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1.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 55(1): 58-67, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Hypertension and Preeclampsia Intervention Trial At near Term-I (HYPITAT-I) randomized controlled trial showed that, in women with gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia at term, induction of labor, compared with expectant management, was associated with improved maternal outcome without compromising neonatal outcome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of these findings on obstetric management and maternal and perinatal outcomes in The Netherlands. METHODS: We retrieved data for the period 2000-2014 from the Dutch National Perinatal Registry, including 143 749 women with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia and a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation, delivered between 36 + 0 and 40 + 6 weeks of gestation (hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) group). Pregnant women without HDP were used as the reference group (n = 1 649 510). The HYPITAT-I trial was conducted between 2005 and 2008. To study the impact of HYPITAT-I, we compared rate of induction of labor, mode of delivery and maternal and perinatal outcomes in the periods before (2000-2005) and after (2008-2014) the trial. We also differentiated between hospitals that participated in HYPITAT-I and those that did not. RESULTS: In the HDP group, the rate of induction of labor increased from 51.1% before the HYPITAT-I trial to 64.2% after it (relative risk (RR), 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.27). Maternal mortality decreased from 0.022% before the trial to 0.004% after it (RR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.06-0.70) and perinatal death decreased from 0.49% to 0.27% (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.45-0.65), which was attributable mostly to a decrease in fetal death. Both the increase in induction rate and the reduction in hypertensive complications were more pronounced in hospitals that participated in the HYPITAT-I trial than in those that did not. Following HYPITAT-I, the rate of induction of labor also increased (by 4.6 percentage points) in the reference group; however, the relative increase in the HDP group (13.1 percentage points) was significantly greater (P < 0.001 for the interaction). The reduction in maternal and perinatal deaths did not differ significantly between the HDP and reference groups. There was a decreased incidence of placental abruption in both HDP and reference groups, which was significantly greater in the HDP than in the reference group (P < 0.001 for the interaction). There was also an increased incidence of emergency Cesarean section in both HDP and reference groups; however, this change was significantly greater in the reference than in the HDP group (P < 0.001 for the interaction). CONCLUSION: Following the HYPITAT-I trial, there was a higher rate of induction of labor and improved obstetric outcome in term pregnancies complicated by HDP in The Netherlands. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2.
Hum Reprod Update ; 26(1): 1-15, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IUI for unexplained infertility can be performed in a natural cycle or in combination with ovarian stimulation. A disadvantage of ovarian stimulation is an increased risk of multiple pregnancies with its inherent maternal and neonatal complication risks. Stimulation agents for ovarian stimulation are clomiphene citrate (CC), Letrozole or gonadotrophins. Although studies have compared two or three of these drugs to each other in IUI, they have never been compared to one another in one analysis. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The objective of this network meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness and safety of IUI with CC, Letrozole or gonadotrophins with each other and with natural cycle IUI. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL and the Clinical Trial Registration Database indexed up to 16 August 2018. We included randomized controlled trials that compared a stimulation regimen with CC, Letrozole or gonadotrophins to each other or to natural cycle IUI among couples with unexplained infertility. We performed the network meta-analysis within a multivariate random effects model. OUTCOMES: We identified 26 studies reporting on 5316 women. The relative risk (RR) for live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates comparing IUI with CC to natural cycle IUI was 1.05 (95% CI 0.63-1.77, low quality of evidence), while comparing IUI with Letrozole to natural cycle IUI was 1.15 (95% CI 0.63-2.08, low quality of evidence) and comparing IUI with gonadotrophins to natural cycle IUI was 1.46 (95% CI 0.92-2.30, low quality of evidence). The RR for live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates comparing gonadotrophins to CC was 1.39 (95% CI 1.09-1.76, moderate quality of evidence), comparing Letrozole to CC was 1.09 (95% CI 0.76-1.57, moderate quality of evidence) and comparing Letrozole to gonadotrophins was 0.79 (95% CI 0.54-1.15, moderate quality of evidence). We did not perform network meta-analysis on multiple pregnancy due to high inconsistency. Pairwise meta-analyses showed an RR for multiple pregnancy rates of 9.11(95% CI 1.18-70.32) comparing IUI with gonadotrophins to natural cycle IUI. There was no data available on multiple pregnancy rates following IUI with CC or Letrozole compared to natural cycle IUI. The RR for multiple pregnancy rates comparing gonadotrophins to CC was 1.42 (95% CI 0.68-2.97), comparing Letrozole to CC was 0.97 (95% CI 0.47-2.01) and comparing Letrozole to gonadotrophins was 0.29 (95% CI 0.14-0.58).In a meta-analysis among studies with adherence to strict cancellation criteria, the RR for live births/ongoing pregnancy rates comparing gonadotrophins to CC was 1.20 (95% CI 0.95-1.51) and the RR for multiple pregnancy rates comparing gonadotropins to CC was 0.80 (95% CI 0.38-1.68). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Based on low to moderate quality of evidence in this network meta-analysis, IUI with gonadotrophins ranked highest on live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates, but women undergoing this treatment protocol were also at risk for multiple pregnancies with high complication rates. IUI regimens with adherence to strict cancellation criteria led to an acceptable multiple pregnancy rate without compromising the effectiveness. Within a protocol with adherence to strict cancellation criteria, gonadotrophins seem to improve live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates compared to CC. We, therefore, suggest performing IUI with ovarian stimulation using gonadotrophins within a protocol that includes strict cancellation criteria. Obviously, this ignores the impact of costs and patients preference.

5.
Hum Reprod ; 34(12): 2391-2398, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887222

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does pain or volume of used contrast medium impact the effectiveness of oil-based contrast during hysterosalpingography (HSG)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In women who report moderate to severe pain during HSG, the use of oil-based contrast resulted in more ongoing pregnancies compared to the use of water-based contrast, whereas in women who reported mild or no pain, no difference in ongoing pregnancies was found. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: We recently showed that in infertile women undergoing HSG, the use of oil-based contrast results in more ongoing pregnancies within 6 months as compared to the use of water-based contrast. However, the underlying mechanism of this fertility-enhancing effect remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We performed a post-hoc analysis of the H2Oil study, a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the therapeutic effect of oil- and water-based contrast at HSG. Here, we evaluated the impact of pain experienced at HSG and volume of used contrast media during HSG on ongoing pregnancy. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: In a subset of 400 participating women, pain during HSG by means of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (range: 0.0-10.0 cm) was reported, while in 512 women, we registered the volume of used contrast (in millilitres). We used logistic regression analyses to assess whether pain and volume of used contrast media modified the effect of oil-based contrast on ongoing pregnancy rates. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat principle. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: In 400 women in whom pain scores were reported, the overall median pain score was 5.0 (Interquartile range (IQR) 3.0-6.8) (oil group (n = 199) 4.8 (IQR 3.0-6.4); water group (n = 201) 5.0 (IQR 3.0-6.7); P-value 0.28). There was a significant interaction between pain (VAS ≤5 versus VAS ≥6) and the primary outcome ongoing pregnancy (P-value 0.047). In women experiencing pain (VAS ≥6), HSG with oil-based contrast resulted in better 6-month ongoing pregnancy rates compared to HSG with water-based contrast (49.4% versus 29.6%; RR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.5), while in women with a pain score ≤5, 6-month ongoing pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the use of oil- (28.8%) versus water-based contrast (29.2%) (RR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.66-1.5). In the 512 women in whom we recorded contrast, median volume was 9.0 ml (IQR 5.7-15.0) in the oil group versus 8.0 ml (IQR 5.9-13.0) in the water group, respectively (P-value 0.72). Volume of used contrast was not found to modify the effect of oil-based contrast on ongoing pregnancy (P-value for interaction 0.23). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This was a post-hoc analysis that should be considered as hypothesis generating. The RCT was restricted to infertile ovulatory women, younger than 39 years of age and with a low risk for tubal pathology. Therefore, our results should not be generalised to infertile women who do not share these features. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The underlying mechanism of the fertility-enhancing effect induced by HSG with the use of oil-based contrast remains unclear. However, these findings suggest a possible mechanistic pathway, that is increasing intrauterine pressure occurring prior to dislodging pregnancy hindering debris or mucus plugs from the proximal part of otherwise normal fallopian tubes. This information might help in the search of the underlying fertility-enhancing mechanism found by using oil-based contrast during HSG. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The original H2Oil RCT was an investigator-initiated study that was funded by the two academic institutions (AMC and VUmc) of the Amsterdam UMC. The funders had no role in study design, collection, analysis and interpretation of the data. K.D. reports consultancy for Guerbet. H.V. reports consultancy fees from Ferring. C.B.L. reports speakers' fees from Ferring and research grants from Ferring, Merck and Guerbet. V.M. reports receiving travel and speakers fees as well as research grants from Guerbet. B.W.M. is supported by an NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548). B.W.M. reports consultancy for ObsEva, Merck KGaA and Guerbet and travel and research grants from Merck KGaA and Guerbet. The other authors do not report conflict of interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The H2Oil study was registered at the Netherlands Trial Registry (NTR 3270). TRIAL REGISTRATION DATE: 1 February 2012. DATE OF FIRST PATIENT'S ENROLMENT: 3 February 2012.

6.
Hum Reprod Open ; 2019(4): hoz026, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687475

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What are the benefits and harms of receiving a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis in a community sample of women, including impact on psychosocial wellbeing, lifestyle choices and behaviour? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although some women benefit considerably from the diagnosis, such as through increased awareness and reassurance, women with minimal symptoms may experience more harm than benefit, including long-lasting anxiety and altered life plans. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Disease labels can validate symptoms and play a vital role in understanding and coping with illness; however, they can also cause harm by evoking illness schemas about severity and permanence. Regarding PCOS, the diagnostic criteria have expanded over time to include women with milder phenotypes (such as those without signs of androgen excess). This has occurred despite limited investigation of the benefits and harms of the diagnosis and has increased the number of women diagnosed. STUDY DESIGN SIZE DURATION: Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone with 26 participants from April-July 2018 to explore women's experiences with the diagnosis, including the benefits and harms of receiving the diagnosis and the impact on their life. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS SETTING METHODS: In total, 26 women in the community self-reporting a diagnosis of PCOS (reporting mild to severe symptoms) made by a medical doctor, aged 18-45 years and living in Australia were recruited through social media. Data were analysed thematically using Framework analysis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The study identified a range of both positive and negative effects of a PCOS diagnosis in the immediate, short and long-term, which were influenced by symptom severity, expectations and experience. For women with previously unexplained and bothersome symptoms, it was a relief to receive a diagnosis, and this resulted in an increased understanding about the importance of a healthy lifestyle. By contrast, women with milder symptoms often reported feeling shocked and overwhelmed by the diagnosis, consequently experiencing anxiety about the associated long-term risks. The majority of women, regardless of symptom severity, experienced prolonged worry and anxiety about infertility, resulting for some in risk taking with contraception, unintended pregnancies, pressure to conceive early or altered life plans. With time, many women developed positive coping strategies and perceived the diagnosis to be valuable, including those who felt they had experienced minimal benefit or even harm. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: PCOS diagnosis was self-reported and the sample was highly educated. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Fear of infertility was salient for many women, underscoring the need for accurate information, counselling and reassurance of fertility potential. Given the risk of significant consequences, health professionals should use a tailored approach to PCOS diagnosis to increase the benefits of appropriate and timely diagnosis for women affected by significant symptoms, while reducing the harms of unnecessarily labelling healthy women for whom the benefits of a diagnosis are small. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The study was funded by the University of Sydney Lifespan Research Network and an NHMRC Program Grant (APP1113532). B.W.M. reports consultancy for ObsEva, Merck, Merck KGaA and Guerbet. No further competing interests exist. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The majority of placenta previa and low-lying placentas in the second trimester will have a normal position in the third trimester. We assessed the accuracy for the distance between the placenta and the internal os of the cervix in the second trimester to predict third trimester low-positioned placentas and defined a cut-off value at which all third trimester low-positioned placentas are identified. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including women with a transvaginal ultrasound between 18 and 24 weeks' gestation and a distance between the placental edge and the cervix of <20 millimetres. All women had a re-evaluation in the third trimester. Relative risks for having a low-positioned placenta, defined as placenta previa and low lying placentas (within 0-2 cm from the internal os of the cervix) in the third trimester were calculated for women with placenta previa versus low-lying placentas, posterior versus anterior placentas and positive versus negative history of caesarean section. Multilevel likelihood ratios for ranges of distance from placental edge to cervix were calculated separately for anteriorly and posteriorly located placentas. Corresponding ROC curves were constructed. RESULTS: We included 958 women. In the second trimester, placentas were more frequently located on the posterior side (62%) than on the anterior side (38%). In the third trimester 48/958 (5.0%) of placentas persisted as a low-positioned placenta. Women with a placenta previa in the second trimester had a higher risk of low-positioned placenta in the third trimester than women with low-lying placentas (37/181 (20%) versus 11/777 (1.4%); RR 17.9 (95% CI 8.9-36)). Women with posterior placentas had a higher risk than women with anterior placentas (38/594 (6.4%) versus 10/364 (2.7%); RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9), as did women with a history of caesarean section compared to women without such history (14/105 (13%) vs 34/853 (4.0%); RR 3.7, 95% CI 1.9-7.2). The cut-off value for the distance between the internal os of the cervix and the placenta in the second trimester in order not to miss any abnormally located placentas in the third trimester is 15.5 millimetres for posteriorly located placentas. For anteriorly located placentas this is even smaller, namely 4.5 millimetres overlying the internal os of the cervix. CONCLUSIONS: With incorporation of a safety margin of 5 millimetres and including all placenta previa, we recommend lowering the cut-off values for follow-up in anterior low-positioned placentas from 20 to 5 millimetres, which will decrease the number of unnecessary follow-up ultrasounds without missing any high-risk women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 242: 131-138, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Does ovarian hyperstimulation and/or the in vitro procedure of assisted reproduction affect neurodevelopmental and physical health of the offspring? STUDY DESIGN: Infertile couples were randomly allocated to intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (IUI-COH), modified natural cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF-MNC) or single embryo transfer IVF (IVF-SET). We compared neurodevelopmental and physical health in childhood (4-7 years). We used age-appropriate questionnaires to assess behavioral problems (Child Behavior Check List (CBCL)) and executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)). We measured body mass index Z-score, waist- and hip-circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure Z-scores, pulse wave velocity, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and high sensitivity c-reactive protein. We compared groups by analysis of variance. RESULTS: We examined 191 (57%) of the 333 children born in the study at a mean age of 5.5 years (range 4.0-7.6 years). We found no statistically significant differences between randomization groups in children's neurodevelopmental or physical health indices (all p-values > 0.05). Comparing the outcomes between actual method of conception, including a naturally conceived group, also did not show statistically significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Although this follow-up study was not powered on childhood outcomes and limited power due to attrition may have hampered detection of subtle effects, we found no indications of differences in neurodevelopmental and physical health between ovarian hyperstimulation and/or the in vitro procedure of assisted reproduction. Future trials should be powered on child outcomes, and aim to optimize follow-up rates to provide answers that are more definitive.

9.
Hum Reprod ; 34(10): 2081, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560745
10.
Trials ; 20(1): 539, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiotocography is almost ubiquitous in its use in intrapartum care. Although it has been demonstrated that there is some benefit from continuous intrapartum fetal monitoring using cardiotocography, there is also an increased risk of caesarean section which is accompanied by short-term and long-term risks to the mother and child. There is considerable potential to reduce unnecessary operative delivery with up to a 60% false positive diagnosis of fetal distress using cardiotocography alone. ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram is a promising adjunct to cardiotocography alone, and permits detection of metabolic acidosis of the fetus, potentially reducing false positive diagnosis of fetal distress. METHODS: This study will be a single-centre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, conducted over 3 years. The primary hypothesis will be that the proportion of women with an emergency caesarean section on ST analysis will not equal that for women on cardiotocography monitoring alone. Participants will be recruited at the Women's and Children's Hospital, a high-risk specialty facility with approximately 5000 deliveries per annum. A total of 1818 women will be randomised to the treatment or conventional arm with an allocation ratio of 1:1, stratified by parity. The primary outcome is emergency caesarean section (yes/no). Statistical analysis will follow standard methods for randomised trials and will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary maternal and neonatal outcomes will also be analysed. Additional study outcomes include psychosocial outcomes, patient preferences and cost-effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Approximately 20% of Australian babies are delivered by emergency caesarean section. This will be the first Australian trial to examine ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram as an adjunct to cardiotocography as a potential method for reducing this proportion. The trial will be among the first to comprehensively examine ST analysis, taking into account the impact on psychosocial well-being as well as cost-effectiveness. This research will provide Australian evidence for clinical practice and guideline development as well as for policy-makers and consumers to make informed, evidence-based choices about care in labour. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR, ACTRN1261800006268 . Registered on 19 January 2018.

11.
Hum Reprod ; 34(6): 1126-1138, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119290

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can we develop a prediction model that can estimate the chances of conception leading to live birth with and without treatment at different points in time in couples with unexplained subfertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Yes, a dynamic model was developed that predicted the probability of conceiving under expectant management and following active treatments (in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intrauterine insemination with ovarian stimulation (IUI + SO), clomiphene) at different points in time since diagnosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Couples with no identified cause for their subfertility continue to have a realistic chance of conceiving naturally, which makes it difficult for clinicians to decide when to intervene. Previous fertility prediction models have attempted to address this by separately estimating either the chances of natural conception or the chances of conception following certain treatments. These models only make predictions at a single point in time and are therefore inadequate for informing continued decision-making at subsequent consultations. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A population-based study of 1316 couples with unexplained subfertility attending a regional clinic between 1998 and 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: A dynamic prediction model was developed that estimates the chances of conception within 6 months from the point when a diagnosis of unexplained subfertility was made. These predictions were recomputed each month to provide a dynamic assessment of the individualised chances of conception while taking account of treatment status in each month. Conception must have led to live birth and treatments included clomiphene, IUI + SO, and IVF. Predictions for natural conception were externally validated using a prospective cohort from The Netherlands. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 554 (42%) couples started fertility treatment within 2 years of their first fertility consultation. The natural conception leading to live birth rate was 0.24 natural conceptions per couple per year. Active treatment had a higher chance of conception compared to those who remained under expectant management. This association ranged from weak with clomiphene to strong with IVF [clomiphene, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.91); IUI + SO, HR = 2.90 (2.06 to 4.08); IVF, HR = 5.09 (4.04 to 6.40)]. Female age and duration of subfertility were significant predictors, without clear interaction with the relative effect of treatment. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We were unable to adjust for other potentially important predictors, e.g. measures of ovarian reserve, which were not available in the linked Grampian dataset that may have made predictions more specific. This study was conducted using single centre data meaning that it may not be generalizable to other centres. However, the model performed as well as previous models in reproductive medicine when externally validated using the Dutch cohort. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: For the first time, it is possible to estimate the chances of conception following expectant management and different fertility treatments over time in couples with unexplained subfertility. This information will help inform couples and their clinicians of their likely chances of success, which may help manage expectations, not only at diagnostic workup completion but also throughout their fertility journey. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by a Chief Scientist Office postdoctoral training fellowship in health services research and health of the public research (ref PDF/12/06). B.W.M. is supported by an NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548). B.W.M. reports consultancy for ObsEva, Merck, and Guerbet. None of the other authors declare any conflicts of interest.

12.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 38(6): 938-942, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981620

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Can women be identified, on the basis of baseline patient characteristics, as having better chances of an ongoing pregnancy with FSH instead of clomiphene citrate as stimulation agent in intrauterine insemination for unexplained subfertility? DESIGN: A secondary analysis of a multicentre randomized controlled superiority trial; the SUPER study. Between July 2013 and March 2016, couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing intrauterine inemination (IUI) were allocated to an FSH or clomiphene citrate group. Female age, body mass index, duration of subfertility, primary versus secondary subfertility, antral follicle count and total motile count were assessed. For each of these factors, a logistic regression model was developed to assess if different estimated effects of FSH versus clomiphene citrate on ongoing pregnancy occurred within strata of each factor. RESULTS: A total of 684 couples received 2259 IUI cycles; 338 couples were allocated to FSH, of which 84 conceived leading to ongoing pregnancy and 346 couples were allocated to clomiphene citrate, of which 71 conceived leading to ongoing pregnancy. None of the treatment selection markers was associated with better ongoing pregnancy chances after IUI with FSH compared with clomiphene citrate. CONCLUSION: In couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing IUI, no baseline treatment selection markers could be identified to determine whether ovaries should be stimulated with FSH or clomiphene citrate.

13.
Hum Reprod Open ; 2019(2): hoz006, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937394

RESUMO

Study questions: Does ICSI result in a higher live birth rate as compared with conventional IVF in couples with non-male factor infertility? What is known already: ICSI is primarily indicated for severe male factor infertility. While the use of ICSI for couples with non-male factor infertility has been increasing worldwide, this is not supported by data from randomised controlled trials. Evidence from non-randomised studies suggest no benefit from ICSI compared with conventional IVF in non-male factor infertility, if not a harm. Study design size duration: This randomised, open-label, multi-centre trial aims to compare the effectiveness of one ICSI cycle and one conventional IVF cycle in infertile couples with non-male factor infertility. A total of 1064 couples will be randomly allocated to an ICSI group and a conventional IVF group. The estimated duration of the study is 30 months. Participants/materials setting methods: Eligible couples are those whose husbands' total sperm count and motility are normal, have undergone ≤2 previous IVF/ICSI attempts, use antagonist protocol for ovarian stimulation, agree to have ≤2 embryos transferred and are not participating in another IVF study at the same time. Women undergoing IVM cycles, using frozen semen or having a poor fertilisation (≤25%) in previous cycle will not be eligible. Couples will be randomised to undergo ICSI or conventional IVF (1:1) with ongoing pregnancy resulting in live birth after the first embryo transfer of the started treatment cycle as the primary endpoint. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Effect sizes will be summarised as relative risk (RR), with precision evaluated by 95% CIs. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: All authors declare having no conflict of interests with regards to this trial. This work was supported by a grant from MSD [MISP #57508]. Trial registration number: NCT03428919. Trial registration date: 8 February 2018. DATE OF FIRST PATIENT'S ENROLMENT: 16 March 2018.

14.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 236: 127-132, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the capacity of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) versus hysterosalpingography (HSG) as a primary tool to diagnose tubal pathology. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a multicenter RCT (NTR3462) in 4 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands, comparing THL and HSG as first line tubal test in subfertile women. The primary outcome of the trial was cumulative live birth rate at 24 months. Here, we present the secondary outcomes, the diagnostic findings of both THL and HSG as well as performance defined as failures, complications and pain- and acceptability scores. RESULTS: Between May 2013 and October 2016, we allocated 149 women to THL and 151 to HSG, of which 17 women in the THL group (11.4%) and 12 in the HSG group (7.9%) conceived naturally before the scheduled procedure, while 13 HSGs and 5 THLs were not performed for other reasons (withdrawal of informed consent, not willing to undergo tubal testing and protocol violations). A total of 119 THLs and 134 HSGs were carried out. Failures were seen more in the THL group (n = 8, 5.6%) than in the HSG group (n = 1, 0.7%) (p = 0.014). Complications did not differ significantly between the groups (THL n = 4; 2.8% vs HSG n = 1; 0.7%) (p = 0.20). Bilateral tubal occlusion was detected in one versus three women (0.9% versus 2.2%) of the THL group and HSG group, while unilateral tubal occlusion was detected in seven (6.2%) versus eight (5.9%) women, respectively. Normal findings were seen in 96 (79.3%) women randomised to THL and in 119 (87.5%) in women randomised for HSG (RR 0.91 95%CI 0.81-1.01, p = 0.08). The pain score was significantly less for THL (VAS 4.7 (SD: 2.5)) than for HSG (VAS 5.4 (SD:2.5)) (p 0.038). The acceptability rate of THL and was high and comparable. CONCLUSION: THL and HSG have a comparable capacity in diagnosing tubal pathology with comparable performance in safety, pain and acceptability.


Assuntos
Doenças das Tubas Uterinas/diagnóstico , Histerossalpingografia/métodos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Laparoscopia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos
15.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 54(2): 172-181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare, in women with infertility, the effectiveness and safety of tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium, water-based contrast medium or their combination, and no tubal flushing, and to evaluate the effectiveness of tubal flushing on fertility outcome over time. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis, searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and trial registries, up to 25 September 2018. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the following interventions with each other or with no intervention in women with infertility: tubal flushing using water-based contrast medium, tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium or additional tubal flushing with oil-based medium following diagnostic tubal flushing with water-based medium. The outcomes included clinical pregnancy, live birth, ongoing pregnancy, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy and adverse events. RESULTS: Of the 283 studies identified through the search, 14 RCTs reporting on 3852 women with infertility were included. Network meta-analysis showed that tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium was associated with higher odds of clinical pregnancy within 6 months after randomization and more subsequent live births compared with tubal flushing using water-based medium (odds ratio (OR), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.38-2.03), moderate certainty of evidence; and OR, 2.18 (95% CI, 1.30-3.65), low certainty of evidence, respectively) and compared with no intervention (OR, 2.28 (95% CI, 1.50-3.47), moderate certainty of evidence; and OR, 2.85 (95% CI, 1.41-5.74), low certainty of evidence, respectively). These results agreed with those of the pairwise meta-analysis. For clinical pregnancy within 6 months, there was insufficient evidence of a difference between tubal flushing with water-based contrast medium and no intervention (OR, 1.36 (95% CI, 0.91-2.04), low certainty of evidence). For fertility outcomes after 6 months, there was insufficient evidence of a difference in any comparison (low to very low certainty of evidence). Compared with tubal flushing using water-based contrast medium, the use of oil-based contrast medium was associated with higher odds of asymptomatic intravasation (OR, 5.06 (95% CI, 2.29-11.18), moderate certainty of evidence). CONCLUSIONS: In women with infertility undergoing fertility workup, tubal flushing using oil-based contrast medium probably increases clinical pregnancy rates within 6 months after randomization and may increase subsequent live-birth rates, compared with tubal flushing using water-based contrast medium and compared with no intervention. Evidence on fertility outcomes beyond 6 months is inadequate to draw firm conclusions. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

16.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 53(4): 443-453, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypertensive disorders affect 3-10% of pregnancies. Delayed delivery carries maternal risks, while early delivery increases fetal risk, so appropriate timing is important. The aim of this study was to compare immediate delivery with expectant management for prevention of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with hypertensive disease in pregnancy. METHODS: CENTRAL, PubMed, MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing immediate delivery to expectant management in women presenting with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia without severe features from 34 weeks of gestation. The primary neonatal outcome was respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and the primary maternal outcome was a composite of HELLP syndrome and eclampsia. The PRISMA-IPD guideline was followed and a two-stage meta-analysis approach was used. Relative risks (RR) and numbers needed to treat or harm (NNT/NNH) with 95% CI were calculated to evaluate the effect of the intervention. RESULTS: Main outcomes were available for 1724 eligible women. Compared with expectant management, immediate delivery reduced the composite risk of HELLP syndrome and eclampsia in all women (0.8% vs 2.8%; RR, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.15-0.73); I2  = 0%; NNT, 51 (95% CI, 31.1-139.3)) as well as in the pre-eclampsia subgroup (1.1% vs 3.5%; RR, 0.39 (95% CI, 0.15-0.98); I2  = 0%). Immediate delivery increased RDS risk (3.4% vs 1.6%; RR, 1.94 (95% CI 1.05-3.6); I2  = 24%; NNH, 58 (95% CI, 31.1-363.1)), but depended upon gestational age. Immediate delivery in the 35th week of gestation increased RDS risk (5.1% vs 0.6%; RR, 5.5 (95% CI, 1.0-29.6); I2  = 0%), but immediate delivery in the 36th week did not (1.5% vs 0.4%; RR, 3.4 (95% CI, 0.4-30.3); I2 not applicable). CONCLUSION: In women with hypertension in pregnancy, immediate delivery reduces the risk of maternal complications, whilst the effect on the neonate depends on gestational age. Specifically, women with a-priori higher risk of progression to HELLP, such as those already presenting with pre-eclampsia instead of gestational hypertension, were shown to benefit from earlier delivery. © 2019 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.


Assuntos
Eclampsia/epidemiologia , Síndrome HELLP/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Eclampsia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Síndrome HELLP/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
BJOG ; 126(9): 1118-1126, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-lying placentas are positioned close to the internal os of the cervix. The preferred way of delivery within this group is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on the success of a vaginal delivery with a low-lying placenta. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched OVID EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies on vaginal delivery with a low-lying placenta. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSES: Data was extracted on successful vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section due to haemorrhage. We distinguished between different distances between the cervical os and the placenta (internal os distance, IOD); 0-10, 11-20, and >20 mm. A meta-analysis of proportions was made for successful vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section at every cut-off value. Maternal morbidity (i.e. antepartum blood loss, postpartum haemorrhage and blood transfusion) at different cut-off values was evaluated. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 999 articles retrieved, 10 articles met our inclusion criteria. A vaginal delivery was successful at an IOD of 0-10 mm in 43%, at an IOD of 11-20 mm in 85%, and at an IOD of >20 mm in 82%. A shorter IOD had a higher chance of antepartum haemorrhage, whereas a larger IOD needed postpartum blood transfusion more often. Postpartum haemorrhage did not depend on IOD. CONCLUSION: A low-lying placenta is not a contraindication for a trial of labour, and the morbidity in these women is not increased. However, women with a low-lying placenta have a higher chance of an emergency caesarean section compared with women with a placenta outside the lower uterine segment. Therefore, shared decision-making is mandatory in case of a trial of labour. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This systematic review demonstrates the possibility of a vaginal delivery in women with a low-lying placenta within 20 mm of the cervix.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Doenças Placentárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Placenta/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Gravidez , Vagina
18.
Hum Reprod ; 34(3): 584-586, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649325
19.
Int J Obstet Anesth ; 39: 22-28, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During labour, remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia is used as an alternative to neuraxial analgesia. Remifentanil is associated with hypoventilation and respiratory depression but the frequency of serious maternal and neonatal adverse events is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of serious adverse events attributed to the use of remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia during labour in The Netherlands and to investigate the circumstances (e.g. monitoring, practice deviations) of these events and the subsequent management. METHODS: In a nationwide survey among obstetricians, anaesthetists and clinical midwives the frequency of serious adverse events was assessed. A questionnaire was sent by email to all 61 Dutch hospitals in which remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia is, or has been, available for labour analgesia. All reported cases were assessed independently by two expert teams. RESULTS: We received information from all hospitals. After independent assessments, 17 cases of single maternal desaturation; 10 maternal cases of apnoea, bradycardia and/or cardiac arrest; and two neonatal cases of respiratory depression, over a period of more than 10 years of remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia use, were identified as a serious adverse event. All serious adverse events were resolved without irreversible damage. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of a potentially life-threatening serious adverse event attributed to remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia seems to be low. All patients recovered without deficit. Adherence to strict monitoring and the attendance of trained healthcare providers is required to safely use remifentanil for labour analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Remifentanil/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Países Baixos , Gravidez
20.
Hum Reprod ; 34(2): 276-284, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576539

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are six cycles of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins more cost-effective than six cycles of ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC) with or without IUI in normogonadotropic anovulatory women not pregnant after six ovulatory cycles with CC? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both gonadotrophins and IUI are more expensive when compared with CC and intercourse, and gonadotrophins are more effective than CC. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In women with normogonadotropic anovulation who ovulate but do not conceive after six cycles with CC, medication is usually switched to gonadotrophins, with or without IUI. The cost-effectiveness of these changes in policy is unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We performed an economic evaluation of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins compared with CC with or without IUI in a two-by-two factorial multicentre randomized controlled trial in normogonadotropic anovulatory women not pregnant after six ovulatory cycles with CC. Between December 2008 and December 2015 women were allocated to six cycles with gonadotrophins plus IUI, six cycles with gonadotrophins plus intercourse, six cycles with CC plus IUI or six cycles with CC plus intercourse. The primary outcome was conception leading to a live birth achieved within 8 months of randomization. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on direct medical costs. We calculated the direct medical costs of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins versus CC and of IUI versus intercourse in six subsequent cycles. We included costs of medication, cycle monitoring, interventions, and pregnancy leading to live birth. Resource use was collected from the case report forms and unit costs were derived from various sources. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) for gonadotrophins compared to CC and for IUI compared to intercourse. We used non-parametric bootstrap resampling to investigate the effect of uncertainty in our estimates. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: We allocated 666 women in total to gonadotrophins and IUI (n = 166), gonadotrophins and intercourse (n = 165), CC and IUI (n = 163), or CC and intercourse (n = 172). Mean direct medical costs per woman receiving gonadotrophins or CC were €4495 versus €3006 (cost difference of €1475 (95% CI: €1457-€1493)). Live birth rates were 52% in women allocated to gonadotrophins and 41% in those allocated to CC (relative risk (RR) 1.24:95% CI: 1.05-1.46). The ICER was €15 258 (95% CI: €8721 to €63 654) per additional live birth with gonadotrophins. Mean direct medical costs per woman allocated to IUI or intercourse were €4497 versus €3005 (cost difference of €1510 (95% CI: €1492-€1529)). Live birth rates were 49% in women allocated to IUI and 43% in those allocated to intercourse (RR = 1.14:95% CI: 0.97-1.35). The ICER was €24 361 (95% CI: €-11 290 to €85 172) per additional live birth with IUI. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We allowed participating hospitals to use their local protocols for ovulation induction and IUI, which may have led to variation in costs, but which increases generalizability. Indirect costs generated by transportation or productivity loss were not included. We did not evaluate letrozole, which is potentially more effective than CC. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Gonadotrophins are more effective, but more expensive than CC, therefore, the use of gonadotrophins in women with normogonadotropic anovulation who have not conceived after six ovulatory CC cycles depends on society's willingness to pay for an additional child. In view of the uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness estimate of IUI, these data are not sufficient to make recommendations on the use of IUI in these women. In countries where ovulation induction regimens are reimbursed, policy makers and health care professionals may use our results in their guidelines. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This trial was funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw number: 80-82310-97-12067). The Eudract number for this trial is 2008-006171-73. The Sponsor's Protocol Code Number is P08-40. CBLA reports unrestricted grant support from Merck and Ferring. BWM is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548) and reports consultancy for Merck, ObsEva and Guerbet. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR1449.

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