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1.
Mol Oncol ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060299

RESUMO

Although many studies highlight the implication of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, their potential as cancer biomarkers has not yet been fully explored in the clinic due to the limitations of current quantification methods. Here, we report the use of the nCounter platform as a valid technology for the analysis of circRNA expression patterns in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Under this context, our custom-made circRNA panel was able to detect circRNA expression both in NSCLC cells and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. CircFUT8 was overexpressed in NSCLC, contrasting with circEPB41L2, circBNC2, and circSOX13 downregulation even at the early stages of the disease. Machine learning (ML) approaches from different paradigms allowed discrimination of NSCLC from nontumor controls (NTCs) with an 8-circRNA signature. An additional 4-circRNA signature was able to classify early-stage NSCLC samples from NTC, reaching a maximum area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.981. Our results not only present two circRNA signatures with diagnosis potential but also introduce nCounter processing following ML as a feasible protocol for the study and development of circRNA signatures for NSCLC.

2.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681053

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled a deeper knowledge of the molecular landscape in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), identifying a growing number of targetable molecular alterations in key genes. However, NGS profiling of liquid biopsies risk for false positive and false negative calls and parameters assessing the quality of NGS calls remains lacking. In this study, we have evaluated the positive percent agreement (PPA) between NGS and digital PCR calls when assessing EGFR mutation status using 85 plasma samples from 82 EGFR-positive NSCLC patients. According to our data, variant allele fraction (VAF) was significantly lower in discordant calls and the median of the absolute values of all pairwise differences (MAPD) was significantly higher in discordant calls (p < 0.001 in both cases). Based on these results, we propose a new parameter that integrates both variables, named R-score. Next, we sought to evaluate the PPA for EGFR mutation calls between two independent NGS platforms using a subset of 40 samples from the same cohort. Remarkably, there was a significant linear correlation between the PPA and the R-score (r = 0.97; p < 0.001). Specifically, the PPA of samples with an R-score ≤ -1.25 was 95.83%, whereas PPA falls to 81.63% in samples with R-score ≤ 0.25. In conclusion, R-score significantly correlates with PPA and can assist laboratory medicine specialists and data scientists to select reliable variants detected by NGS.

3.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(3): 100113, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589994

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DNA repair capacity, as exemplified by BRCA1 gene expression, is related with outcome to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, reduces BRCA1 expression. Olaparib was tested in combination with gefitinib versus gefitinib single agent, as a first-line therapy for patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC in the GOAL study (trial registration: NCT01513174). Here, we report the results of the biomarker-related prespecified secondary objectives of the GOAL study. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of BRCA1 mRNA expression in 91 patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Of those 91 patients, 51 were randomized to treatment with gefitinib and 40 were randomized to treatment with gefitinib plus olaparib. We explored in vitro whether BRCA1 mRNA levels are related with outcome to gefitinib plus olaparib. The expression levels of 53BP1, CtIP, and AXL were also explored and correlated with the treatment outcome. RESULTS: Overall, as what happened in the GOAL study, no statistically significant difference was observed in median progression-free survival (PFS) between the two treatment arms, for the 91 patients of the present study (p = 0.2419). For patients with high BRCA1 mRNA expression (BRCA1-high group), median PFS was 12.9 months in the gefitinib plus olaparib arm, compared with 9.2 months in the gefitinib arm (p = 0.0449). In the gefitinib arm, median PFS was 9.1 months for the BRCA1-high group and 10.2 months for the BRCA1-low group (p = 0.0193). We observed a more pronounced synergism of gefitinib plus olaparib in cells with higher BRCA1 compared with those with low BRCA1 mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: High BRCA1 mRNA expression identified patients with NSCLC who benefited from gefitinib plus olaparib in the GOAL phase 2 clinical trial.

4.
J Clin Pathol ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429353

RESUMO

AIMS: Gene fusions assays are key for personalised treatments of advanced human cancers. Their implementation on cytological material requires a preliminary validation that may make use of cell line slides mimicking cytological samples. In this international multi-institutional study, gene fusion reference standards were developed and validated. METHODS: Cell lines harbouring EML4(13)-ALK(20) and SLC34A2(4)-ROS1(32) gene fusions were adopted to prepare reference standards. Eight laboratories (five adopting amplicon-based and three hybridisation-based platforms) received, at different dilution points two sets of slides (slide A 50.0%, slide B 25.0%, slide C 12.5% and slide D wild type) stained by Papanicolaou (Pap) and May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG). Analysis was carried out on a total of 64 slides. RESULTS: Four (50.0%) out of eight laboratories reported results on all slides and dilution points. While 12 (37.5%) out of 32 MGG slides were inadequate, 27 (84.4%) out of 32 Pap slides produced libraries adequate for variant calling. The laboratories using hybridisation-based platforms showed the highest rate of inadequate results (13/24 slides, 54.2%). Conversely, only 10.0% (4/40 slides) of inadequate results were reported by laboratories adopting amplicon-based platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Reference standards in cytological format yield better results when Pap staining and processed by amplicon-based assays. Further investigation is required to optimise these standards for MGG stained cells and for hybridisation-based approaches.

5.
Pharmacol Res ; 170: 105701, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087353

RESUMO

Osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is commonly used to treat EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, acquired resistance to mutant EGFR (T790M) can evolve following osimertinib treatment. High reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in lung cancer cells can influence heme levels and have an impact on osimertinib resistance. Here, we found that heme levels were increased in osimertinib resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cell lines and plasma heme levels were also elevated in osimertinib-treated EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. The antimalarial drug dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which has anticancer effects and requires heme, was tested to determine its potential to revert osimertinib resistance. DHA downregulated the expression of heme oxygenase 1 and inhibited cell proliferation in osimertinib-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells (PC9-GR4-AZD1), which was further enhanced by addition of 5-aminolevulinic acid, protoporphyrin IX and hemin. DHA was synergistic with osimertinib in inhibiting cell proliferation and colony formation of all osimertinib-resistant cell lines tested. Combination treatment with osimertinib and DHA also increased the levels of ROS, downregulated the phosphorylation or protein levels of several RTKs that often are overexpressed in osimertinib-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells, and inhibited tumor growth without toxicity in a PC9-GR4-AZD1 xenograft mouse model. The results suggest that DHA is able to reverse the resistance to osimertinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC by elevating ROS level and impair heme metabolism.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mutação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 31, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850256

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is becoming standard-of-care in many types of human malignancies, but patient selection is still imperfect. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is being evaluated as a biomarker for ICB in clinical trials, but most of the sequencing panels used to estimate it are inadequately designed. Here, we present a bioinformatics-based method to select panels and mathematical models for accurate TMB prediction. Our method is based on tumor-specific, forward-step selection of genes, generation of panels using a linear regression algorithm, and rigorous internal and external validation comparing predicted with experimental TMB. As a result, we propose cancer-specific panels for 14 malignancies which can offer reliable, clinically relevant estimates of TMBs. Our work facilitates a better prediction of TMB that can improve the selection of patients for ICB therapy.

7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 147(12): 3709-3718, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The clinicopathological or genetic features related to the prognosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma are unknown because of its rarity. The clinicopathological or targetable features were investigated for better management of patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung. METHODS: We comprehensively evaluated the clinicopathological and genetic features of 60 completely resected mucinous lung adenocarcinomas. Targetable genetic variants were explored using nCounter and polymerase chain reaction, PD-L1 and TTF-1 expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the prognostic impact using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS: Of the 60 enrolled patients, 13 (21.7%) had adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, and 47 (78.3%) had invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA). Fifteen patients (25%) showed a pneumonic appearance on computed tomography (CT). CD74-NRG1 fusion, EGFR mutations, and BRAF mutation were detected in three (5%), four (6.7%), and one (1.7%) patient(s), respectively. KRAS mutations were detected in 31 patients (51.7%). Two patients (3.5%) showed immunoreactivity for PD-L1. No in situ or minimally invasive cases recurred. IMA patients with pneumonic appearance had significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, IMA patients harboring KRAS mutations had worse RFS (p = 0.211). Multivariate analysis revealed that radiological pneumonic appearance was significantly associated with lower RFS (p < 0.003) and OS (p = 0.012). KRAS mutations served as an unfavorable status for RFS (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Mucinous adenocarcinoma had a low frequency of targetable genetic variants and PD-L1 immunoreactivity; however, KRAS mutations were frequent. Pneumonic appearance on CT imaging and KRAS mutations were clinicopathological features associated with a worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406752

RESUMO

Gene fusions represent novel predictive biomarkers for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we validated a narrow NGS gene panel able to cover therapeutically-relevant gene fusions and splicing events in advanced-stage NSCLC patients. To this aim, we first assessed minimal complementary DNA (cDNA) input and the limit of detection (LoD) in different cell lines. Then, to evaluate the feasibility of applying our panel to routine clinical samples, we retrospectively selected archived lung adenocarcinoma histological and cytological (cell blocks) samples. Overall, our SiRe RNA fusion panel was able to detect all fusions and a splicing event harbored in a RNA pool diluted up to 2 ng/µL. It also successfully analyzed 46 (95.8%) out of 48 samples. Among these, 43 (93.5%) out of 46 samples reproduced the same results as those obtained with conventional techniques. Intriguingly, the three discordant results were confirmed by a CE-IVD automated real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis (Easy PGX platform, Diatech Pharmacogenetics, Jesi, Italy). Based on these findings, we conclude that our new SiRe RNA fusion panel is a valid and robust tool for the detection of clinically relevant gene fusions and splicing events in advanced NSCLC.

9.
Mol Oncol ; 15(1): 43-56, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107189

RESUMO

Several platforms for noninvasive EGFR testing are currently used in the clinical setting with sensitivities ranging from 30% to 100%. Prospective studies evaluating agreement and sources for discordant results remain lacking. Herein, seven methodologies including two next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based methods, three high-sensitivity PCR-based platforms, and two FDA-approved methods were compared using 72 plasma samples, from EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients progressing on a first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). NGS platforms as well as high-sensitivity PCR-based methodologies showed excellent agreement for EGFR-sensitizing mutations (K = 0.80-0.89) and substantial agreement for T790M testing (K = 0.77 and 0.68, respectively). Mutant allele frequencies (MAFs) obtained by different quantitative methods showed an excellent reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients 0.86-0.98). Among other technical factors, discordant calls mostly occurred at mutant allele frequencies (MAFs) ≤ 0.5%. Agreement significantly improved when discarding samples with MAF ≤ 0.5%. EGFR mutations were detected at significantly lower MAFs in patients with brain metastases, suggesting that these patients risk for a false-positive result. Our results support the use of liquid biopsies for noninvasive EGFR testing and highlight the need to systematically report MAFs.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/isolamento & purificação , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Deleção de Sequência/genética
10.
Transl Oncol ; 14(1): 100887, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129112

RESUMO

Advanced NSCLC patients harboring EML4-ALK and CCDC6-RET rearrangements derive benefit from treatment with ALK and RET TKIs but not immune checkpoint inhibitors. New immunotherapeutic approaches, such as immunization against growth factors, can be of particular interest for combination treatment in these patients. Here, we investigated the effects of anti-EGF antibodies generated by vaccination (anti-EGF VacAbs), TKIs and combinations in EML4-ALK and CCDC6-RET NSCLC cell lines. We found that EGF and tumor growth factor alpha (TGFα) significantly decreased the antiproliferative activity of the RET inhibitor BLU-667 in CCDC6-RET cells and brigatinib, alectinib and crizotinib in EML4-ALK translocated cells. The addition of anti-EGF VacAbs reversed the effects of EGF and TGFα, potentiated the antitumor effects of the kinase inhibitors and delayed the appearance in vitro of resistant clones. Western blotting demonstrated that the combination of anti-EGF VacAbs with ALK or RET TKIs effectively suppressed EGFR downstream pathways in EML4-ALK translocated and CCDC6-RET cells, respectively. In conclusion, anti-EGF VacAbs significantly increased the antitumor activity of TKIs in ALK and RET-positive cell lines. Clinical trials of an EGF vaccine in combination with ALK and RET TKIs are warranted.

11.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 1810-1821, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of MET alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is increasing and several targeted agents are under evaluation. MET exon 14 skipping mutations and MET amplifications are associated with potential sensitivity to MET inhibition, though resistance mechanisms are emerging. In MET addicted cells, MET inhibition leads to activation of proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (PIM1). PIM1 and proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (SRC) can regulate the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), potentially inducing resistance to MET inhibition through cross-activation. METHODS: We evaluated the activity of class I-II MET inhibitors, the SRC inhibitor dasatinib, and pan-PIM inhibitors in four MET addicted cell lines. We assessed the effect of the dual MET/PIM and MET/SRC inhibition on cell viability and at the protein level. We evaluated RNA expression profiles of the cell lines. Advanced NSCLCs were also screened for MET alterations. RESULTS: All cell lines were sensitive to class I-II MET inhibitors. All cell lines were resistant to single PIM and SRC inhibition. Dual MET/PIM inhibition was synergistic or additive in MET amplified cell lines and dual MET/SRC inhibition was highly synergistic in all MET addicted cell lines. The addition of an SRC inhibitor partially prevents the RTKs cross-activation. MET alterations were found in 9 out of 97 evaluable samples (9.3%); median overall survival in MET altered patients was 5 months (95% CI, 3 m-NA). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a potential role of PIM inhibition in MET amplified tumors and of SRC inhibition in MET addicted tumors. Potential applications of this new treatment strategy warrant further evaluation.

12.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 62-69, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) varies in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driven byEGFR mutations, suggesting that other genetic alterations may influence oncogene addiction. Low BRCA1 mRNA levels correlate with longer PFS in erlotinib-treated EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Since the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, olaparib, may attenuate and/or prevent BRCA1 expression, the addition of olaparib to gefitinib could improve outcome in EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GOAL was a multicenter, randomized phase IB/II study performed in two countries, Spain and Mexico. Eligible patients were 18 years or older, treatment-naïve, pathologically confirmed stage IV NSCLC, with centrally confirmed EGFR mutations and measurable disease. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive gefitinib 250 mg daily or gefitinib 250 mg daily plus olaparib 200 mg three times daily in 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was PFS. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), response rate, safety and tolerability. RESULTS: Between September 2013, and July 2016, 182 patients underwent randomization, 91 received gefitinib and 91 received gefitinib plus olaparib. There were no differences in gender, age, smoking status, performance status, presence of bone and brain metastases or type ofEGFR mutation. Median PFS was 10.9 months (95 % CI 9.3-13.3) in the gefitinib arm and 12.8 months (95 % CI 9.1-14.7) in the gefitinib plus olaparib arm (HR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.00-1.92; p = 0.124). The most common adverse events were anemia, 78 % in gefitinib plus olaparib group, 38 % in gefitinib arm, diarrhea, 65 % and 60 %, and fatigue, 40 % and 32 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The gefitinib plus olaparib combination did not provide significant benefit over gefitinib alone. The combination's safety profile showed an increase in hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity, compared to gefitinib alone, however, no relevant adverse events were noted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Objetivos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , México , Mutação , Ftalazinas , Piperazinas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Espanha
13.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620938553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643553

RESUMO

Precision oncology is the field that places emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors that harbor specific genomic alterations susceptible to inhibition or modulation. Although most alterations are only present in a minority of patients, a substantial effect on survival can be observed in this subgroup. Mass genome sequencing has led to the identification of a specific driver in the translocations of the tropomyosin receptor kinase family (NTRK) in a subset of rare tumors both in children and in adults, and to the development and investigation of Larotrectinib. This medication was granted approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for NTRK-positive tumors, regardless of histology or age group, as such, larotrectinib was the first in its kind to be approved under the premise that molecular pattern is more important than histology in terms of therapeutic approach. It yielded significant results in disease control with good tolerability across a wide range of diseases including rare pediatric tumors, salivary gland tumors, gliomas, soft-tissue sarcomas, and thyroid carcinomas. In addition, and by taking different approaches in clinical trial design and conducting allocation based on biomarkers, the effects of target therapies can be isolated and quantified. Moreover, and considering developing nations and resource-limited settings, precision oncology could offer a tool to reduce cancer-related disability and hospital costs. In addition, developing nations also present patients with rare tumors that lack a chance of treatment, outside of clinical trials. This, in turn, offers the possibility for international collaboration, and contributes to employment, education, and health service provisions. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Oncologia , Medicina de Precisão , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Oncologia/economia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516941

RESUMO

Treatment of advanced (metastatic) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is currently mainly based on immunotherapy with antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1, alone, or in combination with chemotherapy. In locally advanced NSCLC and in early resected stages, immunotherapy is also employed. Tumor PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry is considered the standard practice. Response rate is low, with median progression free survival very short in the vast majority of studies reported. Herein, numerous biological facets of NSCLC are described involving driver genetic lesions, mutations ad fusions, PD-L1 glycosylation, ferroptosis and metabolic rewiring in NSCLC and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Novel concepts, such as immune-transmitters and the effect of neurotransmitters in immune evasion and tumor growth, the nascent relevance of necroptosis and pyroptosis, possible new biomarkers, such as gasdermin D and gasdermin E, the conundrum of K-Ras mutations in LUADs, with the growing recognition of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and metabolic pathways, including others, are also commented. The review serves to charter diverse treatment solutions, depending on the main altered signaling pathways, in order to have effectual immunotherapy. Tumor PDCD1 gene (encoding PD-1) has been recently described, in equilibrium with tumor PD-L1 (encoded by PDCD1LG1). Such description explains tumor hyper-progression, which has been reported in several studies, and poises the fundamental criterion that IHC PD-L1 expression as a biomarker should be revisited.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365867

RESUMO

Personalized medicine is nowadays a paradigm in lung cancer management, offering important benefits to patients. This study aimed to test the feasibility and utility of embedding two multiplexed genomic platforms as the routine workup of advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Two parallel multiplexed approaches were performed based on DNA sequencing and direct digital detection of RNA with nCounter® technology to evaluate gene mutations and fusions. The results were used to guide genotype-directed therapies and patient outcomes were collected. A total of 224 advanced non-squamous NSCLC patients were prospectively included in the study. Overall, 85% of samples were successfully characterized at DNA and RNA levels and oncogenic drivers were found in 68% of patients, with KRAS, EGFR, METΔex14, BRAF, and ALK being the most frequent (31%, 19%, 5%, 4%, and 4%, respectively). Among all patients with complete genotyping results and follow-up data (n = 156), the median overall survival (OS) was 1.90 years (confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.69-2.10) for individuals harbouring an actionable driver treated with a matched therapy, compared with 0.59 years (CI 95% 0.39-0.79) in those not eligible for any targeted therapy and 0.61 years (CI 95% 0.12-1.10) in patients with no drivers identified (p < 0.001). Integrating DNA and RNA multiplexing technologies into the routine molecular testing of advanced NSCLC patients is feasible and useful and highlights the necessity of widespread integrating comprehensive molecular diagnosis into lung cancer care.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(3): 416-425, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Longitudinal evaluation of mutations in blood samples was a prespecified secondary objective in the BELIEF trial of erlotinib and bevacizumab in advanced EGFR-positive NSCLC. Here, we report the testing results and explore the correlation of EGFR status in blood with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Blood samples were prospectively collected from patients at baseline, at response evaluation, and at progression and sent to a central laboratory. Circulating free DNA was purified and EGFR mutations were analyzed with a validated real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: EGFR exon 19/21 mutations were detected in 55 of 91 baseline blood samples (60.4%) and correlated with a significantly worse progression-free survival: 11.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.0-14.8 mo) for the patients who were positive versus 22.9 months (95% CI: 9.5-33.9 mo) for those who were negative (log-rank p = 0.0020). Among the 74 samples at response, exon 19/21 mutations were detected only in three samples (4.1%). In contrast, 29 of 58 patients (50.0%) were exon 19/21 positive at progression and showed a significantly worse median overall survival of 21.7 months (95% CI: 17.0-30.9 mo) compared with 37.4 months (95% CI: 22.6-53.1 mo) for those who were negative (log-rank p = 0.011). Blood samples at the three time points were available for 48 patients. Of those, among 14 exon 19/21 EGFR-negative at presentation, 13 (93%) were persistently negative for the sensitizing mutations after progression and the p.T790M could only be detected in the blood of two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal testing of EGFR mutations in blood can offer valuable clinical information. In patients of the BELIEF study, detection of EGFR mutations in circulating free DNA at presentation was associated with shorter progression-free survival, whereas positivity at progression correlated with shorter overall survival. Finally, patients negative in blood at presentation were almost invariably negative at relapse.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Neoplasias Pulmonares , DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
17.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 1(4): 100084, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) displays impaired phosphorylation of ERK and Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) in comparison with EGFR wild-type LUADs. We hypothesize that SHP2 expression could be predictive in patients positive with resected EGFR mutation versus patients with EGFR wild-type LUAD. METHODS: We examined resected LUAD cases from Japan and Spain. mRNA expression levels of AXL, MET, CDCP1, STAT3, YAP1, and SHP2 were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The activity of SHP2 inhibitors plus erlotinib were tested in EGFR-mutant cell lines and analyzed by cell viability assay, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: A total of 50 of 100 EGFR mutation-positive LUADs relapsed, among them, patients with higher SHP2 mRNA expression revealed shorter progression-free survival, in comparison with those having low SHP2 mRNA (hazard ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.23; p = 0.0329). However, SHP2 was not associated with prognosis in the remaining 167 patients with wild-type EGFR. In EGFR-mutant cell lines, the combination of SHP099 or RMC-4550 (SHP2 inhibitors) with erlotinib revealed synergism via abrogation of phosphorylated AKT (S473) and ERK1/2 (T202/Y204). Although erlotinib translocates phosphorylated SHP2 (Y542) into the nucleus, either RMC-4550 alone, or in combination with erlotinib, relocates SHP2 into the cytoplasm membrane, limiting AKT and ERK1/2 activation. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated SHP2 mRNA levels are associated with recurrence in resected EGFR mutation-positive LUADs, but not in EGFR wild-type. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors can enhance SHP2 activation, hindering adjuvant therapy. SHP2 inhibitors could improve the benefit of adjuvant therapy in EGFR mutation-positive LUADs.

18.
Cell Commun Signal ; 17(1): 137, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) stimulates growth and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Protein kinase C iota (PKCι) is an enzyme highly expressed in NSCLC, regulating PAK1 signaling. In the present study we explored whether the PKCι-PAK1 signaling pathway approach can be an efficient target in different types of NSCLC cell and mouse models. METHODS: The effect of IPA-3 (PAK1 inhibitor) plus auranofin (PKCι inhibitor) combination was evaluated by cell viability assay, colony formation and western blotting assay, using three types of NSCLC cell lines: EGFR or KRAS mutant adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with PAK1 amplification. In addition, for clinical availability, screening for new PAK1 inhibitors was carried out and the compound OTSSP167 was evaluated in combination with auranofin in cell and mice models. RESULTS: The combination of IPA-3 or OTSSP167 plus auranofin showed high synergism for inhibiting cell viability and colony formation in three cell lines. Mechanistic characterization revealed that this drug combination abrogated expression and activation of membrane receptors and downstream signaling proteins crucial in lung cancer: EGFR, MET, PAK1, PKCι, ERK1/2, AKT, YAP1 and mTOR. A nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that this drug combination strongly suppressed tumor volume compared with single drug treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of IPA-3 or OTSSP167 and auranofin was highly synergistic in EGFR or KRAS mutant adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and decreased tumor volume in mice models. It is of interest to further test the targeting of PKCι-PAK1 signaling pathways in EGFR mutant, KRAS mutant and squamous NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Quinases Ativadas por p21/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533235

RESUMO

BRAF V600 mutations have been found in 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment of dabrafenib plus trametinib and progression free survival (PFS) of 10.9 months. However, 50-80% of BRAF mutations in lung cancer are non-V600, and can be class II, with intermediate to high kinase activity and RAS independence, or class III, with impaired kinase activity, upstream signaling dependence, and consequently, sensitivity to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors. Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of 185 newly diagnosed advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients (Spanish Lung Liquid versus Invasive Biopsy Program, SLLIP, NCT03248089) was examined for BRAF and other alterations with a targeted cfDNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay (Guardant360®, Guardant Health Inc., CA, USA), and results were correlated with patient outcome. Cell viability with single or combined RAF, MEK, and SHP2 inhibitors was assessed in cell lines with BRAF class I, II, and III mutations. Out of 185 patients, 22 had BRAF alterations (12%) of which seven patients harbored amplifications (32%) and 17 had BRAF mutations (77%). Of the BRAF mutations, four out of 22 (18%) were V600E and 18/22 (82%) were non-V600. In vitro results confirmed sensitivity of class III and resistance of class I and II BRAF mutations, and BRAF wild type cells to SHP2 inhibition. Concomitant MEK or RAF and SHP2 inhibition showed synergistic effects, especially in the class III BRAF-mutant cell line. Our study indicates that the class of the BRAF mutation may have clinical implications and therefore should be defined in the clinical practice and used to guide therapeutic decisions.

20.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 8(4): 340-351, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555510

RESUMO

Background: Osimertinib improve therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, invariable acquired resistance appears. Methods: MTT assay was used to analyze cell viability. Protein expression and activation was detected by Western blotting. In addition, the effects of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors and osimertinib were studied in colony formation assays. Results: Our laboratory generated osimertinib resistant cell lines from PC9 cell line and overexpression or activation of several proteins was detected. Hsp90 inhibitors, ganetespib and luminespib, inhibited cell viability and colony formation in H1975, PC9 and PC9-derived osimertinib-resistant cell lines and combination of these inhibitors with osimertinib achieved to enhance this cell viability and colony formation inhibition. Luminespib downregulated the expression of the several proteins involved in osimertinib-resistance and the combination of this compound plus osimertinib caused an important decrease of expression of several of these proteins, such as Stat3, Yap, Akt, EGFR and Met. Osimertinib activated the phosphorylation of several membrane receptors and downstream molecules that was partially inhibited by luminespib. In addition, a lung cancer patient with an EGFR eon 20 mutation had a partial radiographic response to ganetespib. Conclusions: Hsp90 inhibitors and osimertinib exhibits a good efficiency to inhibit cell viability, colony formation and inhibits expression and activation of proteins involved in osimertinib-resistance and may represent an effective strategy for NSCLC with intrinsic resistance to osimertinib inhibition.

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