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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830536

RESUMO

The advent of immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape of several hematological and solid tumors [...].

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We address novelty regarding metabolomic profiling in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, in an attempt to postulate potential treatment strategies. METHODS: A large-scale literature search in existing scientific websites focusing on the keywords "renal cell carcinoma", "clear cell histology", "papillary histology", "metabolomic profiling", and "therapeutics" was performed. Results: The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is key in clear cell RCC metabolism and accordingly several drugs are presently available for routine use in clinical practice. Along this line, new treatment combinations against PI3K/Akt family members are currently under clinical investigation. On the other hand, new developed targets such as c-Met tyrosine kinase domain, glutathione (GSH) metabolism, and histone deacetylases enzymes (HDAC), as well as therapeutic strategies targeting them are currently being tested in clinical trials and here discussed. CONCLUSIONS: In RCC patients, the PI3K/Akt signaling is still the most effective targetable pathway. Targeting other metabolic pathways such as c-Met, GSH, and HDAC appears to be a promising approach and deserve further insights.

3.
Pathol Res Pract ; 227: 153637, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619577

RESUMO

Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a relevant prognostic factor in germ cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) and it has been included in the AJCC staging system. Nevertheless, its histological assessment is challenging, with low/moderate interobserver agreement also among expert uropathologists. Few studies focused on the potential role of immunohistochemistry to solve this critical issue; as result, in current guidelines there is no indication for additional staining to detect this histological feature. In the present study, we investigated the detection of LVI invasion in a small cohort of GCTT with double staining for OCT4/CD34. Although our results need to be validated in larger case series with follow-up data, they suggest as OCT4/CD34 could be a useful tool for the histological assessment of these tumors, helping to identify some histological mimickers of LVI and modifying the pT/stage in a significant percentage of patients.

4.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536504

RESUMO

Prostate cancer remains the most frequently diagnosed non-skin malignancy in male patients, still representing one of the main causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Evidence is mounting that suggests the putative role of microbiota in the carcinogenesis as well as in modulating the efficacy and activity of anticancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies) in a large number of hematological and solid tumors. However, few data are available regarding the interactions between prostate cancer and microbiome so far, in particular in terms of the impact of microbiota on disease development, pathogenesis, and response to medical treatments in this genitourinary malignancy. Herein, we provide an overview of current knowledge, novel insights and emerging therapeutic approaches related to gastrointestinal and genitourinary microbiome in prostate cancer patients, especially focusing on available evidence and published trials on this topic.

7.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387593

RESUMO

Several novel androgen receptor (AR)-inhibitors have been introduced for nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) treatment, with the improvement of survival outcomes which need to be balanced against the risk of adverse events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating enzalutamide, apalutamide and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients, to assess overall survival (OS), incidence and risk of adverse drug events, adverse-events-related death and adverse-events-related treatment discontinuation. We selected three RCTs (SPARTAN, PROSPER and ARAMIS). New hormonal agents administration resulted in better OS, despite the increased risk of several any grade and grade 3-4 adverse events. In the decision-making process, careful evaluation of expected adverse events, patients' comorbidities and maintenance of quality of life are mandatory.

8.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387596

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and meeting abstracts. Outcomes of interest included: overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Platinum-based AC was associated with improved DFS, while the benefit in OS and CSS was not statistically significant compared to observation. Conversely, platinum-based AC showed a modest OS benefit in an analysis combing multivariable HRs with estimated HRs from Kaplan-Meier curves. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that platinum-based AC is associated with improved DFS and a modest OS benefit in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinomas.

9.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405738

RESUMO

Introduction: In the evolving treatment scenario of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, cabozantinib is gaining increasing attention, presenting as a cornerstone therapy, both as a monotherapy and in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.Areas covered: In this review, the authors explore the role of cabozantinib in the treatment of metastatic clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma, presenting data from the most recent clinical trials and investigating ongoing studies. They, furthermore, evaluate the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and immunomodulatory effect of cabozantinib, as well as underlining the tolerability profile and patients' quality of life.Expert opinion: Cabozantinib's administration as a single agent is restricted to intermediate- and poor-risk patients (according to IMDC criteria). The further advent of anti-VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor regimens (such as pembrolizumab + axitinib) has allowed to expand the use of cabozantinib, leading to its combination with nivolumab. In the next few years, more information is required to look for the application of cabozantinib-based combinations as a later-line approach in metastatic RCC patients, beside their use in the first-line setting.

10.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

11.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(10): 1237-1243, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407702

RESUMO

Background: With hormonal agents quickly expanding as novel therapeutic options in nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC), the toxicity profile of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide should be kept in mind.Methods: We performed an updated meta-analysis with the aim to analyze the risk of treatment-related cardiovascular (CV) events, any grade, and grade 3-4 (G3-4) hypertension in nmCRPC patients treated with enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT plus placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results were compared by calculating Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs); RRs were combined with Mantel-Haenszel method.Results: Three RCTs involving 4110 patients were available for the meta-analysis. According to our results, the addition of novel hormonal agents was associated with a significantly increased risk of CV events (RR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.29-2.27) and G3-4 hypertension (RR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.19-1.97). In addition, a trend toward a higher risk of any grade hypertension was reported in the experimental arm.Conclusions: The use of enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide in nmCRPC patients implies a careful benefit-risk assessment. Real-world, large-cohort studies are warranted to confirm the findings of our meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298702

RESUMO

Treatment response is usually assessed by the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST). These criteria may not be adequate to evaluate the response to immunotherapy, considering the peculiar patterns of response reported with this therapy. With the advent of immunotherapy these criteria have been modified to include the evaluation of the peculiar responses seen with this type of therapy (iRECIST criteria), including pseudoprogressions and hyperprogressions. Tumor growth rate (TGR) is a dynamic evaluation that takes into account the kinetics of response to treatment and may help catch the real efficacy of an immunotherapy approach. We performed a retrospective monocentric study to explore the impact of TGR change after nivolumab administration as the second or later line of treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We evaluated 27 patients, divided into three categories: Disease control (DC) if there was no PD; lower velocity PD (LvPD) if disease progressed but the TGR at second assessment (TGR2) was lower than the TGR at first assessment (TGR1); higher velocity PD (HvPD) if TGR2 was higher than TGR1. The median OS for the DC group was 11.0 months (95% CI 5.0-17.0) (reference) vs. (not reached) NR (95% CI NR-NR) for LvPD (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.06-1.30; p 0.102) vs. NR (95% CI NR-NR) for HvPD (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88; p 0.032). There was no difference between LvPD and DC (HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.20-7.28; p 0.838). In patients with metastatic RCC, the second or later line of nivolumab treatment may lead to a deceleration in TGR resulting in an improved survival outcome similar to that observed in patients experiencing tumor regression. In this subgroup, especially in the presence of a clinical benefit, continuing the treatment beyond progression can be recommended.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207825

RESUMO

Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas are a miscellaneous group of tumors that include different histological subtypes, each one characterized by peculiarity in terms of genetic alteration, clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment response. Because of their low incidence and poor enrollment in clinical trials, alongside their heterogeneity, additional efforts are required to better unveil the pathogenetic mechanisms and, consequently, to improve the treatment algorithm. Nowadays, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTOR and MET inhibitors, and even cisplatin-based chemotherapy and immunotherapy are potential weapons that are still under evaluation in this setting. Various biomarkers have been evaluated for detecting progression and monitoring renal cell carcinoma, but more studies are necessary to improve this field. In this review, we provide an overview on the molecular characteristics of this group of tumors and the recently published trials, giving an insight into what might become the future therapeutic standard in this complex world of non-clear cell kidney cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 154: 120-127, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed the advent of novel treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Herein, we conducted an up-to-date and comprehensive meta-analysis including recently published data of phase III clinical trials evaluating immune-based combinations in mRCC. METHODS: We retrieved all the relevant trials published from 15th June 2008 to 24th February 2021, evaluating immune-based combinations in treatment-naïve mRCC through PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane library, and EMBASE; additionally, proceedings of the main international oncological meetings were also searched for relevant abstracts. Outcomes of interest included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), complete response (CR) rate, and overall response rate (ORR). Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for OS and PFS, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for CR rate and ORR, were extracted. RESULTS: Overall, 6 phase III studies involving 5175 treatment-naïve mRCC patients were available for the meta-analysis (immune-based combinations, n = 2576; sunitinib, n = 2597). According to our results, the use of immune-based combinations decreased the risk of death by 26% (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81, P < 0.001); similarly, a PFS benefit was observed (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.85, P = 0.001). In addition, immune-based combinations showed better CR rate and ORR, with ORs of 3.04 (95% CI 2.31-3.99, P = 0.001) and 2.53 (95% CI 1.77-3.62, P < 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our meta-analysis confirm the clinical benefit provided by immunotherapy combinations, with CR rate more than tripled in mRCCs receiving immune-based combinations. Further studies in real-world setting are warranted to validate the findings of our meta-analysis, the most updated to systematically evaluate immune-based combinations in mRCC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058953

RESUMO

Introduction: Substantial paradigm shifts have been recently registered in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), with combination therapies including immunotherapy showing unprecedented results. We performed number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) analyses to evaluate these approaches in mRCC.Areas covered: Clinical data of mRCC patients enrolled in four phase III trials were collected. The rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months for overall survival (OS), duration of response (DoR), and progression-free survival (PFS) were considered. At 6 months, the number of patients that should be treated to prevent one death with sunitinib was 20 for both pembrolizumab-lenvatinib or axitinib, 14 for nivolumab-cabozantinib, and 50 for nivolumab-ipilimumab. NNT was 100 (at 6 months) or >100 (at 12 and 18 months) for nivolumab-ipilimumab. The combinations reported peculiar and not superimposable safety profiles at the NNH analysis.Expert opinion: Although our results should be interpreted with caution, the analysis provides useful insight into the increasingly compelling interpretation of clinical trials. Immune combinations present clinically meaningful differences in terms of efficacy, with some treatments reporting different results at the NNT and the NNH analyses.

18.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(10): 1225-1232, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent years have registered the advent of novel treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including combination therapies with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Immuno-TKI combinations have been suggested to improve clinical outcomes but may also result in increased toxicity, including gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events. METHODS: Herein, we performed a meta-analysis aimed at comparing the risk of certain GI toxicities in mRCC patients treated with immuno-TKI combinations versus sunitinib monotherapy. Overall, four phase III trials (KEYNOTE-426, JAVELIN Renal 101, CheckMate 9ER, CLEAR) involving 3059 mRCC patients were available. RESULTS: The meta-analysis suggested an increased risk of all-grade diarrhea, grade 3-4 diarrhea and grade 3-4 decreased appetite in patients treated with immuno-TKI combinations. Conversely, an apparently higher risk of all-grade nausea was observed in the sunitinib group. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis suggested that immuno-TKI combinations are associated with higher risk of GI toxicities compared with sunitinib. Beyond the efficacy of immuno-TKI combinations in mRCC patients, careful consideration should be given to treatment-related adverse events, including GI toxicities. Early recognition and treatment are critical to maximize recovery.

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