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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigorous monitoring supports progress in achieving maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity reductions. Recent work to strengthen measurement for maternal and newborn health highlights the existence of a large number of indicators being used for this purpose. The definitions and data sources used to produce indicator estimates vary and challenges exist with completeness, accuracy, transparency, and timeliness of data. The objective of this study is to create a conceptual overview of how indicator validity is defined and understood by those who develop and use maternal and newborn health indicators. METHODS: A conceptual framework of validity was developed using mixed methods. We were guided by principles for conceptual frameworks and by a review of the literature and key maternal and newborn health indicator guidance documents. We also conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 32 key informants chosen through purposive sampling. RESULTS: We categorised indicator validity into three main types: criterion, convergent, and construct. Criterion or diagnostic validity, comparing a measure with a gold standard, has predominantly been used to assess indicators of care coverage and content. Studies assessing convergent validity quantify the extent to which two or more indicator measurement approaches, none of which is a gold-standard, relate. Key informants considered construct validity, or the accuracy of the operationalisation of a concept or phenomenon, a critical part of the overall assessment of indicator validity. CONCLUSION: Given concerns about the large number of maternal and newborn health indicators currently in use, a more consistent understanding of validity can help guide prioritization of key indicators and inform development of new indicators. All three types of validity are relevant for evaluating the performance of maternal and newborn health indicators. We highlight the need to establish a common language and understanding of indicator validity among the various global and local stakeholders working within maternal and newborn health.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of indicators are currently used to monitor the state of maternal and newborn health, including those capturing dimensions of health system and input, care access and availability, care quality and safety, coverage and outcomes, and impact. Validity of these indicators is a key issue in the process of assessing indicator performance and suitability. This paper aims to understand the meaning of indicator validity in the field of maternal and newborn health, and to identify key recommendations for future research. METHODS: This qualitative study used purposive sampling to identify key informants until thematic saturation was achieved. We interviewed 32 respondents from a variety of backgrounds using semi-structured interviews covering five themes: the meaning of indicator validity, methodological approaches to assessing validity, acceptable levels of indicator validity, gaps in validation research, and recommendations for addressing these gaps. Interview transcripts were analysed data using thematic content approach. RESULTS: Three conceptually different definitions of indicator validity were described by respondents. They considered indicator validity to encompass meaning and potential to spur action, going beyond diagnostic validity. Indicator validation was seen as an ongoing process of building and synthesising a wide range of evidence rather than a one-size-fits-all cut-off in diagnostic validity tests. Gaps identified included assessing validity of indicators of quality of care and indicators based on facility-level data, as well as expanding studies to a broader range of global settings. The key recommendation was to develop a coordinated approach to summarising and evaluating research on indicator validity, including capacity building in appraising and communicating the available evidence for country-specific needs. CONCLUSION: The findings will inform future recommendations around indicator testing and validation.

4.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(6S): S3-S15, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761002

RESUMO

In the 25 years since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, significant progress has been made in adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights (ASRHR). Trend analysis of key ASRHR indicators at global, national, and subnational levels indicates that adolescent girls today are more likely to marry later, delay their first sexual experience, and delay their first childbirth, compared with 25 years ago; they are also more likely to use contraceptives. Despite overall progress, however, unequal progress in many ASRHR outcomes is evident both within and between countries, and in some locations, the state of adolescents' lives has worsened. Population growth in countries with some of the worst shortfalls in ASRHR mean that declining rates, of child marriage, for example, coexist with higher absolute numbers of girls affected, compared with 25 years ago. Emerging trends that warrant closer attention include increasing rates of ovarian and breast cancer among adolescent girls and sharp increases in the proportion of adolescents who are overweight or obese, which has long-term health implications.

5.
Trop Med Int Health ; 24(12): 1342-1368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over time, we have seen a major evolution of measurement initiatives, indicators and methods, such that today a wide range of maternal and perinatal indicators are monitored and new indicators are under development. Monitoring global progress in maternal and newborn health outcomes and development has been dominated in recent decades by efforts to set, measure and achieve global goals and targets: the Millennium Development Goals followed by the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper aims to review, reflect and learn on accelerated progress towards global goals and events, including universal health coverage, and better tracking of maternal and newborn health outcomes. METHODS: We searched for literature of key events and global initiatives over recent decades related to maternal and newborn health. The searches were conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus. RESULTS: This paper describes global key events and initiatives over recent decades showing how maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, and stillbirths, have been viewed, when they have achieved higher priority on the global agenda, and how they have been measured, monitored and reported. Despite substantial improvements, the enormous maternal and newborn health disparities that persist within and between countries indicate the urgent need to renew the focus on reducing inequities. CONCLUSION: The review has featured the long story of the progress in monitoring improving maternal and newborn health outcomes, but has also underlined current gaps and significant inequities. The many global initiatives described in this paper have highlighted the magnitude of the problems and have built the political momentum over the years for effectively addressing maternal and newborn health and well-being, with particular focus on improved measurement and monitoring.

8.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 36, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of pregnancies, abortions and pregnancy intentions can help assess how effectively women and couples are able to fulfil their childbearing aspirations. Abortion incidence estimates are also a necessary foundation for research on the safety of abortions performed and the consequences of unsafe abortion. Furthermore, periodic estimates of these indicators are needed to help inform policy and programmes. METHODS: We will develop a Bayesian hierarchical times series model which estimates levels and trends in pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and percentages of pregnancies and births unintended for each five-year period between 1990 and 2019. The model will be informed by data on abortion incidence and the percentage of births or pregnancies that were unintended. We will develop a data classification process to be applied to all available data. Model-based estimates and associated uncertainty will take account of data sparsity and quality. Our proposed approach will advance previous work in two key ways. First, we will estimate pregnancy and abortion rates simultaneously, and model the propensity to abort an unintended pregnancy, as opposed to modeling abortion rates directly as in prior work. Secondly, we will produce estimates that are reproducible at the country level by publishing the data inputs, data classification processes and source code. DISCUSSION: This protocol will form the basis for updated global, regional and national estimates of intended and unintended pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and the percent of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion, from 1990 to 2019.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Intenção , Taxa de Gravidez , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada
9.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The "percentage of births attended by a skilled birth attendant" (SBA) is an indicator that has been adopted by several global monitoring frameworks, including the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) agenda for regular monitoring as part of target 3.1 for reducing maternal mortality by 2030. However, accurate and consistent measurement is challenged by contextual differences between and within countries on the definition of SBA, including the education, training, competencies, and functions they are qualified to perform. This scoping review identifies and maps the health personnel considered SBA in low-to-middle-income-countries (LMIC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search was conducted inclusive to the years 2000 to 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, POPLINE and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus. Original primary source research conducted in LMIC that evaluated the skilled health personnel providing interventions during labour and childbirth were considered for inclusion. All studies reported disaggregated data of SBA cadres and were disaggregated by country. RESULTS: The search of electronic databases identified a total of 23,743 articles. Overall, 70 articles were included in the narrative synthesis. A total of 102 unique cadres names were identified from 36 LMIC countries. Of the cadres included, 16% represented doctors, 16% were nurses, and 15% were midwives. We found substantial heterogeneity between and within countries on the reported definition of SBA and the education, training, skills and competencies that they were able to perform. CONCLUSION: The uncertainty and diversity of reported qualifications and competency of SBA within and between countries requires attention in order to better ascertain strategic priorities for future health system planning, including training and education. These results can inform recommendations around improved coverage measurement and monitoring of SBA moving forward, allowing for more accurate, consistent, and timely data able to guide decisions and action around planning and implementation of maternal and newborn health programmes.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Parto Obstétrico , Humanos , Tocologia/educação
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(1): e37-e46, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years worldwide. Although preterm survival rates have increased in high-income countries, preterm newborns still die because of a lack of adequate newborn care in many low-income and middle-income countries. We estimated global, regional, and national rates of preterm birth in 2014, with trends over time for some selected countries. METHODS: We systematically searched for data on preterm birth for 194 WHO Member States from 1990 to 2014 in databases of national civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS). We also searched for population-representative surveys and research studies for countries with no or limited CRVS data. For 38 countries with high-quality data for preterm births in 2014, data are reported directly. For countries with at least three data points between 1990 and 2014, we used a linear mixed regression model to estimate preterm birth rates. We also calculated regional and global estimates of preterm birth for 2014. FINDINGS: We identified 1241 data points across 107 countries. The estimated global preterm birth rate for 2014 was 10·6% (uncertainty interval 9·0-12·0), equating to an estimated 14·84 million (12·65 million-16·73 million) live preterm births in 2014. 12·â€ˆ0 million (81·1%) of these preterm births occurred in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Regional preterm birth rates for 2014 ranged from 13·4% (6·3-30·9) in North Africa to 8·7% (6·3-13·3) in Europe. India, China, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Indonesia accounted for 57·9 million (41×4%) of 139·9 million livebirths and 6·6 million (44×6%) of preterm births globally in 2014. Of the 38 countries with high-quality data, preterm birth rates have increased since 2000 in 26 countries and decreased in 12 countries. Globally, we estimated that the preterm birth rate was 9×8% (8×3-10×9) in 2000, and 10×6% (9×0-12×0) in 2014. INTERPRETATION: Preterm birth remains a crucial issue in child mortality and improving quality of maternal and newborn care. To better understand the epidemiology of preterm birth, the quality and volume of data needs to be improved, including standardisation of definitions, measurement, and reporting. FUNDING: WHO and the March of Dimes.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez
11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204763, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of global-level monitoring initiatives have recommended indicators for tracking progress in maternal and newborn health. As a first step supporting the work of WHO's Mother and Newborn Information for Tracking Outcomes and Results (MoNITOR) Technical Advisory Group, we aimed to compile and synthesize recommended indicators in order to document the landscape of maternal and newborn measurement and monitoring. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of indicators proposed by global multi-stakeholder groups to suggest next steps to further support maternal and newborn measurement and monitoring. Indicators pertaining to pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum/postnatal and newborn care were extracted and included in the indicator compilation, together with key indicator metadata. We examined patterns and relationships across the compiled indicators. RESULTS: We identified 140 indicators linked to maternal and newborn health topics across the continuum of service provision. Fifty-five indicators relate to inputs and processes, 30 indicators relate to outputs, outcomes comprise 37 indicators in the database, and 18 impact indicators. A quarter of indicators proposed by global groups is either under development/discussion or is considered "aspirational", highlighting the currently evolving monitoring landscape. Although considerable efforts have been made to harmonize indicator recommendations, there are still relatively few indicators shared across key monitoring initiatives and some of those that are shared may have definitional variation. CONCLUSION: Rapid, wide-ranging work by a number of multi-stakeholder groups has resulted in a substantial number of indicators, many of which partially overlap and many are not supported with adequate documentation or guidance. The volume of indicators, coupled with the number of initiatives promoting different indicator lists, highlight the need for strengthened coordination and technical leadership to harmonize recommendations for improved measurement and monitoring of data related to maternal and newborn heath.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez
12.
Lancet ; 392(10155): 1341-1348, 2018 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322584

RESUMO

In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births. The global and regional increases in CS use were driven both by an increasing proportion of births occurring in health facilities (accounting for 66·5% of the global increase) and increases in CS use within health facilities (33·5%), with considerable variation between regions. Based on the most recent data available for each country, 15% of births in 106 (63%) of 169 countries were by CS, whereas 47 (28%) countries showed CS use in less than 10% of births. National CS use varied from 0·6% in South Sudan to 58·1% in the Dominican Republic. Within-country disparities in CS use were also very large: CS use was almost five times more frequent in births in the richest versus the poorest quintiles in low-income and middle-income countries; markedly high CS use was observed among low obstetric risk births, especially among more educated women in, for example, Brazil and China; and CS use was 1·6 times more frequent in private facilities than in public facilities.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Equidade em Saúde , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779863

RESUMO

This article is a part of a series that focuses on the current state of evidence and practice related to preterm birth prevention. We provide an overview of current knowledge (and limitations) on the global epidemiology of preterm birth, particularly around how preterm birth is defined, measured, and classified, and what is known regarding its risk factors, causes, and outcomes. Despite the reported associations between preterm birth and a wide range of socio-demographic, medical, obstetric, fetal, and environmental factors, approximately two-thirds of preterm births occur without an evident risk factor. Efforts to standardize definitions and compare preterm birth rates internationally have yielded important insights into the epidemiology of preterm birth and how it could be prevented.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/normas , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Saúde Global , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/classificação , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMJ Open ; 8(5): e019922, 2018 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Equity is a cross-cutting theme within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and central to the effort to improve maternal and child health globally. One key strategy to prevent maternal death set out in SDG 3 is assistance by a skilled birth attendant (SBA) at childbirth (indicator 3.1.2). However, the increased coverage of SBAs globally has not been reflected by the same degree of decrease in maternal mortality and has been reported to have higher levels of inequality than other maternal health interventions. There is a need to evaluate the extent of inequity in intrapartum care by SBAs and evaluate themes in determinants of inequity across regions and specific country characteristics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The protocol for this review follows The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses with equity extension 2012 guidelines. Studies of all languages and from all countries from 2004, the year when the WHO/ICM/FIGO joint statement on SBAs was published, and onwards will be included. PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL Complete, the Cochrane Library, POPLINE, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Index Medicus, and grey literature will be searched. Our primary outcome is intrapartum care by SBA. Studies will be included if they evaluate equity and its determinants adapted from the Progress-Plus grouping of characteristics affecting health outcomes. Results will be stratified based on WHO, World Bank Group income and SDG regional groupings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review is a secondary analysis of published literature and does not require ethics review. Results will provide information regarding equity in intrapartum care by SBAs globally and will inform development of indicators for monitoring of inequity as well as global policy related to intrapartum care and maternal mortality. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed manuscript, international conferences and stakeholder websites. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017069021.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Tocologia/organização & administração , Parto , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
15.
BMJ ; 360: k55, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. SETTING: 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess change. RESULTS: National caesarean section rates ranged from 0.6% in South Sudan to 58.9% in the Dominican Republic. Within countries, caesarean section rates were lowest in the poorest fifth (median 3.7%) and highest in the richest fifth (median 18.4%). 18 out of 72 study countries reported a difference of 20 percentage points or higher between the richest and poorest fifth. The highest caesarean section rates and greatest levels of absolute inequality were observed in countries from the region of the Americas, whereas countries from the African region had low levels of caesarean use and comparatively lower levels of absolute inequality, although relative inequality was quite high in some countries. 26 out of 28 countries reported increases in caesarean section rates over time. Rates tended to increase faster in the richest fifth (median 0.9 percentage points per year) compared with the poorest fifth (median 0.2 percentage points per year), indicating an increase in inequality over time in most of these countries. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial within country economic inequalities in caesarean deliveries remain. These inequalities might be due to a combination of inadequate access to emergency obstetric care among the poorest subgroups and high levels of caesarean use without medical indication in the richest subgroups, especially in middle income countries. Country specific strategies should address these inequalities to improve maternal and newborn health.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Open ; 7(10): e017229, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), maternal mortality remains high in countries where there are shortages of skilled personnel able to manage and provide quality care during pregnancy and childbirth. The 'percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel' (SAB, skilled attendants at birth) was a key indicator for tracking progress since the MDGs and is part of the Sustainable Development Goal agenda. However, due to contextual differences between and within countries on the definition of SAB, a lack of clarity exists around the training, competencies, and skills they are qualified to perform. In this paper, we outline a scoping review protocol that poses to identify and map the health personnel considered SAB in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search will be conducted for the years 2000-2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, POPLINE and the WHO Global Health Library. A manual search of reference lists from identified studies or systematic reviews and a hand search of the literature from international partner organisations will be done. Original studies conducted in LMIC that assessed health personnel (paid or voluntary) providing interventions during the intrapartum period will be considered for inclusion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: A scoping review is a secondary analysis of published literature and does not require ethics approval. This scoping review proposes to synthesise data on the training, competency and skills of identified SAB and expands on other efforts to describe this global health workforce. The results will inform recommendations around improved coverage measurement and reporting of SAB moving forward, allowing for more accurate, consistent and timely data able to guide decisions and action around planning and implementation of maternal and newborn health programme globally. Data will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed manuscript, conferences and to key stakeholders within international organisations.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Geográfico , Saúde Global , Tocologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Tocologia/educação , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Recursos Humanos
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 5(10): e977-e983, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The timing of the first antenatal care visit is paramount for ensuring optimal health outcomes for women and children, and it is recommended that all pregnant women initiate antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (early antenatal care visit). Systematic global analysis of early antenatal care visits has not been done previously. This study reports on regional and global estimates of the coverage of early antenatal care visits from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys and national health information systems. Estimates of coverage of early antenatal care visits were generated with linear regression analysis and based on 516 logit-transformed observations from 132 countries. The model accounted for differences by data sources in reporting the cutoff for the early antenatal care visit. FINDINGS: The estimated worldwide coverage of early antenatal care visits increased from 40·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 34·6-46·7) in 1990 to 58·6% (52·1-64·3) in 2013, corresponding to a 43·3% increase. Overall coverage in the developing regions was 48·1% (95% UI 43·4-52·4) in 2013 compared with 84·8% (81·6-87·7) in the developed regions. In 2013, the estimated coverage of early antenatal care visits was 24·0% (95% UI 21·7-26·5) in low-income countries compared with 81·9% (76·5-87·1) in high-income countries. INTERPRETATION: Progress in the coverage of early antenatal care visits has been achieved but coverage is still far from universal. Substantial inequity exists in coverage both within regions and between income groups. The absence of data in many countries is of concern and efforts should be made to collect and report coverage of early antenatal care visits to enable better monitoring and evaluation. FUNDING: Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO and UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.


Assuntos
Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Adulto Jovem
18.
Reprod Health ; 13(1): 76, 2016 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The official WHO estimates of preterm birth are an essential global resource for assessing the burden of preterm birth and developing public health programmes and policies. This protocol describes the methods that will be used to identify, critically appraise and analyse all eligible preterm birth data, in order to develop global, regional and national level estimates of levels and trends in preterm birth rates for the period 1990 - 2014. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review of civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) data on preterm birth for all WHO Member States, via national Ministries of Health and Statistics Offices. For Member States with absent, limited or lower-quality CRVS data, a systematic review of surveys and/or research studies will be conducted. Modelling will be used to develop country, regional and global rates for 2014, with time trends for Member States where sufficient data are available. Member States will be invited to review the methodology and provide additional eligible data via a country consultation before final estimates are developed and disseminated. DISCUSSION: This research will be used to generate estimates on the burden of preterm birth globally for 1990 to 2014. We invite feedback on the methodology described, and call on the public health community to submit pertinent data for consideration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at PROSPERO CRD42015027439 CONTACT: pretermbirth@who.int.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Idade Gestacional , Humanos
19.
Lancet ; 387(10017): 462-74, 2016 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. We estimated levels and trends in maternal mortality for 183 countries to assess progress made. Based on MMR estimates for 2015, we constructed projections to show the requirements for the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of less than 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths globally by 2030. METHODS: We updated the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group (MMEIG) database with more than 200 additional records (vital statistics from civil registration systems, surveys, studies, or reports). We generated estimates of maternal mortality and related indicators with 80% uncertainty intervals (UIs) using a Bayesian model. The model combines the rate of change implied by a multilevel regression model with a time-series model to capture data-driven changes in country-specific MMRs, and includes a data model to adjust for systematic and random errors associated with different data sources. RESULTS: We had data for 171 of 183 countries. The global MMR fell from 385 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (80% UI 359-427) in 1990, to 216 (207-249) in 2015, corresponding to a relative decline of 43·9% (34·0-48·7), with 303,000 (291,000-349,000) maternal deaths worldwide in 2015. Regional progress in reducing the MMR since 1990 ranged from an annual rate of reduction of 1·8% (0·0-3·1) in the Caribbean to 5·0% (4·0-6·0) in eastern Asia. Regional MMRs for 2015 ranged from 12 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (11-14) for high-income regions to 546 (511-652) for sub-Saharan Africa. Accelerated progress will be needed to achieve the SDG goal; countries will need to reduce their MMRs at an annual rate of reduction of at least 7·5%. INTERPRETATION: Despite global progress in reducing maternal mortality, immediate action is needed to meet the ambitious SDG 2030 target, and ultimately eliminate preventable maternal mortality. Although the rates of reduction that are needed to achieve country-specific SDG targets are ambitious for most high mortality countries, countries that made a concerted effort to reduce maternal mortality between 2000 and 2010 provide inspiration and guidance on how to accomplish the acceleration necessary to substantially reduce preventable maternal deaths. FUNDING: National University of Singapore, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, USAID, and the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Teorema de Bayes , Região do Caribe , Bases de Dados Factuais , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos , United States Agency for International Development , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2(6): e323-33, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25103301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data for the causes of maternal deaths are needed to inform policies to improve maternal health. We developed and analysed global, regional, and subregional estimates of the causes of maternal death during 2003-09, with a novel method, updating the previous WHO systematic review. METHODS: We searched specialised and general bibliographic databases for articles published between between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, for research data, with no language restrictions, and the WHO mortality database for vital registration data. On the basis of prespecified inclusion criteria, we analysed causes of maternal death from datasets. We aggregated country level estimates to report estimates of causes of death by Millennium Development Goal regions and worldwide, for main and subcauses of death categories with a Bayesian hierarchical model. FINDINGS: We identified 23 eligible studies (published 2003-12). We included 417 datasets from 115 countries comprising 60 799 deaths in the analysis. About 73% (1 771 000 of 2 443 000) of all maternal deaths between 2003 and 2009 were due to direct obstetric causes and deaths due to indirect causes accounted for 27·5% (672 000, 95% UI 19·7-37·5) of all deaths. Haemorrhage accounted for 27·1% (661 000, 19·9-36·2), hypertensive disorders 14·0% (343 000, 11·1-17·4), and sepsis 10·7% (261 000, 5·9-18·6) of maternal deaths. The rest of deaths were due to abortion (7·9% [193 000], 4·7-13·2), embolism (3·2% [78 000], 1·8-5·5), and all other direct causes of death (9·6% [235 000], 6·5-14·3). Regional estimates varied substantially. INTERPRETATION: Between 2003 and 2009, haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and sepsis were responsible for more than half of maternal deaths worldwide. More than a quarter of deaths were attributable to indirect causes. These analyses should inform the prioritisation of health policies, programmes, and funding to reduce maternal deaths at regional and global levels. Further efforts are needed to improve the availability and quality of data related to maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Mortalidade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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