bifunctional feature of the catalysts. The NiLDH@YZ-catalyzed mechanochemical Glaser coupling reaction achieved best yield of 83 % for the 0.5NiLDH@0.5YZ hybrid after 60 min of agitation, which revealed the highest acid-base bifunctional feature compared to all the investigated catalysts. The developed catalyst has proven itself as a robust and effective candidate that can successfully be employed up to four catalytic cycles without significant loss in catalytic activity, under optimized reaction conditions. This work demonstrated a new strategy for C-C bond formation enabled by the synergy between mechanochemistry and heterogeneous catalysis.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800432

RESUMO

Four different phosphate glass formulations (F0, F1, F2, and F3) were developed according o wheat nutrient requirements to be used as controlled-release fertilizers. These glasses contain macro-elements (P2O5-K2O-CaO-MgO), with the addition of microelements (Fe-Mn-Zn-B-Cu-Mo) in each formulation. The effects of these elements' addition on thermal properties, glass structure, and dissolution behaviors were investigated. Results showed that these glasses are composed essentially of metaphosphate chains and that the addition of micronutrients could change the chemical durability of phosphate glasses. A greenhouse experiment was performed using wheat (Triticum durum L.) to evaluate the efficiency of the four glasses, with or without application of chemical nitrogen (N) (N + VF and VF, respectively). The different formulas were tested using two rates of 0.3 and 1 g per plant. In addition to the vitreous fertilizer formulations, two other treatments were applied: control treatment with no amendment and Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium treatment with the application of the conventional fertilizers on the base of optimal rates. After four months of cultivation, vitreous fertilizers application significantly improved growth (7% to 88%), photosynthetic (8% to 49%) parameters, and yield (29% to 33%) compared to NPK treatment and to the control. It has been found that formulas F1, F2, and F3 may constitute a potential alternative to conventional fertilization due to their positive impact on wheat production and can be used in practice as an environmentally controlled-release fertilizer.

15.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668302

RESUMO

(1) Background: Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic used in treating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. The growing emergence of colistin resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) represents a serious health threat, particularly to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. (2) Methods: In this work, we investigated the emergence of colistin resistance in 140 nosocomial E. coli isolated from patients with pneumonia and admitted to the chest ICU over 36 months. Virulence and resistance-related genes and E. coli pathotypes in colistin-resistant and colistin-sensitive isolates were determined. (3) Results: Colistin resistance was observed in 21/140 (15%) of the nosocomial E. coli isolates. The MIC50 of the resistant strains was 4 mg/L, while MIC90 was 16 mg/L. Colistin-resistant isolates were also co-resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol. The mechanism of colistin resistance was represented by the presence of mcr-1 in all resistant strains. Respectively, 42.9% and 36.1% of colistin-resistant and colistin-sensitive groups were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producers, while 23.8% and 21% were metallo ß-lactamase (MBL) producers. blaTEM-type was the most frequently detected ESBL gene, while blaIMP-type was the most common MBL in both groups. Importantly, most resistant strains showed a significantly high prevalence of astA (76.2%), aggR (76.2%), and pic (52.4%) virulence-related genes. Enteroaggregative E. coli (76%) was the most frequently detected genotype among the colistin-resistant strains. (4) Conclusion: The high colistin resistance rate observed in E. coli strains isolated from patients with nosocomial pneumonia in our university hospital is worrisome. These isolates carry different drug resistance and virulence-related genes. Our results indicate the need for careful monitoring of colistin resistance in our university hospital. Furthermore, infection control policies restricting the unnecessary use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems are necessary.

16.
Rev Med Virol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475223

RESUMO

Hepatitis E Virus is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis globally. HEV infection is endemic in developing countries. Also, autochthonous and sporadic cases are reported in developed countries. HEV causes acute and chronic infections. Besides, extrahepatic manifestations including neurological, renal, haematological, acute pancreatitis and complications during pregnancy are associated with HEV infections. The pathogenesis of HEV in the extrahepatic tissues is either due to direct cytopathic effect mediated by the virus replication, or immunological mechanisms caused by an uncontrollable host response. Researchers have used different in vivo and in vitro models to study the pathogenesis of HEV in the extrahepatic tissues and analyse the host immune response against HEV infection. This review highlights the extrahepatic disorders associated with HEV infection. We focused on the in vivo and in vitro models as a tool for elucidating the HEV infection beyond the liver and studying the mechanisms of HEV induced tissue damages.

17.
Surgeon ; 19(2): e42-e48, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883580

RESUMO

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has created havoc all over the globe and spared no one regardless of status, gender, location and ethnicity. There were questions raised if trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) procedures actually generated aerosols? The need for a review of literature highlighting the nature and impact of aerosol generation within T&O surgery was noted. METHODS: A comprehensive online search was performed for all published articles in the English language, evaluating AGPs in T&O surgery and the relevant personal protection equipment used. RESULTS: The search strategy populated 43 studies. Six studies were identified as duplicates. The shortlisted 37 studies were screened and nine studies were included in the review. An additional four studies were included from the bibliography review. CONCLUSION: Most orthopaedic procedures are high-risk aerosol generating procedures (AGPs). Conventional surgical masks do not offer protection against high-risk AGPs. In the current era of COVID-19 pandemic, there is a significant risk to the transmission of infection to the theatre staff. For protection against airborne transmission, appropriate masks should be used. These need proper fitting and sizing to ensure full protection when used.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Traumatologia/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
18.
Immunol Invest ; 50(2-3): 139-151, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965875

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder that affects phagocytes and is characterized by a marked increased susceptibility to severe bacterial and fungal infections. We aimed to describe the clinical presentations of pediatric patients with CGD in Upper Egypt and to identify the defective component of NADPH oxidase. Pediatric patients diagnosed with CGD within one year from January 2018 to January 2019 were enrolled in the study. Patient history, clinical and laboratory investigations were carried out, including nitroblue tetrazolium test and flow cytometry DHR analysis. Infectious microorganisms were isolated from infected sites to identify the causative agents and their resistance profile. A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with CGD. Failure to thrive and lymphadenopathy were the most common presentations. The median age of clinical onset was 1.17 years of age. The most common gene mutations were observed in the CYBA gene. All cases showed pulmonary infections followed by abscesses. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens, Aspergillus spp and Candida spp were isolated from fungal infections. 4/15 (26.7%) children died due to severe serious infections. We concluded that CGD is common in Upper Egypt, and we recommend raising the awareness and testing for CGD in pediatric patients with recurrent or persistent infections, especially those with a familiar history of similar manifestations to avoid delays in proper diagnosis and deterioration of cases. Abbreviations: CGD: chronic granulomatous disease; XL: X-linked; AR: autosomal recessive.

19.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 35(1): 97-112, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602568

RESUMO

Recent studies raise the possibility that donepezil can delay the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This research evaluated the efficacy of donepezil in an animal model with brain insulin resistance and AD-like alterations. Rats were fed with high-fat/high-fructose (HF/Hfr) diet during the study period (17 weeks) and received one injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (25 mg/kg) after 8 weeks of starting the study. Diabetic (T2D) rats were treated with donepezil (4 mg/kg; p.o.) or vehicle for 8 weeks after STZ injection. The influence of donepezil on AD-related behavioral, biochemical, and neuropathological changes was investigated in T2D rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with donepezil led to a significant decrease in both amyloid-ß deposition and the raised hippocampal activity of cholinesterase (ChE). It significantly increased the suppressed glutamate receptor expression (AMPA GluR1 subunit and NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, NR2B). It also improved cognitive dysfunction in the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tests. However, donepezil treatment did not significantly decrease the elevated levels of P-tau, caspase-3, GSK-3ß, MDA, TNF-α, and IL-1ß in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Also, it did not restore the suppressed levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the brain of these rats. Moreover, donepezil did not alter the elevated serum level of glucose, insulin, and total cholesterol. These findings suggest that donepezil treatment could ameliorate learning and memory impairment in T2D rats through reversal of some of the AD-related alterations, including reduction of amyloid-ß burden and ChE activity as well as restoration of glutamate receptor expression. However, lack of any significant effect on P-tau load, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and insulin resistance raises the question about the ability of donepezil to delay the development or arrest the progression of T2D-induced AD and it is still a matter of debate that requires further studies.

20.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 32(2): 242-249, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of using topical stem cell-conditioned medium (SC-CM) after fractional carbon dioxide laser (FCL) vs. combined FCL and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or FCL alone in treatment of atrophic acne scars. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were randomly divided into two split-face groups. Group I (n = 17) received FCL plus topical SC-CM on one side or FCL plus saline on the other. Group II (n = 16) received FCL plus topical PRP or SC-CM. All patients had three monthly sessions. Clinical assessment was done at each visit, with a final assessment after 3 months. Skin biopsies were obtained for histological and quantitative molecular analysis after treatment. RESULTS: No significant difference in clinical improvement of acne scars was observed between the FCL/SC-CM and FCL only sides (p = .63), while better and faster improvement was detected on FCL/PRP side compared to FCL/SC-CM side (p = .006). There was no significant difference in downtime or adverse effects between the treated sides in either group. Dermal collagen was increased and procollagen type I gene was upregulated in both FCL/PRP and FCL/SC-CM sides compared to FCL only sides (p = .001 and p = .041, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Topical SC-CM could potentially enhance the efficacy of FCL. However, PRP seems to be a better alternative.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/patologia , Cicatriz/terapia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/química , Acne Vulgar/complicações , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adulto , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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