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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833609

RESUMO

Air corridors are an integral part of the advanced air mobility infrastructure. They are the virtual highways in the sky for the transportation of people and cargo in a controlled airspace at an altitude of around 1000 ft. to 2000 ft. above ground level. These corridors will be utilized by (unmanned) air taxis, which will be deployed in rural and metropolitan regions to carry passengers and freight, as well as air ambulances, which will be deployed to offer first responder services such as 911 emergencies. This paper presents fundamental insights into the design of air corridors with high operational efficiency as well as zero collisions. It begins with the definitions of air cube, skylane or track, intersection, vertiport, gate, and air corridor. Then a multi-layered air corridor model is proposed. Traffic at intersections is analyzed in detail with examples of vehicles turning in different directions. The concept of capacity of an air corridor is introduced along with the nature of distribution of locations of vehicles in the air corridor and collision probability inside the corridor are discussed. Finally, results of traffic flow simulations are presented.


Assuntos
Transportes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 716, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637007

RESUMO

In Pretoria South Africa, we looked into the origins of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), based on 1-year sampling campaign carried out between April 18, 2017, and April 17, 2018. The average PM2.5 concentration was 21.1 ± 15.0 µg/m3 (range 0.7-66.8 µg/m3), with winter being the highest and summer being the lowest. The XEPOS 5 energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy was used for elemental analysis, and the US EPA PMF 5.0 program was used for source apportionment. The sources identified include fossil fuel combustion, soil dust, secondary sulphur, vehicle exhaust, road traffic, base metal/pyrometallurgical, and coal burning. Coal burning and secondary sulphur were significantly higher in winter and contributed more than 50% of PM2.5 sources. The HYSPLIT model was used to calculate the air mass trajectories (version 4.9). During the 1-year research cycle, five transportation clusters were established: North Limpopo (NLP), Eastern Inland (EI), Short-Indian Ocean (SIO), Long-Indian Ocean (LIO), and South Westerly-Atlantic Ocean (SWA). Local and transboundary origin accounted for 85%, while 15% were long-range transport. Due to various anthropogenic activities such as biomass burning and coal mining, NLP clusters were the key source of emissions adding to the city's PM rate. In Pretoria, the main possible source regions of PM2.5 were discovered to be NLP and EI. Effective control strategies designed at reducing secondary sulphur, coal burning, and fossil fuel combustion emissions at Southern African level and local combustion sources would be an important measure to combat the reduction of ambient PM2.5 pollution in Pretoria.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , África do Sul , Emissões de Veículos/análise
4.
Orv Hetil ; 162(36): 1459-1465, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486529

RESUMO

Introduction: Overactive bladder syndrome is an endemic phenomenon, which has a significant impact on the quality of life. In cases where conservative treatment fails, intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection can be used as second-line therapy. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment in the management of non-neurogenic detrusor overactivity among our patients. Also, to examine the influence of perioperative factors on the effects of the efficacy. Method: We have retrospectively collected the perioperative data of 33 patients treated with intradetrusor BOTOX®. The assessment of the efficacy and complications was done by the examination of patient files and questionnaires. The results obtained during the statistical analysis were considered significant for p<0.05. Results: We have not experienced notable complications after the procedures. Only 6 patients had residual urine (p = 0.024), none of them needed to be catheterized. We have observed significant decrease in the incidence of frequency, nocturia, urgency and incontinence, just as in the number of pads needed daily (p<0.01). Quality of life and general health were significantly improved (p<0.001). We have not found any significant connection between preoperative factors and efficacy (72.7%). Discussion: Our results considering the relief of symptoms are well in line with international data. The fact that our rate of complications is - in international comparison - outstanding can be explained by a more careful patient selection and thorough preoperative assessment. Conclusion: OnabotulinumtoxinA therapy is a safe and effective solution of therapy-refractory overactive bladder. We could not identify any perioperative factor to predict postoperative efficacy of therapy. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(36): 1459-1465.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
6.
Urol Int ; 105(11-12): 1092-1098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voiding dysfunction (VD) is a potential complication after female midurethral sling operations. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to assess the rate of obstructive VD after -transobturator tension-free tape (TOT) procedures and to find perioperative risk factors (RFs) predicting postoperative voiding problems. METHODS: We have retrospectively evaluated the perioperative data of 397 women who underwent TOT operations. Significant post-void residual (PVR) (>50 mL) was considered as the primary (objective) end point of the study, the voiding difficulty as the secondary (subjective) 1. First univariate analysis and then multivariate logistic regression were performed, with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Significant PVR was present in 51 (12.8%) women; catheterization was needed in 21 (5.3%) and reoperation in 3 (0.8%) cases. Seventy women (17.6%) experienced postoperative voiding difficulty. Narrow vagina (<2 cm), older age >70 years, and preoperative voiding difficulty were independent RFs for significant PVR (odds ratio: 5.07, 2.14, 5.38, respectively, p < 0.05). Preoperative overactive bladder syndrome and previous pelvic organ prolapse surgery were considered independent RFs for postoperative voiding difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, narrow vagina, or preoperative voiding difficulty increases the chance for significant postoperative PVR. These patients should be chosen and counseled appropriately.

7.
Conserv Biol ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342042

RESUMO

Understanding how human modification of the landscape shapes vertebrate community composition is vital to understanding the current status and future trajectory of wildlife. Using a participatory approach, we deployed the largest camera-trap network in Mesoamerica to date to investigate how anthropogenic disturbance shapes the occupancy and co-occurrence of terrestrial vertebrate species in a tropical biodiversity hotspot: the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. We estimated species richness in different categories of land protection with rarefaction analysis and estimated the expected occupancy with a joint species distribution model that included covariates for anthropogenic disturbance, land protection, habitat quality, and habitat availability. Areas with the most stringent land-use protections (e.g., Corcovado National Park, 24 species [95% CI 23-25]) harbored significantly more species than unprotected areas (20 species [19.7-20.3]), mainly due to a reduced presence of large-bodied species of conservation concern in unprotected areas (e.g., jaguar Panthera onca and white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari). Small-bodied generalist species, such as opossums (Didelphidae) and armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), in contrast, were more common at disturbed sites, resulting in a significant difference in vertebrate community composition between sites with low and high disturbance. Co-occurrence of species was also mainly associated with response to disturbance. Similar responses to disturbance create two groups of species, those whose site-level occupancy usually increased as anthropogenic disturbance increased and those whose estimated occupancy decreased. The absence of large-bodied species entails an important loss of ecological function in disturbed areas and can hinder forest development and maintenance. Efforts to protect and restore forested landscapes are likely having a positive effect on the abundance of some threatened species. These efforts, however, must be sustained and expanded to increase connectivity and ensure the long-term viability of the wildlife community.

8.
Exp Cell Res ; 404(1): 112612, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION & AIM: The vascular response to injury leads to the secretion of several factors, including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PDGF-BB stimulates smooth muscle cell (SMC) conversion to the synthetic phenotype, thereby enhancing proliferation and migration, and contributing to neointimal hyperplasia. Likewise, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor has been shown to mediate SMC proliferation in response to various mitogens. We therefore investigated the contribution of CREB to PDGF-BB-dependent proliferation of SMCs with the intention of identifying signaling pathways involved both up and downstream of CREB activation. METHODS & RESULTS: Treatments were performed on vascular SMCs from a porcine coronary artery explant model. The role of CREB was examined via adenoviral expression of a dominant-negative CREB mutant (kCREB) as well as inhibition of CREB binding protein (CBP). Involvement of the p27kip1 pathway was determined using a constitutively expressing p27kip1 adenoviral vector. PDGF-BB stimulated transient CREB phosphorylation on Ser-133 via ERK1/2-, PI3-kinase- and Src-dependent pathways. Expression of kCREB decreased PDGF-BB-dependent cell proliferation. PCNA expression and Rb phosphorylation were also inhibited by kCREB. These cell cycle proteins are controlled via p27kip1 expression in response to CREB-dependent post-translational modification of FoxO1. kCREB had no effect on Cyclin D1 expression, but did prevent PDGF-BB-induced Cyclin D1 nuclear translocation. An interaction inhibitor of CBP confirmed that Cyclin D1 is downstream of PDGF-BB and CREB. CONCLUSION: CREB phosphorylation is required for SMC proliferation in response to PDGF-BB. This phenotypic change requires CBP and is mediated by Cyclin D1 and p27kip as a result of changes in FoxO1 activity.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Animais , Divisão Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-sis/metabolismo , Suínos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540914

RESUMO

We assessed the health risks of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) ambient air pollution and its trace elemental components in a rural South African community. Air pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. PM2.5 samples were previously collected, April 2017 to April 2018, and PM2.5 mass determined. The filters were analyzed for chemical composition. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) health risk assessment method was applied. Reference doses were calculated from the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, South African National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and US EPA reference concentrations. Despite relatively moderate levels of PM2.5 the health risks were substantial, especially for infants and children. The average annual PM2.5 concentration was 11 µg/m3, which is above WHO guidelines, but below South African NAAQS. Adults were exposed to health risks from PM2.5 during May to October, whereas infants and children were exposed to risk throughout the year. Particle-bound nickel posed both non-cancer and cancer risks. We conclude that PM2.5 poses health risks in Thohoyandou, despite levels being compliant with yearly South African NAAQS. The results indicate that air quality standards need to be tightened and PM2.5 levels lowered in South Africa.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , África do Sul , Estados Unidos
10.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477841

RESUMO

Melilotus officinalis is known to contain several types of secondary metabolites. In contrast, the carotenoid composition of this medicinal plant has not been investigated, although it may also contribute to the biological activities of the drug, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study focuses on the isolation and identification of carotenoids from Meliloti herba and on the effect of isolated (all-E)-lutein 5,6-epoxide on primary sensory neurons and macrophages involved in nociception, as well as neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammatory processes. The composition of the plant extracts was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main carotenoid was isolated by column liquid chromatography (CLC) and identified by MS and NMR. The effect of water-soluble lutein 5,6-epoxide-RAMEB (randomly methylated-ß-cyclodextrin) was investigated on Ca2+-influx in rat primary sensory neurons induced by the activation of the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 receptor agonist to mustard-oil and on endotoxin-induced IL-1ß release from isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages. (all-E)-Lutein 5,6-epoxide significantly decreased the percent of responsive primary sensory neurons compared to the vehicle-treated stimulated control. Furthermore, endotoxin-evoked IL-1ß release from macrophages was significantly decreased by 100 µM lutein 5,6-epoxide compared to the vehicle-treated control. The water-soluble form of lutein 5,6-epoxide-RAMEB decreases the activation of primary sensory neurons and macrophages, which opens perspectives for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory applications.


Assuntos
Luteína/análogos & derivados , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melilotus/química , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Luteína/análise , Luteína/isolamento & purificação , Luteína/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/citologia
11.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 320(4): F537-F547, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491563

RESUMO

Local or systemic inflammation can severely impair urinary bladder functions and contribute to the development of voiding disorders in millions of people worldwide. Isoprostanes are inflammatory lipid mediators that are upregulated in the blood and urine by oxidative stress and may potentially induce detrusor overactivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and signal transduction of isoprostanes in human and murine urinary bladders in order to provide potential pharmacological targets in detrusor overactivity. Contraction force was measured with a myograph in murine and human urinary bladder smooth muscle (UBSM) ex vivo. Isoprostane 8-iso-PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2α evoked dose-dependent contraction in the murine UBSM, which was abolished in mice deficient in the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The responses remained unaltered after removal of the mucosa or incubation with tetrodotoxin. Smooth muscle-specific deletion of Gα12/13 protein or inhibition of Rho kinase by Y-27632 decreased the contractions. In Gαq/11-knockout mice, responses were reduced and in the presence of Y-27632 abolished completely. In human UBSM, the TP agonist U-46619 evoked dose-dependent contractions. Neither atropine nor the purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid decreased the effect, indicating that TP receptors directly mediate detrusor muscle contraction. 8-iso-PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2α evoked dose-dependent contraction in the human UBSM, and these responses were abolished by the TP antagonist SQ-29548 and were decreased by Y-27632. Our results indicate that isoprostanes evoke contraction in murine and human urinary bladders, an effect mediated by the TP receptor. The G12/13-Rho-Rho kinase pathway plays a significant role in mediating the contraction and therefore may be a potential therapeutic target in detrusor overactivity.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Voiding disorders affect millions of people worldwide. Inflammation can impair urinary bladder functions and contribute to the development of detrusor overactivity. The effects and signal transduction of inflammatory lipid mediator isoprostanes were studied in human and murine urinary bladders ex vivo. We found that isoprostanes evoke contraction, an effect mediated by thromboxane prostanoid receptors. The G12/13-Rho-Rho kinase signaling pathway plays a significant role in mediating the contraction and therefore may be a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Isoprostanos/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Prostaglandina/farmacologia , Receptores de Prostaglandina/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Tromboxanos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Prostaglandinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Tromboxanos/fisiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138267

RESUMO

In 2015, stricter regulations to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions and particulate air pollution from shipping were implemented in the Baltic Sea. We investigated the effects on population exposure to particles <2.5 µm (PM2.5) from shipping and estimated related morbidity and mortality in Sweden's 21 counties at different spatial resolutions. We used a regional model to estimate exposure in Sweden and a city-scale model for Gothenburg. Effects of PM2.5 exposure on total mortality, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were estimated using exposure-response functions from the literature and combining them into disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). PM2.5 exposure from shipping in Gothenburg decreased by 7% (1.6 to 1.5 µg/m3) using the city-scale model, and 35% (0.5 to 0.3 µg/m3) using the regional model. Different population resolutions had no effects on population exposures. In the city-scale model, annual premature deaths due to shipping PM2.5 dropped from 97 with the high-sulfur scenario to 90 in the low-sulfur scenario, and in the regional model from 32 to 21. In Sweden, DALYs lost due to PM2.5 from Baltic Sea shipping decreased from approximately 5700 to 4200. In conclusion, sulfur emission restrictions for shipping had positive effects on health, but the model resolution affects estimations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Saúde Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Países Bálticos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Navios , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 565, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) has garnered significant attention throughout North America for its impact on wildlife health, and especially for moose (Alces alces), where high tick burdens may result in host hair loss, anemia, and can prove fatal. The environmental transmission of D. albipictus larvae to a host is a critical event that has direct impact on infestation success, yet in-field observations of this life stage are lacking. In Yukon, Canada, D. albipictus had previously been found on hosts, but its larval life stage had not been detected in the field, despite previous sampling attempts. METHODS: We sampled for D. albipictus larvae using traditional flagging methods in Ibex Valley and Braeburn, Yukon. Sites were sampled repeatedly for D. albipictus larvae by flagging from late August to end of October in 2018 and late August to end of November 2019. RESULTS: Larvae of D. albipictus were collected throughout Ibex Valley, at approximate densities ranging from 0.04 to 4236 larvae/100 m2. Larvae were present primarily on grassy vegetation on south-facing slopes in the Ibex Valley region and in Braeburn. Highest average larval numbers suggest peak questing activity was towards the end of September and beginning of October, as elsewhere in North America. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, we report the first successful collection of the off-host, larval life stage of D. albipictus by flagging, north of 60° latitude in Yukon, Canada. These new observations provide critical information on the spatial distribution of the host-seeking life stage of D. albipictus and confirm that this species is completing its whole life cycle in southern Yukon. Understanding the environmental conditions where larvae spend their vulnerable period off-host in this northern location can inform both management strategies and projections of future range expansion which may occur with a changing climate.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Dermacentor/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cervos/classificação , Larva , Estações do Ano , Yukon
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1936): 20201526, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049167

RESUMO

Predicting the effects of seasonality and climate change on the emergence and spread of infectious disease remains difficult, in part because of poorly understood connections between warming and the mechanisms driving disease. Trait-based mechanistic models combined with thermal performance curves arising from the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) have been highlighted as a promising approach going forward; however, this framework has not been tested under controlled experimental conditions that isolate the role of gradual temporal warming on disease dynamics and emergence. Here, we provide experimental evidence that a slowly warming host-parasite system can be pushed through a critical transition into an epidemic state. We then show that a trait-based mechanistic model with MTE functional forms can predict the critical temperature for disease emergence, subsequent disease dynamics through time and final infection prevalence in an experimentally warmed system of Daphnia and a microsporidian parasite. Our results serve as a proof of principle that trait-based mechanistic models using MTE subfunctions can predict warming-induced disease emergence in data-rich systems-a critical step towards generalizing the approach to other systems.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos , Animais , Daphnia , Ecologia , Epidemias , Microsporídios , Temperatura
15.
Financ Res Lett ; 36: 101735, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868975

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, stock markets around the world have experienced unprecedented declines amid high uncertainty. In this paper, we use Google search volume activity as a gauge of panic and fear. The chosen search terms are specific to the coronavirus crisis and correspond to phrases related to nonpharmaceutical intervention policies to fight physical contagion. We show that during this period, fear of the coronavirus - manifested as excess search volume - represents a timely and valuable data source for forecasting stock price variation around the world.

16.
Environ Res ; 191: 110095, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms are not fully known. Current evidence suggests that air pollution exposure contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. There are few studies investigating associations between air pollution and carotid plaques, a well-known precursor of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A Swedish population-based cohort (aged 45-64 years at recruitment) was randomly selected from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study between 1991 and 1994, of which 6103 participants underwent ultrasound examination of the right carotid artery to determine carotid plaque presence and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). Participants were assigned individual residential air pollution exposure (source-specific PM2.5, PM10, NOx, BC) at recruitment from Gaussian dispersion models. Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders and cardiovascular risk factors, were used to investigate associations between air pollutants and prevalence of carotid plaques, and CIMT, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of carotid plaques was 35%. The mean levels of PM2.5 and PM10 at recruitment were 11 and 14 µg/m3, most of which was due to long range transport. The exposure contrast within the cohort was relatively low. PM2.5 exposure was associated with carotid plaques in a model including age and sex only (OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) per 1 µg/m3), but after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) the association was weak and not significant (OR 1.05 (95% CI 0.96-1.16) per 1 µg/m3). The pattern was similar for PM10 and NOx exposure. Associations between air pollutants and plaques were slightly stronger for long-term residents and in younger participants with hypertension. There was no clear linear trend between air pollution exposure and plaque prevalence. Non-significant slightly positive associations were seen between air pollution exposures and CIMT. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, well-controlled cross-sectional study at low exposure levels we found no significant associations between air pollution exposures and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and SES. Further epidemiological studies of air pollution and intermediate outcomes are needed to explain the link between air pollution and cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aterosclerose , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Artérias Carótidas/química , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(8): 4197-4214, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364624

RESUMO

Arctic ecosystems are changing rapidly in response to climate warming. While Arctic mammals are highly evolved to these extreme environments, particularly with respect to their stress axis, some species may have limited capacity to adapt to this change. We examined changes in key components of the stress axis (cortisol and its carrier protein-corticosteroid binding globulin [CBG]) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from western Hudson Bay (N = 300) over a 33 year period (1983-2015) during which time the ice-free period was increasing. Changing sea ice phenology limits spring hunting opportunities and extends the period of onshore fasting. We assessed the response of polar bears to a standardized stressor (helicopter pursuit, darting, and immobilization) during their onshore fasting period (late summer-autumn) and quantified the serum levels of the maximum corticosteroid binding capacity (MCBC) of CBG, the serum protein that binds cortisol strongly, and free cortisol (FC). We quantified bear condition (age, sex, female with cubs or not, fat condition), sea ice (breakup in spring-summer, 1 year lagged freeze-up in autumn), and duration of fasting until sample collection as well as cumulative impacts of the latter environmental traits from the previous year. Data were separated into "good" years (1983-1990) when conditions were thought to be optimal and "poor" years (1991-2015) when sea ice conditions deteriorated and fasting on land was extended. MCBC explained 39.4% of the variation in the good years, but only 28.1% in the poor ones, using both biological and environmental variables. MCBC levels decreased with age. Changes in FC were complex, but more poorly explained. Counterintuitively, MCBC levels increased with increased time onshore, 1 year lag effects, and in poor ice years. We conclude that MCBC is a biomarker of stress in polar bears and that the changes we document are a consequence of climate warming.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Feminino , Camada de Gelo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10897-10903, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358200

RESUMO

Migrations allow animals to track seasonal changes in resources, find mates, and avoid harsh climates, but these regular, long-distance movements also have implications for parasite dynamics and animal health. Migratory animals have been dubbed "superspreaders" of infection, but migration can also reduce parasite burdens within host populations via migratory escape from contaminated habitats and transmission hotspots, migratory recovery due to parasite mortality, and migratory culling of infected individuals. Here, we show that a single migratory host-macroparasite model can give rise to these different phenomena under different parametrizations, providing a unifying framework for a mechanistic understanding of the parasite dynamics of migratory animals. Importantly, our model includes the impact of parasite burden on host movement capability during migration, which can lead to "parasite-induced migratory stalling" due to a positive feedback between increasing parasite burdens and reduced movement. Our results provide general insight into the conditions leading to different health outcomes in migratory wildlife. Our approach lays the foundation for tactical models that can help understand, predict, and mitigate future changes of disease risk in migratory wildlife that may arise from shifting migratory patterns, loss of migratory behavior, or climate effects on parasite development, mortality, and transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Migração Animal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais/mortalidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
19.
Orv Hetil ; 161(15): 583-587, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323522

RESUMO

Introduction: Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a six-week mortality rate of approximately 20%. Aim: To analyse whether the changes introduced in the treatment of variceal gastrointestinal haemorrhage in our department affected the mortality rate of these patients. Method: A retrospective method was used to compare the data of patients treated with variceal bleeding in 2014 and 2015. In 2015, two changes were made in the treatment of patients with variceal bleeding: all patients were treated in the subintensive care unit and terlipressin was administered to all patients susceptible to variceal haemorrhage. Bleeding was mitigated by means of sclerotherapy and/or ligation. Significance was calculated using Student's t-test, then we performed logistic regression to find out what treatment factors affect mortality rate. Patients: 2014 vs. 2015 figures ­ number of patients: 24 vs. 30, average age: 59.8 vs. 57.6 years, male (%): 70.8 vs. 66.7. There were no significant differences between the Child­Pugh stages of the two years, p = 0.53. For the analysis we also grouped patients based on whether irrespective of the year of treatment they were administered terlipressin or not. Number of patients: 22 vs. 32, average age: 60.4 vs. 57.4, male (%): 63.6 vs. 70.6. Results: Mortality in 2015 and 2014: 23% and 33%, respectively. Mortality of patients treated with terlipressin: 18.2 vs. 34.4, p = 0.09. Child­Pugh stages had the strongest influence on mortality (stage A vs. B p = 0.05, stage A vs. C p = 0.02). Terlipressin administered in Child­Pugh stage C reduced mortality at a rate bordering on significance (p = 0.055). Conclusion: Despite the comparatively small number of cases, the changes introduced in our department in 2015 in the treatment of variceal gastrointestinal haemorrhages resulted in a significant reduction of hospital mortality rates. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(15): 583­587.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Terlipressina/uso terapêutico , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terlipressina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos
20.
Environ Res ; 185: 109446, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278155

RESUMO

Urbanization and increasing road traffic cause exposure to both noise and air pollution. While the levels of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) have decreased in Sweden during the past decades, exposure to traffic noise has increased. The association with cardiovascular morbidity is less well established for noise than for air pollution, and most studies have only studied one of the two highly spatially correlated exposures. The Swedish Primary Prevention Study cohort consists of men aged 47 to 55 when first examined in 1970-1973. The cohort members were linked to the Swedish patient registry through their personal identity number and followed until first cardiovascular event 1970-2011. The address history during the entire study period was used to assign annual modelled residential exposure to road traffic noise and NOx. The Cox proportional hazards model with age on the time axis and time-varying exposures were used in the analysis. The results for 6304 men showed a non-significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease for long-term road traffic noise at the home address, after adjusting for air pollution. The hazard ratios were 1.08 (95% CI 0.90-1.28) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.14 (95% CI 0.96-1.36) for ischemic heart disease incidence and 1.07 (95% CI 0.85-1.36) for stroke incidence, for noise above 60 dB, compared to below 50 dB. This study found some support for cardiovascular health effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 60 dB, after having accounted for exposure to air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia
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