Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608525

RESUMO

Three novel donor-π-bridge-donor (D-π-D) hole-transporting materials (HTMs) featuring triazatruxene electron-donating units bridged by different 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) π-conjugated linkers have been synthesized, characterized, and implemented in mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The opto-electronic properties of the new dumbbell-shaped derivatives (DTTXs) are highly influenced by the chemical structure of the EDOT-based linker. Red-shifted absorption and emission and a stronger donor ability were observed in passing from DTTX-1 to DTTX-2 due to the extended π-conjugation. DTTX-3 featured an intramolecular charge transfer between the external triazatruxene units and the azomethine-EDOT central scaffold, resulting in a more pronounced red shift. The three new derivatives have been tested in combination with the state-of-the-art triple-cation perovskite [(FAPbI3)0.87(MAPbBr3)0.13]0.92[CsPbI3]0.08 in standard mesoporous PSCs. Remarkable power conversion efficiencies of 17.48% and 18.30% were measured for DTTX-1 and DTTX-2, respectively, close to that measured for the benchmarking HTM spiro-OMeTAD (18.92%). PSCs with DTTX-3 reached a PCE value of 12.68%, which is attributed to the poorer film-formation in comparison to DTTX-1 and DTTX-2. These PCE values are in perfect agreement with the conductivity and hole mobility values determined for the new compounds and spiro-OMeTAD. Steady-state photoluminescence further confirm the potential of DTTX-1 and DTTX-2 for hole-transport applications as an alternative to spiro-OMeTAD.

2.
J Org Chem ; 85(1): 224-233, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760753

RESUMO

Three hole-transporting materials (HTMs) were prepared following a straightforward synthetic route by cross-linking arylamine-based ligands with a simple thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TbT) core. The novel HTMs were fully characterized with standard techniques to gain insight into their optical and electrochemical properties and were incorporated in solution-processed mesoporous (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15 perovskite-based solar cells. The similar molecular structure of the synthesized HTMs was leveraged to investigate the role that the bridging units between the conjugated TbT core and the peripheral arylamine units plays on their properties and thereby on the photovoltaic response. A remarkable power conversion efficiency exceeding 18% was achieved for one of the TbT derivatives, which was slightly higher than the value measured for the benchmark spiro-OMeTAD.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(9): 4162-4172, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859500

RESUMO

Two novel homo and hetero three-dimensional nanographenes, NG1 and NG2, featuring a cyclooctatetraene core are designed, synthesized, and characterized. A concise and efficient bottom-up methodology was employed during which 24 new carbon-carbon bonds were formed. By means of a Scholl reaction nanographenes with 53 fused rings are realized, which exhibited good solubility in common organic solvents. The resulting saddle-like structures of NG1 and NG2 are electron-rich and show good chemical and electrochemical stability. Their molecular structures are fully elucidated by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. From their crystal structure analysis is concluded that both nanographenes are chiral and crystallize as a racemic mixture. Our work was rounded-off by excited state investigations such as electron and energy transfer with electron-acceptors and -donors.

4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 47(23): 8541-8571, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283961

RESUMO

Photovoltaic solar cells based on perovskites have come to the forefront in science by achieving exceptional power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in less than a decade of research. This "still young" generation of solar cells is currently rivalling, in PCEs, well-established technologies, such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) and silicon. Further improvements in device stability by means of innovative materials are yet to come, with technology becoming closer to meeting the market requirements. Emerging from this groundbreaking discovery, a great number of charge transporting materials have flourished, which is particularly true for hole transporting materials (HTMs). The huge number of molecules prepared stem from design and engineering of a wide variety of new and also chemically modified old molecules where organic synthesis has played a fundamental role. In this review, the contribution of chemistry through those synthetic protocols used for producing new and innovative HTMs from relatively simple organic molecules is presented in a rational and systematic manner. The variety and impact of synthetic strategies followed, the structure-property relationship and stability, conductivity and device performance are highlighted from a chemical viewpoint.

5.
Chemistry ; 23(29): 7132-7141, 2017 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339126

RESUMO

Doping of carbon nanostructures with heteroatoms, such as boron or nitrogen, is one of the most effective ways to change their properties to make them suitable for various applications. Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) doped with boron (B-CNOs) were prepared by annealing (1650 °C) nanodiamond particles (NDs) under an inert He atmosphere in the presence of B. Their physicochemical properties were measured using transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 10 B and 11 B solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, porosimetry, and differential-thermogravimetric analyses (TGA-DTG). These properties were systematically discussed for the undoped and B-doped CNO samples. The amount of substitutional B in the CNO samples varied from 0.76 to 3.21 at. %. The TEM, XRD, and Raman analyses revealed that the increased amount of B doping resulted in decreased interlayer spacing and polygonization of the structures, which in turn led to their unusual physicochemical properties. All synthesized materials were tested as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. The B-CNOs with low concentration of doping agent exhibited higher reversible capacitances, mainly owing to the formation of hydrophilic polygonal nanostructures and higher porosity.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(8): 3095-3105, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28170229

RESUMO

New stilbenoid and thiophenic compounds terminally functionalized with donor-donor, acceptor-acceptor, or donor-acceptor moieties and possessing a central [2.2]paracyclophane unit have been prepared, and their properties interpreted in terms of through-bond and through space π-electron delocalization (i.e., π-conjugations). Based on photophysical data, their excited-state properties have been described with a focus on the participation of the central [2.2]paracyclophane in competition with through-bond conjugation in the side arms. To this end, two-photon and one-photon absorption and emission spectroscopy, as a function of temperature, solvent polarity, and pressure in the solid state have been recorded. Furthermore, charge delocalization through the [2.2]paracyclophane in the neutral state and in the oxidized species (radical cations, dications and radical trications) has been investigated, allowing the elucidation of the vibrational Raman fingerprint of through-space charge delocalization. Thus, a complementary approach to both "intermolecular" excitation and charge delocalizations in [2.2]paracyclophane molecules is shown which can serve as models of charge and exciton migration in organic semiconductors.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(22): 4622-4628, 2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797214

RESUMO

The use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of fullerene derivatives reduces the hysteresis of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We have investigated three different fullerene derivatives observing a decrease on hysteresis for all the cases. Several processes can contribute to the hysteresis behavior on PSCs. We have determined that the reduced hysteresis observed for devices with SAMs is produced by a decrease of the capacitive hysteresis. In addition, with an appropriated functionalization, SAMs can increase photocurrent even when no electron selective contact (ESC) is present and a SAM is deposited just on top of the transparent conductive oxide. Appropriated functionalization of the fullerene derivative, as introducing -CN groups, can enhance cell performance and reduce hysteresis. This work paves the way for a future enhancement of PSCs by a tailored design of the fullerene molecules that could actuate as an ESC by themselves.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(48): 15076-15080, 2016 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27791312

RESUMO

Hybrid covalent/supramolecular porphyrin-fullerene structures were synthesized as highly efficient molecular wires with a remarkably low attenuation factor (ß=0.07±0.01 Å-1 ). Hydrogen-bonding interactions and p-phenylene oligomers of different lengths are responsible for efficient electron transfer in the molecular wires.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(21): 6270-4, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27061436

RESUMO

New star-shaped benzotrithiophene (BTT)-based hole-transporting materials (HTM) BTT-1, BTT-2 and BTT-3 have been obtained through a facile synthetic route by crosslinking triarylamine-based donor groups with a benzotrithiophene (BTT) core. The BTT HTMs were tested on solution-processed lead trihalide perovskite-based solar cells. Power conversion efficiencies in the range of 16 % to 18.2 % were achieved under AM 1.5 sun with the three derivatives. These values are comparable to those obtained with today's most commonly used HTM spiro-OMeTAD, which point them out as promising candidates to be used as readily available and cost-effective alternatives in perovskite solar cells (PSCs).

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(73): 13980-2, 2015 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246213

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and characterisation of tetra{4-[N,N-(4,4'-dimethoxydiphenylamino)]phenyl}ethene () as an efficient and robust hole transport material for its application in methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells. The solar cells show light-to-energy conversion efficiencies as high as 11.0% under standard measurement conditions without the need of additional dopants.

11.
Chemphyschem ; 16(10): 2182-91, 2015 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26017555

RESUMO

Thermal annealing of nanodiamonds with diameters of a few nanometers (in an inert atmosphere and at temperatures in the range: 1500-1800 °C) leads to the formation of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) with diameters between 5 and 6 nm, which correspond to nanostructures with six to eight graphitic layers. The resulting spherical CNO structures were thermally modified under different atmospheres and characterized by SEM, TEM, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic (Raman and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform/FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the CNOs prepared under different conditions were determined and compared. The results reveal that the CNOs show different structures with predominant spherical "small" carbon nano-onions. The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of the CNO's synthesis conditions on the resulting structures and study the effect of further thermal modifications on the sizes, shapes and homogeneity of these carbon nanostructures.

12.
Nano Lett ; 15(5): 3512-8, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923590

RESUMO

On the way to ultraflat single-molecule junctions with transparent electrodes, we present a fabrication scheme based on epitaxial graphene nanoelectrodes. As a suitable molecule, we identified a molecular wire with fullerene anchor groups. With these two components, stable electrical characteristics could be recorded. Electrical measurements show that single-molecule junctions with graphene and with gold electrodes display a striking agreement. This motivated a hypothesis that the differential conductance spectra are rather insensitive to the electrode material. It is further corroborated by the assignment of asymmetries and spectral features to internal molecular degrees of freedom. The demonstrated open-access graphene electrodes and the electrode-insensitive molecules provide a model system that will allow for a thorough investigation of an individual single-molecule contact with additional probes.

13.
Langmuir ; 31(1): 535-41, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25496567

RESUMO

Small carbon nano-onions (CNOs, 6-12 shells) were prepared in high yields and functionalized with carboxylic groups by chemical oxidation and reacted with ßCD-NH2 to yield CNOs decorated with ßCDs. A biocompatibile dextran polymer with graphted ferrocene groups was employed for the supramolecular self-assembly on the ßCD-CNO surfaces. The ßCDs act as hosts and the polymer ferrocene groups as guests (Fc-Dex) by the formation of inclusion complexes. After their assembly these nanostructures were soluble in aqueous solutions. The resulting product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Moreover, the deposition of successive layers on the surface of the particles was monitored using DLS measurements and zeta potentials. Through-space interactions between the Fc moieties and the CNO cores and the influence of an additional dextran-ßCD outer layer were measured electrochemically.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Eletroquímica , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Metalocenos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Solubilidade
14.
Chemistry ; 20(35): 11111-9, 2014 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25078652

RESUMO

A new donor-acceptor system, in which the electron donor triphenylamine (TPA) and the electron acceptor C60 are bridged through a cis- or trans-platinum(II) acetylide spacer have been prepared. Ground-state studies were conducted using electrochemistry and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Fluorescence studies suggested that charge transfer is the deactivation mechanism for the singlet excited state, and this was verified by transient absorption spectroscopy. Selective photoexcitation of 1 and 2 at 387 nm leads to a fast charge transfer between the TPA and C60, which gives rise to a radical ion-pair state (TPA(·+)-Pt-C60(·-)). Our results suggest that charge transfer is favored for the cis configuration while the presence of the trans configuration in the Pt(II) diacetylide results in a longer-lived charge separated states.

15.
Nat Mater ; 13(10): 947-53, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25129620

RESUMO

Evaluating the built-in functionality of nanomaterials under practical conditions is central for their proposed integration as active components in next-generation electronics. Low-dimensional materials from single atoms to molecules have been consistently resolved and manipulated under ultrahigh vacuum at low temperatures. At room temperature, atomic-scale imaging has also been performed by probing materials at the solid/liquid interface. We exploit this electrical interface to develop a robust electronic decoupling platform that provides precise information on molecular energy levels recorded using in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy with high spatial and energy resolution in a high-density liquid environment. Our experimental findings, supported by ab initio electronic structure calculations and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations, reveal direct mapping of single-molecule structure and resonance states at the solid/liquid interface. We further extend this approach to resolve the electronic structure of graphene monolayers at atomic length scales under standard room-temperature operating conditions.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(28): 10372-81, 2013 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23678866

RESUMO

A series of ZnP-pCp-oPPV-C60 conjugates covalently connected through [2,2']-paracyclophane-oligophenylenevinylene (pCp-oPPV) bridges containing one, two, and three [2,2']-paracyclophanes (pCps) has been prepared in multistep synthetic procedures involving Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination reactions and/or Heck type Pd-catalyzed reactions. Molecular modeling suggests that charge transfer is effectively mediated by the pCp-oPPVs through a predominant hole-transfer mechanism. Photophysical investigation supports molecular modeling and reveals two major trends. On one hand, C60 excitation of 1, 2, and 3 leads exclusively to charge transfer between pCp and C60 to afford a ZnP-(pCp-oPPV)(•+)-C60(•-) radical ion pair state without giving rise to a subsequent charge shift to yield the ZnP(•+)-pCp-oPPV-C60(•-) radical ion pair state. On the other hand, ZnP excitation of 1, 2, and 3 results in a rather slow charge transfer between ZnP and C60, after which the ZnP(•+)-pCp-oPPV-C60(•-) radical ion pair state evolves. In temperature-dependent ZnP fluorescence experiments, which were performed in the temperature range from 273 to 338 K, two domains are discernible: low and high temperature behaviors. In the low temperature range (i.e., below 30 °C) the rate constants do not change, suggesting that a superexchange mechanism is the modus operandi. In the high temperature range (i.e., >30 °C) the rate constants increase. Moreover, we find rather strong distance dependence for 1 and 2 and weak distance dependence for 2 and 3. A damping factor of 0.145 Å(-1) is derived for the former pair and 0.012 Å(-1) for the latter.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Polivinil/química , Zinco/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Teoria Quântica
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 49(24): 2406-8, 2013 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23411670

RESUMO

Herein we report the preparation of truly soluble CNOs by covalent functionalization with hexadecyl chains. These compounds are prepared in two steps: first, reduction of CNOs with a Na-K alloy in 1,2-DME under vacuum, followed by nucleophilic substitution employing 1-bromohexadecane.

18.
Chemphyschem ; 13(18): 4134-41, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169540

RESUMO

Composites of unmodified or oxidized carbon nano-onions (CNOs/ox-CNOs) with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are prepared with different compositions. By varying the ratio of PEDOT:PSS relative to CNOs, CNO/PEDOT:PSS composites with various PEDOT:PSS loadings are obtained and the corresponding film properties are studied as a function of the polymer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization is performed for pristine and ox-CNO samples. The composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposites are determined and compared. Doping the composites with carbon nanostructures significantly increases their mechanical and electrochemical stabilities. A comparison of the results shows that CNOs dispersed in the polymer matrices increase the capacitance of the CNO/PEDOT:PSS and ox-CNO/PEDOT:PSS composites.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 48(41): 4953-5, 2012 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22511005

RESUMO

One carbon atom is too many. Two subphthalocyanine-extended TTF electron donor-acceptor conjugates were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties prompt the remarkable impact that one extra carbon between the two constitutents exerts on photoinduced processes, that is, charge recombination dynamics in the normal versus inverted region.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(8): 2370-3, 2011 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21299214

RESUMO

The electronic coupling as well as the attenuation factor (ß), which depends primarily on the nature of the molecular bridge and is used as a benchmark to test the molecular wire behavior, have been determined in a systematic study carried out on a series of ZnP/C(60) conjugates connected through a [2,2']paracyclophane-oligophenylenevinylene (pCp-oPPV). The convergent synthesis involves a series of Horner-Emmons olefination reactions or double palladium-catalized Heck-type reactions. ZnP-pCp-C(60) conjugates were finally obtained by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of the in situ-generated azomethyne ylide containing the ZnP-pCp moiety to the [60]fullerene using Prato conditions. Experimental (UV-vis, fluorescence, transient absorption spectroscopy, and solution electrochemistry) and theoretical studies revealed that the pCps act as molecular junctions. If hole transfer is assumed to be the dominant charge transfer (CT) mechanism, CT is facilitated in one direction (from C(60) to ZnP via pCp) but disfavored in the other direction (from ZnP to C(60) via pCp).


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Protoporfirinas/química , Catálise , Ciclização , Estrutura Molecular , Paládio/química , Estereoisomerismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA