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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873290

RESUMO

Background: Periodontitis is a common oral inflammation, which is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Intakes of vitamin D and calcium are inversely associated with occurrence and progression of periodontitis. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a multi-component intervention, including provision of milk powder supplemented with calcium and vitamin D and periodontal therapy (PT), for improving maternal periodontal health and metabolic and inflammatory profiles of low-income Brazilian pregnant women with periodontitis. Methods: The IMPROVE trial is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design with a parallel process evaluation. Pregnant women with periodontitis, aged 18-40 years and with < 20 gestational weeks (n = 120) were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups: (1) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (2) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT during pregnancy, (3) fortified sachet (vitamin D and calcium) and powdered milk plus PT after delivery and (4) placebo sachet and powdered milk plus PT after delivery. Dentists and participants are blinded to fortification. Acceptability of study design, recruitment strategy, random allocation, data collection procedures, recruitment rate, adherence and attrition rate will be evaluated. Data on serum levels of vitamin D, calcium and inflammatory biomarkers; clinical periodontal measurements; anthropometric measurements; and socio-demographic questionnaires are collected at baseline, third trimester and 6-8 weeks postpartum. Qualitative data are collected using focus group, for analysis of favourable factors and barriers related to study adherence. Discussion: Oral health and mineral/vitamin supplementation are much overlooked in the public prenatal assistance in Brazil and of scarcity of clinical trials addressing these issues in low and middle-income countries,. To fill this gap the present study was designed to assess the feasibility of a RCT on acceptability of a multi-component intervention combining conventional periodontal treatment and consumption of milk fortified with calcium-vitamin D for improving periodontal conditions and maternal metabolic and inflammation status, among Brazilian low-income pregnant women with periodontitis. Thus, we hope that this relatively low-cost and safe multicomponent intervention can help reduce inflammation, improve maternal periodontal health and metabolic profile and consequently prevent negative gestational outcomes. Trial registration: NCT, NCT03148483. Registered on May 11, 2017.

2.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(3): 1059-1072, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28353072

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the physiological changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] throughout pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 229 apparently healthy pregnant women followed at 5th-13th, 20th-26th, and 30th-36th gestational weeks. 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Statistical analyses included longitudinal linear mixed-effects models adjusted for parity, season, education, self-reported skin color, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Vitamin D status was defined based on 25(OH)D concentrations according to the Endocrine Society Practice Guideline and Institute of Medicine (IOM) for adults. RESULTS: The prevalence of 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L was 70.4, 41.0, and 33.9%; the prevalence of 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was 16.1, 11.2, and 10.2%; and the prevalence of 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L was 2, 0, and 0.6%, at the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Unadjusted analysis showed an increase in 25(OH)D (ß = 0.869; 95% CI 0.723-1.014; P < 0.001) and 1,25(OH)2D (ß = 3.878; 95% CI 3.136-4.620; P < 0.001) throughout pregnancy. Multiple adjusted analyses showed that women who started the study in winter (P < 0.001), spring (P < 0.001), or autumn (P = 0.028) presented a longitudinal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations, while women that started during summer did not. Increase of 1,25(OH)2D concentrations over time in women with insufficient vitamin D (50-75 nmol/L) at baseline was higher compared to women with sufficient vitamin D (≥75 nmol/L) (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy varied significantly according to the adopted criteria. There was a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D during pregnancy. The women with insufficient vitamin D status present greater longitudinal increases in the concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D in comparison to women with sufficiency.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcitriol/sangue , Ergocalciferóis/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(11): 1974-1985, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Vitamin A, Zinc and Pneumonia study. Children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine a vitamin D cut-off specific for our endpoints. Associations between serum 25(OH)D and underweight (defined as weight-for-age Z-score≤-1) and stunting (defined as height-for-age Z-score≤-2) were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. SETTING: Children residing in five low-SES peri-urban neighbourhoods near Quito, Ecuador. SUBJECTS: Children (n 516) aged 6-36 months. RESULTS: Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 58·0 (sd 17·7) nmol/l. Sensitivity analysis revealed an undernutrition-specific 25(OH)D cut-off of <42·5 nmol/l; 18·6 % of children had serum 25(OH)D<42·5 nmol/l. Children who were underweight were more likely to have serum 25(OH)D<42·5 nmol/l (adjusted OR (aOR)=2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·3). Children with low serum 25(OH)D levels were more likely to be stunted (aOR=2·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 4·7). CONCLUSIONS: Low serum 25(OH)D levels were more common in underweight and stunted Ecuadorian children.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/sangue , Magreza/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Classe Social , Magreza/etiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 95: 1-8, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755554

RESUMO

Plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites can be inversely associated with depressive symptoms. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated this association, especially during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxivitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] with the occurrence of depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy. A prospective cohort of 179 women was followed at 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th gestational weeks. At each trimester of pregnancy, the plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Vitamin D status was categorized according to the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines and the Institute of Medicine. Depressive symptoms were measured at each trimester using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depressive Scale (cutoff ≥13). Statistical analyses included random intercept logistic regression models for longitudinal analyses. In the first trimester, the prevalence of 25(OH)D <75, <50 and <30 nmol/L were 69.3%, 14.0% and 1.7%, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms were 20.1%, 14.7% and 7.8% for the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The probability of occurrence of depressive symptoms decreased throughout pregnancy (p-value = 0.005). Women with higher concentrations of 25(OH)D in the first trimester presented a lower odds ratio (OR) for the development of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (OR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96 to 0.99, p-value = 0.047) in the adjusted model. In conclusion, there was a higher prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and depressive symptoms during the first trimester. Higher 25(OH)D concentrations in the first trimester were associated with a decrease of 2% in the odds for presenting depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy.


Assuntos
Depressão , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Calcitriol/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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