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1.
Soc Sci Med ; : 113502, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183861

RESUMO

This article takes the public reaction to the discovery of an aborted foetus in a rural Zambian community as the empirical starting point for exploring the everyday politics of reproduction. It builds on eleven months of ethnographic fieldwork on abortion and abortion policy in Zambia in 2017 and 2018, including participant observation in the community where the episode took place and interviews with clinic staff and neighbours. The article explores local dynamics of abortion opposition in a country where abortion is legally permitted on broad grounds. By analysing this case as an anthropological event, it discusses how opposition to abortion is dynamic and changes depending on the situation at hand. While abortions that avoid public attention may be silently tolerated, abortions that become openly known are harshly condemned. Through scrutiny of a specific case of collective moral judgement of abortion, the article examines how values like responsible motherhood, sexual virtue and protection of life emerge and are shared, allowing participants to protect and accumulate their own integrity in a moral economy that forges stronger social ties within the community. The article argues that even the harshest expressions of opposition to abortion may not be as categorical as they first appear. It calls for increased attention to dynamics of moral and political opposition to abortion to understand what is socially at stake for those who engage in it.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1485, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy is a complex socio-economic phenomenon ranking high on the global health policy agenda. Early childbearing is associated with early marriage and school drop-out, and is defined as a problem to the health and development of girls. This paper reports from formative research. The formative research aimed to explore socio-cultural and structural dynamics at work behind early pregnancy and school drop out in rural Zambia. The study findings have been used to inform a school based intervention to reduce early pregnancy (RISE: 'Research Initiative to Support the Empowerment of Girls'). Theoretically the study is informed by social constructionism. METHODS: A qualitative approach was employed. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (61) and focus group discussions (7) were carried out with girls (in and out of school), boys, parents, teachers, health workers and community- and district leaders in 2014-15. Systematic text condensation was drawn upon in the analysis of the material. RESULTS: The study findings indicate that the official Zambian discourse that presents early pregnancy as a serious challenge and schooling as the prime way to confront the problem enjoy substantial support at community levels. However, a parallel discourse on fertility, early marriage and childbearing as social and economic security surfaced and was articulated by the same study participants. The latter contrasting discourse questioned schooling as the only solution to secure a girl's future arguing that there are many reasons why early pregnancy may emerge as rational. CONCLUSIONS: Grasping the complexity of local discourse is vital in planning health interventions. The present study revealed that although delayed child bearing and schooling among girls enjoyed high status and legitimacy in the study area, the social and economic context worked to reward early marriage. Interventions to reduce early pregnancies in rural Zambian communities need to fundamentally address the material constraints that condition and reinforce a culture of early childbearing.

3.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(8): 900-905, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594165

RESUMO

Juridification of maternal health care is on the rise globally, but little is known about its manifestations in resource constrained settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The Maternal and Perinatal Death Surveillance and Response (MPDSR) system is implemented in Ethiopia to record and review all maternal and perinatal deaths, but underreporting of deaths remains a major implementation challenge. Fear of blame and malpractice litigation among health workers are important factors in underreporting, suggestive of an increased juridification of birth care. By taking MPDSR implementation as an entry point, this article aims to explore the manifestations of juridification of birth care in Ethiopia. Based on multi-sited fieldwork involving interviews, document analysis and observations at different levels of the Ethiopian health system, we explore responses to maternal deaths at various levels of the health system. We found an increasing public notion of maternal deaths being caused by malpractice, and a tendency to perceive the juridical system as the only channel to claim accountability for maternal deaths. Conflicts over legal responsibility for deaths influenced birth care provision. Both health workers and health bureaucrats strived to balance conflicting concerns related to the MPDSR system: reporting all deaths vs revealing failures in service provision. This dilemma encouraged the development of strategies to avoid personalized accountability for deaths. In this context, increased juridification impacted both care and reporting practices. Our study demonstrates the need to create a system that secures legal protection of health professionals reporting maternal deaths as prescribed and provides the public with mechanisms to claim accountability and high-quality birth care services.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To prevent the 2.6 million newborn deaths occurring worldwide every year, health system improvements and changes in care-taker behaviour are necessary. Mothers are commonly assumed to be of particular importance in care-seeking for ill babies; however, few studies have investigated their participation in these processes. This study explores mothers' roles in decision making and strategies in care-seeking for newborns falling ill in Ethiopia. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Butajira, Ethiopia. Data were collected during the autumn of 2015 and comprised 41 interviews and seven focus group discussions. Participants included primary care-takers who had experienced recent newborn illness or death, health care workers and community members. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Choices about whether, where and how to seek care for ill newborns were made through cooperation and negotiation among household members. Mothers were considered the ones that initially identified or recognised illness, but their actual opportunities to seek care were bounded by structural and cultural constraints. Mothers' limited bargaining power, contained by financial resources and gendered decision making, shaped their roles in care-seeking. We identified three strategies mothers took on in decision making for newborn illness: (a) acceptance and adaptation (to the lack of options), (b) negotiation and avoidance of advice from others, and (c) active care-seeking and opposition against the husband's or community's advice. CONCLUSION: While the literature on newborn health and parenting emphasizes the key role of mothers in care-seeking, their actual opportunities to seek care are shaped by factors commonly beyond their control. Efforts to promote care-seeking for ill children should recognise that mothers' capabilities to make decisions are embedded in gendered social processes and financial power structures. Thus, policies should not only target individual mothers, but the wider decision making group, including the head of households and extended family.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Negociação , Poder Familiar
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 105, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections account for a quarter of all newborn deaths and the umbilical cord has been identified as a major route of newborn infections. OBJECTIVE: To explore the meanings and practices related to the umbilical cord among caretakers of newborns in central Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative study, designed to inform the design, and interpretation of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of chlorhexidine use for the umbilical cord. We conducted 22 in-depth interviews exploring umbilical cord care practices among ten mothers, four health workers, five traditional birth attendants, and three men. We also conducted three focus group discussions with young mothers and elderly women. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze our findings and we borrow upon Mary Douglas' concepts of dirt to present our findings. RESULTS: The umbilical cord had a symbolic position in newborn care. The way it was perceived and handled had far reaching consequences for the survival and wellbeing of the baby. The umbilical cord was a centre of anxiety, a possible gate to illness, a test of fatherhood and a signifier of parental responsibility. Hence, the umbilical cord and the way it was cared for played a part in the present and future survival of the baby, as well as the survival and wellbeing of the household. Persons other than the mother such as older female relatives were very influential in the care of the umbilical cord. CONCLUSIONS: The umbilical cord carried symbolic meanings, which extended beyond the newborn and the newborn period, and in turn influenced the various practices of umbilical cord care. The important position of the cord in local newborn care practices should be recognized and taken into consideration when scaling up newborn care interventions in the country.

6.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 39, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183850

RESUMO

This editorial provides an overview of a thematic series that brings attention to the persistently deficient and unequal access to sexual and reproductive health services for young women in sub-Saharan Africa. It represents an effort to analyze the multifaceted relationship between laws, policies and access to services in Ethiopia, Zambia and Tanzania. Using a comparative perspective and qualitative research methodology, the papers presented in this issue explore legal, political and social factors and circumstances that condition access to sexual and reproductive health services within and across the three countries. Through these examples we show the often inconsistent and even paradoxical relationship between the formal law and practices on the ground. Particular emphasis is placed on safe abortion services as an intensely politicized issue in global sexual and reproductive health. In addition to the presentation of the individual papers, this editorial comments on the global politics of abortion which represents a critical context for the regional and local developments in sexual and reproductive health policy and care provision in general, and for the contentious issue of abortion in particular.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Política , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia , Zâmbia
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 251: 112909, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179365

RESUMO

This article addresses the gaps between knowledge, policy and practice in reproductive health by exploring the processes involved in translating Zambian abortion policy from paperwork to practice in a predominantly rural province. Central to these processes are rural health bureaucrats, who are tasked with administering and monitoring a myriad of reproductive health policies and programmes. The articles is based on eleven months of ethnographic fieldwork in Zambia from September 2017 to August 2018, including in-depth interviews with rural health bureaucrats and participant observation in health management and policy meetings. It examines how health bureaucrats deal with the abortion-related challenges they face. Our findings reveal a complex landscape of reproductive health politics and moral double-binds and give insight into the gap between Zambia's seemingly liberal abortion policy and the lack of access to abortion services in rural areas. Despite the bureaucrats' knowledge about abortion policy, none of the hospitals in the study province offer legal abortion services. While many bureaucrats consider abortion to be a public health issue and see the need to offer legal services to abortion-seeking women, they often bypass abortion-related issues and treat them with silence in policy meetings and public settings. The silence corresponds with the lack of data on abortion and post-abortion care in district and provincial health offices and should be understood in relation to both the dominant moral regime of the Zambian state and global pressure towards specific reproductive health targets. This article calls for increased focus on politics and power dynamics in the state apparatus in order to understand the gaps between knowledge, policy and practice in sexual and reproductive health.

8.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 126, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unsafe abortion is a major contributor to the continued high global maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Legal abortion frameworks and access to sexuality education and contraception have been pointed out as vital to reduce unsafe abortion rates. This paper explores the relationship between abortion law, policy and women's access to safe abortion services within the different legal and political contexts of Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia. The research is inspired by recent calls for contextualized policy research. METHODS: The research was based in Addis Ababa (Ethiopa), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Lusaka (Zambia) and had a qualitative exploratory research design. The project involved studying the three countries' abortion laws and policies. It moreover targeted formal organizations as implementers of policy as well as stakeholders in support of, or in opposition to the existing abortion laws. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with study participants (79) differently situated vis-à-vis abortion, exploring their views on abortion-related legal- and policy frames and their perceived implications for access. RESULTS: The abortion laws have been classified as 'liberal' in Zambia, 'semi-liberal' in Ethiopia and 'restrictive' in Tanzania, but what we encountered in the three study contexts was a seeming paradoxical relationship between national abortion laws, abortion policy and women's actual access to safe abortion services. The study findings moreover reveal that the texts that make up the three national abortion laws are highly ambiguous. The on-paper liberal Zambian and semi-liberal Ethiopian laws in no way ensure access, while the strict Tanzanian law is hardly sufficient to prevent young women from seeking and obtaining abortion. In line with Walt and Gilson's call to move beyond a narrow focus on the content of policy, our study demonstrates that the connection between law, health policy and access to health services is complex and critically dependent on the socio-economic and political context of implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Legal frameworks are vital instruments for securing the right to health, but broad contextualized studies rather than classifications of law along a liberal-restrictive continuum are demanded in order to enhance existing knowledge on access to safe abortion services in a given context.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Segurança , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
9.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 135, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion continues to be a major hazard for maternal health in Sub-Saharan Africa, where abortion remains highly controversial and access to safe abortion services is unequally distributed. Although national abortion laws are central in indicating women's potential for accessing safe abortion services, the character of an abortion law may alone say little about national discursive abortion landscapes and access scenarios. The article calls for the study and problematization of the relationship between legal abortion frameworks on the one hand, and discourses surrounding abortion on the other, in an attempt to move closer to an understanding of the complexity of factors that influence knowledge about and access to safer abortion services. With the restrictive abortion law in Tanzania as a starting point, the paper explores the ways in which the major global abortion discourses manifest themselves in the country and indicate potential implications of a hybrid abortion regime. METHODS: The study combined a review of major legal and policy documents on abortion, a review of publications on abortion in Tanzanian newspapers between 2000 and 2015 (300 articles), and 23 semi-structured qualitative interviews with representatives from central institutions and organizations engaged in policy- or practical work related to reproductive health. RESULTS: Tanzania's abortion law is highly restrictive, but the discursive abortion landscape is diverse and is made manifest through legal- and policy documents and legal- and policy related disputes. The discourses were characterized by diverse frames of reference based in religion, public health and in human rights-based values, and as such reflect the major global discourses. Fairclough's concepts interdiscursivity and recontextualization were drawn upon to develop an understanding of how the concepts health, rights and life emerge across the discourses, but are employed in contrasting lines of argumentation in struggles for hegemony and legitimacy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The paper demonstrates that a hybrid discursive regime relating to abortion characterizes the legally restrictive abortion context of Tanzania. We argue that such a complex discursive landscape, which cuts across the restrictive - liberal divide, generates an environment that seems to open avenues for enhanced access to abortion related knowledge and services.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Vida , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Tanzânia , Direitos da Mulher
10.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 138, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558166

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: At the turn of the century, when the Millennium Development Goals placed maternal mortality reduction high on the global agenda, Ethiopia relaxed its restrictive abortion law to expand grounds on which a woman could legally obtain an abortion. This radical policy shift took place within a context of predominant anti-abortion public opinion shaped by strong religious convictions. Drawing upon Walt and Gilson's policy analysis framework, this paper explores the tension between public policy and religious dogma for the strategies chosen by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and its partners implementing the new policy, and for access to safe abortion services. METHODS: The study employed a qualitative research methodology. It targeted organizations that are key stakeholders in the field of reproductive health. These included policy makers and policy implementers like ministries, UN agencies and international and national NGOs as well as religious organizations as key opinion leaders. The data collection took place in Addis Ababa between 2016 and 2018. A total of 26 interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using the principles of qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that the implementing organizations adopted a strategy of silence not to provoke anti-abortion sentiments and politicization of the abortion issue which was seen as a threat to the revised law and policy. This strategy has facilitated a rollout of services and has improved access to safe abortion care. Nevertheless informants were concerned that the silence strategy has prevented dissemination of knowledge about the revised law to the general public, to health workers and to the police. In turn this has caused confusion about eligibility to legal and safe abortion procedures. CONCLUSIONS: While silence as a strategy works to protect the law enhancing the health and survival of young women, it may at the same time prevent the law from being fully effective. As a long term strategy, silence fails to expand awareness and access to safe abortion services, and may not sufficiently serve to fulfill the potential of the law to prevent abortion related maternal deaths.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 116, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive health problems such as HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion among adolescents are closely linked to insufficient knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and lack of access to contraceptives. Supported by international agencies, Zambia has introduced an ambitious nation-wide program for comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to be implemented into ordinary school activities by teachers. The curriculum is firmly based in a discourse of sexual and reproductive rights, not commonly found in the public debate on sexuality in Zambia. This paper explores how teachers perceive the curriculum and practice discretion when implementing the CSE in mid-level schools in Nyimba district in Zambia. METHODS: Using a case study design, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 18 teachers and analyzed thematically drawing upon theories of discretion and policy implementation. RESULTS: Individual teachers make decisions on their own regarding what and when to teach CSE. This discretion implies holding back information from the learners, teaching abstinence as the only way of preventing pregnancy or cancelling sexuality education sessions altogether. Teachers' choices about the CSE program were linked to lack of guidance on teaching of the curriculum, especially with regards to how to integrate sexuality education into existing subjects. Limited prioritization of CSE in the educational sector was observed. The incompatibility of CSE with local norms and understandings about adolescent sexuality combined with teacher-parent role dilemmas emerged as problematic in implementing the policy. Limited ownership of the new curriculum further undermined teachers' motivation to actively include CSE in daily teaching activities. Use of discretion has resulted in arbitrary teaching thus affecting the acquisition of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health knowledge among learners. CONCLUSION: The CSE had limited legitimacy in the community and was met with resistance from teachers tasked with its' implementation. In order to enhance ownership to the CSE program, local concerns about the contents of the curriculum and the parent-teacher role dilemma must be taken into consideration. Not addressing these challenges may undermine the policy's intention of increasing knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and empowering adolescents to access contraceptive services and avoid unwanted pregnancies.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , População Rural , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
12.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(7): 492-498, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365076

RESUMO

The Maternal Death Surveillance and Response system (MDSR) was implemented in Ethiopia in 2013 to record and review maternal deaths. The overall aim of the system is to identify and address gaps in order to prevent future death but, to date, around 10% of the expected number of deaths are reported. This article examines practices and reasoning involved in maternal death reporting and review practices in Ethiopia, building on the concept of 'practical norms'. The study is based on multi-sited fieldwork at different levels of the Ethiopian health system including interviews, document analysis and observations, and has documented the politicized nature of MDSR implementation. Death reporting and review are challenged by the fact that maternal mortality is a main indicator of health system performance. Health workers and bureaucrats strive to balance conflicting demands when implementing the MDSR system: to report all deaths; to deliver perceived success in maternal mortality reduction by reporting as few deaths as possible; and to avoid personalized accountability for deaths. Fear of personal and political accountability for maternal deaths strongly influences not only reporting practices but also the care given in the study sites. Health workers report maternal deaths in ways that minimize their number and deflect responsibility for adverse outcomes. They attribute deaths to community and infrastructural factors, which are often beyond their control. The practical norms of how health workers report deaths perpetuate a skewed way of seeing problems and solutions in maternal health. On the basis of our findings, we argue that closer attention to the broader political context is needed to understand the implementation of MDSR and other surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Antropologia Cultural , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Política , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas
13.
BMC Med Ethics ; 20(1): 45, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for empirically based research on social and ethical challenges related to informed consent processes, particularly in studies focusing on adolescent sexual and reproductive health. In a pilot study of a school-based pregnancy prevention intervention in rural Zambia, the majority of the guardians who were asked to consent to their daughters' participation, refused. In this paper we explore the reasons behind the low participation in the pilot with particular attention to challenges related to the community engagement and informed consent process. METHODS: The pilot was implemented in two schools and examined the acceptability of a package of interventions including economic support to families to keep their girls in school, pocket money for girls, youth club meetings on reproductive health, and community meetings to sensitize the community. Focus group discussions (4) were conducted with girls who participated in the pilot, boys in their class and with parents. Individual semi-structured interviews (11) were conducted with teachers, peer educators and community health workers involved in the coordination of the intervention as well as with religious and traditional leaders. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULTS: The findings indicate that inadequate use of recognized community communication channels during the community engagement process and dissemination of information about the pilot resulted in limited understanding of the pilot concept by the community. This surfaced through uncertainty and fear that the intervention may result in loss of control over daughters, worries about why money was provided unconditionally to girls, and suspicion of links to satanism. The sense of insecurity appeared to be exacerbated by low literacy levels, poverty, fear of loss of bride wealth, perceived disregard for local perceptions of social status, and scanty trust in the actors implementing the pilot. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate use of locally appropriate channels in the dissemination of information created room for interpretation and facilitated development of mistrust, undermining the conditions for community engagement and actual informed consent. A key lesson learnt is the importance of taking seriously the complexity of local values and structures that may impact people's capability to consent or not consent to a study in an informed manner.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Adolescente , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/ética , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/ética , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 20, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Zambian Termination of Pregnancy Act permits abortion on socio-economic grounds, but access to safe abortion services is limited and this constitutes a considerable problem for rights to sexual and reproductive health. The case of Zambia provides an opportunity to explore the relationship between a legal framework that permits abortion on diverse grounds, the moral and political disputes around abortion and access to sexual and reproductive health services. METHODS: This paper draws upon eleven months of ethnographic fieldwork in Zambia. The fieldwork included 28 open-ended interviews with key stakeholders as well as the collection of archival material related to the origins of Zambia's legal framework for abortion. The archival material and the interview data were analyzed thematically, using theoretical perspectives on discourse and the anthropology of policies. RESULTS: The study findings show that the Zambian case is not easily placed into standard categories of liberal or restrictive abortion laws. The archival material reveals that restrictive elements were in focus when the Zambian Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed (1972). The restrictive aspects of the law were emphasized further when Zambia was later declared as a Christian nation. Some of these restrictive elements are still readily recognized in today's abortion debate. Currently there are multiple opinions on whether Zambian abortion policy is liberal, restrictive or neither. The law emerges as ambiguous, and this ambiguity is actively used by both those working to increase access to safe and legal abortion services, and those who work to limit such access. Coupled with a lack of knowledge about the law, its ambiguity may work to reduce access to safe abortion services on the grounds permitted by the law. CONCLUSIONS: We argue that the Zambian Termination of Pregnancy Act is ambiguous and leaves much room for interpretation. This paper challenges the notion that the Zambian abortion law is liberal and opens up for further discussion on the relationship between how a law is described and perceived by the public, and the rights to health and services ensured by it.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Segurança , Zâmbia
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 476, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cleansing the umbilical cord with chlorhexidine reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in communities where newborn deaths and home births are common. As a result, the World Health Organization and national authorities are advocating the scale up of this intervention. In order for such a scale up to be effective, it has to be acceptable to the targeted population. With the overall aim to clarify conditions for scale-up, this study explored the acceptability of single dose chlorhexidine solution for umbilical cord care among health workers and infant care providers in the districts of Kampala and Mukono in Central Uganda. METHODS: This was a qualitative study that involved mothers of neonates enrolled in a chlorhexidine trial, nurses implementing the trial, key community members and opinion leaders in childcare. We conducted 30 in depth interviews (IDIs) with mothers (18), health workers (8), traditional birth attendants (2), a father (1) and a grandmother (1) and 4 focus group discussions (FGDs), 3 with mothers and 1 with health workers. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze our findings and borrow upon Sekhon's model when presenting our findings. RESULTS: Cognitive and emotional responses to chlorhexidine use included ease of use, and a perception that chlorhexidine reduced smell and abdominal colic. We also found that wider social and cultural factors were important to chlorhexidine use. These included cultural value put on quick separation of the umbilical cord as well as the practice of bathing the baby in a herbal mixture called kyogero. We also found that older relatives were key decision makers in umbilical cord care for newborns, but were seldom present during health workers' counseling of mothers about hygienic care of the cord. CONCLUSIONS: The application of chlorhexidine on the umbilical cord stump at birth was acceptable as an addition rather than a total replacement of traditional substances. The scale up of chlorhexidine should consider how to accommodate local beliefs and practices in a way that does not compromise the effect of the intervention; encouraging mothers to delay the bathing of babies in kyogero could be one way of doing this.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Cordão Umbilical , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Recém-Nascido , Infecções , Tocologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Uganda
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 215: 28-35, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205276

RESUMO

Targets and indicators set at the global level are powerful tools that govern health systems in low-income countries. Skilled birth attendance at a health facility is an important indicator for monitoring maternal mortality reduction worldwide. This paper examines how health workers negotiate policy implementation through the translation of clinical care into registries and reports. It does so by analysing the links between the global policy of institutional births and the role of documentation in the provision of birth care in primary health centres in Burkina Faso. Observations of health workers' practices in four primary maternity units (one urban, one semi-urban and two rural) conducted over a 12-week period in 2011-2012 are analysed alongside 14 in-depth interviews with midwives and other health workers. The findings uncover the magnitude of reporting demands that health workers experience and the pressure placed on them to provide the 'right' results, in line with global policy objectives. The paper describes the way in which they document inaccurate accounts, for example by completing the labour surveillance tool partograph after birth, thus transforming it into a 'postograph', to adhere to the expectations of health district officers. We argue that the drive for the 'right' numbers might encourage inaccurate reporting practices and it can feed into policies that are incapable of addressing the realities experienced by frontline health workers and patients. The focus on producing indicators of good care can divert attention from actual care, with profound implications for accountability at the health centre level.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Política de Saúde/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Países em Desenvolvimento , Documentação/métodos , Documentação/tendências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , População Rural/tendências
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980806

RESUMO

Since there is no doubt concerning the superiority of breastfeeding compared to other forms of infant feeding, the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and continued breastfeeding up to two years and beyond are again embraced at the highest global nutrition agenda. The latest is the United Nations decade of action on nutrition 2016-2025, building on research results and the work by the World Health Organization (WHO) over the last two decades, and extensive societal, clinical, and academic discussions in the field of breastfeeding.While the discussion was about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding around the millennium shift, the focus is on the most effective measures for the promotion and protection of breastfeeding. Contemporary breastfeeding rates are well behind the goals. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost all infants are breastfed, while exclusive breastfeeding is more seldom and not sufficient. Africa, being a vast and diverse continent with a myriad of cultural practices, has had some shared attitudes ranging from the west to east regarding views on motherhood, body fluids, including milk, infant feeding, and responsible others.The region still faces high maternal HIV infection rates and high infant and child mortality rates. However, due to effective antiretroviral therapies, it is now possible and safe for women living with HIV to breastfeed their infants and to ensure them HIV-free survival. However, there is need for improvement regarding availability, compliance, and adherence to these drugs. Research gaps include the long-term effects of antiretroviral therapy on the growth, health, and development of the exposed children.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Promoção da Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , África ao Sul do Saara , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 258, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of mental illness in childhood and adolescence helps to avert debilitating mental illness in adulthood but the attention given to Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) has until recently been low. Traditional healers are often consulted by patients with mental illness and in Uganda, up to 60% of patients attending traditional healers have moderate to severe mental illness. Poor access to CAMH care in Uganda creates a treatment gap that could be met through enhanced collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems. The aim of this study was to explore traditional healers' views on their collaboration with biomedical health systems so as to inform the implementation of strategies to improve access to CAMH services in Uganda. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 20 purposively selected traditional healers were conducted in November 2015. A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore: 1) The experiences of traditional healers with mental ill-health in children and adolescents; 2) their willingness to collaborate with the formal health system; and 3) their perception of clinicians' willingness to collaborate with them. Interviews were conducted in local languages and tape recorded. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Traditional healers described several experiences managing children and adolescents with mental illness, which they ascribed to spiritual and physical causes. The spiritual explanations were a consequence of unhappy ancestral spirits, modern religions and witchcraft, while physical causes mentioned included substance abuse and fevers. No traditional healer had received a patient referred to them from a medical clinic although all had referred patients to clinics for non-mental health reasons. Traditional healers expressed distrust in biomedical health systems and believed their treatments were superior to medical therapies in alleviating mental suffering. They expressed willingness to collaborate with biomedical providers. However, traditional healers believe clinicians disregard them and would not be willing to collaborate with them. CONCLUSION: Potential for collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems for improving access to CAMH services in Uganda exists, but is undermined by mutual mistrust and competition between traditional healers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 153, 2018 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first month of life is the period with the highest risk of dying. Despite knowledge of effective interventions, newborn mortality is high and utilization of health care services remains low in Ethiopia. In settings without universal health coverage, the economy of a household is vulnerable to illness, and out-of-pocket payments may limit families' opportunities to seek health care for newborns. In this paper we explore intra-household resource allocation, focusing on how families prioritize newborn health versus other household needs and their coping strategies for managing these priorities. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in 2015 in Butajira, Ethiopia, comprising observation, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions with household members, health workers, and community members. Household members with hospitalized newborns or who had experienced neonatal death were primary informants. RESULTS: In this predominantly rural and poor district, households struggled to pay out-of-pocket for services such as admission, diagnostics, drugs, and transportation. When newborns fell ill, families made hard choices balancing concerns for newborn health and other household needs. The ability to seek care, obtain services, and follow medical advice depended on the social and economic assets of the household. It was common to borrow money from friends and family, or even to sell a sheep or the harvest, if necessary. In managing household priorities and high costs, families waited before seeking health care, or used cheaper traditional medicines. For poor families with no money or opportunity to borrow, it became impossible to follow medical advice or even seek care in the first place. This had fatal health consequences for the sick newborns. CONCLUSIONS: While improving neonatal health is prioritized at policy level in Ethiopia, poor households with sick neonates may prioritize differently. With limited money at hand and high direct health care costs, families balanced conflicting concerns to newborn health and family welfare. We argue that families should not be left in situations where they have to choose between survival of the newborn and economic ruin. Protection against out-of-pocket spending is key as Ethiopia moves towards universal health coverage. A necessary step is to provide prioritized newborn health care services free of charge.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Doença Catastrófica/economia , Doença Catastrófica/psicologia , Características da Família , Gastos em Saúde , Alocação de Recursos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
20.
Health Care Women Int ; 39(9): 955-967, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313795

RESUMO

Websites for pregnancy health are an important source of information for pregnant women, but how different cadres of health professionals value and utilize pregnant women's e-health literacy (e-HL) and Web-based knowledge in pregnancy consultations is not well understood. Using a qualitative research design and pelvic girdle pain as a tracer condition, we explored how Norwegian doctors, midwives and physiotherapists manage women's e-HL and Web-based knowledge in pregnancy consultations. The recognition of pregnant women's e-HL and Web-based knowledge differed across professional groups and produced dismissive, reactive and proactive attitudes depending on time pressure, professional identity and Internet experience.

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