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1.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900599, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917888

RESUMO

SCOPE: High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). It is hypothesized that dietary supplementation with the polyunsaturated fatty acids conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or alpha linolenic acid (ALA) would prevent HFD-impaired RCT by modulating hepatic protein pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE3L.CETP mice are fed a HFD supplemented ± CLA or ALA for 12 weeks and in vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT is determined. Hepatic cholesterol transporters and the hepatic proteome are assessed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, respectively. Mice fed HFD alone, but not ALA-HFD or CLA-HFD, exhibit increased systemic cholesterol levels, increased 3 H-cholesterol levels in plasma and liver but not feces during RCT, and reduced hepatic ABCG5/8 expression relative to LFD. ALA-HFD significantly reduces liver weight, hepatic cholesterol levels, and expression of the cholesterol synthesis enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase relative to HFD. ALA further increases the expression of acetyl-coA oxidase-associated proteins and suppress PPARα-induced proteins relative to HFD. CLA does not significantly attenuate hepatic lipid levels but is associated with reduced hepatic expression of fatty acid binding protein (FABP)-1/FABP4 levels relative to HFD, and reduced inflammatory pathway activation relative to ALA-HFD. CONCLUSION: ALA and CLA exert distinct mechanistic advantages on cholesterol homeostasis and RCT in obesity.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lamb diets can alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and adipose tissue, which may affect the sensory quality and consumer acceptability of the meat. In this study, lambs received one of four pre-slaughter diets: a barley / maize / soya-based concentrate (C), supplemented with a saturated fat source (Megalac®) (SAT), or supplemented with protected linseed oil (PLO); or a by-product (citrus pulp / distillers' grain / soya-based) diet (BPR). Intramuscular FAs and adipose tissue branched-chain FAs were measured and consumer evaluation (hedonic liking and attribute intensity) was undertaken with cooked lamb. RESULTS: Compared to the other diets, the BPR diet resulted in a higher muscle concentration and a greater proportion of C18:2n-6, and greater proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-C18:2) and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), whereas the PLO diet resulted in higher muscle proportions of C18:0 and saturated FAs, higher concentrations of C18:3n-3 and n-3 PUFA, and a lower n-6 to n-3 ratio. The consumer acceptability of lamb was not affected by the pre-slaughter diets. CONCLUSION: Changes in the FA profile of lamb muscle and adipose tissue through the inclusion of sources of saturated fat, protected linseed oil, or by-products in the pre-slaughter diet did not result in consumer detection of significant effects on the acceptability of the cooked meat. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 245-257, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess whether there are differences in consumer liking of beef. Samples were collected from different groups and analyses were conducted, including quantitative descriptive analysis, consumer panels and instrumental analyses. Palatability traits, such as aroma liking, tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking (OL), were rated by consumers. RESULTS: Warner-Bratzler shear force was negatively associated with tender mouthfeel and consumer tenderness score. Cluster analysis identified four groups of clusters, which were described as 'easily pleased', 'bull beef liker', 'tender beef liker' and 'fastidious' consumers. Cluster group 2 awarded a higher score for bulls and located in a separate region on the external preference map. CONCLUSION: External preference mapping showed the association between consumer liking of beef and sensory attributes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Carne/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Aromatizantes/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Paladar
4.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply a dietary modelling approach to investigate the impact of substituting beef intakes with three types of alternative fatty acid (FA) composition of beef on population dietary fat intakes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, national food consumption survey - the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). The fat content of the beef-containing food codes (n 52) and recipes (n 99) were updated with FA composition data from beef from animals receiving one of three ruminant dietary interventions: grass-fed (GRASS), grass finished on grass silage and concentrates (GSC) or concentrate-fed (CONC). Mean daily fat intakes, adherence to dietary guidelines and the impact of altering beef FA composition on dietary fat sources were characterised. SETTING: Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Beef consumers (n 1044) aged 18-90 years. RESULTS: Grass-based feeding practices improved dietary intakes of a number of individual FA, wherein myristic acid (C14 : 0) and palmitic acid (C16 : 0) were decreased, with an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (C18 : 2c9,t11) and trans-vaccenic acid (C18 : 1t11; P < 0·05). Improved adherence with dietary recommendations for total fat (98·5 %), SFA (57·4 %) and PUFA (98·8 %) was observed in the grass-fed beef scenario (P < 0·001). Trans-fat intakes were increased significantly in the grass-fed beef scenario (P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to characterise the impact of grass-fed beef consumption at population level. The study suggests that habitual consumption of grass-fed beef may have potential as a public health strategy to improve dietary fat quality.

5.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323755

RESUMO

The objective was to compare the quality of beef from bulls reared in typical Irish indoor systems or in novel grass-based systems. Bulls were assigned to one of the following systems: (a) grass silage plus barley-based concentrate ad libitum (CON); (b) grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg of concentrate (SC); (c) grazed grass without supplementation (G0); (d) grazed grass plus 0.5 kg of the dietary dry matter intake as concentrate (GC) for (100 days) until slaughter (14.99 months). Carcass characteristics and pH decline were recorded. Longissimus thoracis was collected for analytical and sensory analysis. Lower carcass weight, conformation and fatness scores were found for grazing compared to CON and SC groups. CON bulls had highest intramuscular fat and lighter meat colour compared with grazing bulls. The SC meat (14 days aged) was rated higher for tenderness, texture, flavour and acceptability compared with grazing groups. CON saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid (FA) concentration was highest, conversely, omega-3 FA concentration was higher for GC compared with CON, while no differences were found in polyunsaturated FA. In conclusion, while market fatness specification was not reached by grazed grass treatments, beef eating quality was not detrimentally affected and nutritional quality was improved.

6.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340599

RESUMO

The biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the longissimus thoracis muscle from suckler bulls (n = 56) finished on a concentrate-based system (C) or raised in a pasture-based system (P) incorporating 99 (P99), 162 (P162) or 231 days (P231) of grazing prior to indoor finishing on the concentrate-based diet were investigated. Age at slaughter increased with increasing period at pasture. Intramuscular fat concentration was lower (p < 0.001) for P99 than for C, P162 and P231 bulls, which did not differ. Soluble collagen proportion was lower (p < 0.01) for P162 and P231 than for P99 and C bulls. Collagen cross-link content was higher (p < 0.05) for P231 than for P99 and C bulls and for P162 than for C bulls. The proportion of type I muscle fibres was higher (p < 0.01) for P231 and P162 than for P99 and C bulls. Sensory tenderness was higher (p < 0.001) for C and P162 than for P99 and P231 bulls and overall liking was higher (p < 0.01) for C than for P99 and P231 bulls but similar to P162 bulls. Extending the grazing period to 162 days did not negatively influence the sensory qualities of beef compared to the intensive concentrate-based system.

7.
Food Res Int ; 115: 54-64, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599976

RESUMO

Animal production factors can affect the sensory quality of lamb meat. The study investigated the effect of diet composition and duration of consumption on the proximate analysis, volatile profile and sensory quality of lamb meat. Ninety-nine male Texel × Scottish Blackface lambs were raised at pasture for 10 months before being assigned in groups of 11 to one of the following treatments: 100% Silage (S) for 36 (S36), 54 (S54) or 72 (S72) days; 50% Silage - 50% Concentrate (SC) for 36 (SC36), 54 (SC54) or 72 (SC72) days; 100% Concentrate (C) for 36 (C36) or 54 (C54) or 72 (C72) days. A trained sensory panel found Intensity of Lamb Aroma, Dry Aftertaste and Astringent Aftertaste to be higher in meat from lambs on the concentrate diet. Discriminant analysis showed that the volatile profile enabled discrimination of lamb based on dietary treatment but the volatile differences were insufficient to impact highly on sensory quality. Muscle from animals in the S54 group had higher Manure/Faecal Aroma and Woolly Aroma than the SC54 and C54 groups, possibly related to higher levels of indole and skatole. Further research is required to establish if these small differences would influence consumer acceptability.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor , Análise Discriminante , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Carneiro Doméstico , Silagem/análise , Escatol/análise , Paladar
8.
J Food Sci ; 83(10): 2466-2477, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251256

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of castration and slaughter age on the volatile profile of cooked meat from Scottish Blackface (SB) and Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs. M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled at slaughter and subjected to volatile analysis by SPME-GC-MS. Rams had higher relative proportions, expressed as relative abundance (RA), in lipid oxidation products while castrates had higher RA in pyrazines and benzenoid compounds. There was no consistent age effect on the RA of volatiles, although rams in November and January had a different volatile profile to castrates. There were higher proportions of free branched-chain fatty acids in muscle from SB compared to T × SB lambs. Overall, the results showed that production factors affected the volatile profile of cooked lamb meat which may explain differences in lamb flavor. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Lamb meat has a characteristic flavor which, according to the evidence to date, may be influenced by farm production factors like gender or slaughter age. Our results showed variations in the proportions of some flavor compounds in cooked lamb between rams and castrated lambs while an increase in slaughter age did not have a consistent effect on proportions of compounds.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Músculos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Matadouros , Fatores Etários , Animais , Cruzamento , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Orquiectomia , Pirazinas/análise , Pirazinas/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/cirurgia , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/cirurgia , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
9.
Meat Sci ; 144: 2-14, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859716

RESUMO

The authenticity of meat is now an important consideration in the multi-step food chain from production of animals on farm to consumer consumption of the final meat product. A range of techniques, involving analysis of elemental and molecular constituents of meat, fingerprint profiling and multivariate statistical analysis exists and these techniques are evolving in the quest to provide robust methods of establishing the dietary background of animals and the geographical origin of the meat derived from them. The potential application to meat authentication of techniques such as stable isotope ratio analysis applied to different animal tissues, measurement in meat of compounds directly derived from the diet of animals, such as fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins, and spectroscopy is explored. Challenges pertaining to the interpretation of data, as they relate to assignment of dietary background or geographical origin, are discussed.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/normas , Animais
10.
Meat Sci ; 142: 52-58, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660544

RESUMO

Visible-near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) has been suggested to have potential for authentication of food products. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess if this technology can be used to authenticate the ageing time (3, 7, 14 and 21 days post mortem) of beef steaks from three different muscles (M. Longissimus thoracis, M. Gluteus medius and M. Semitendinosus). Various mathematical pre-treatments were applied to the spectra to correct scattering and overlapping effects, and then partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) procedures applied. The best models were specific for each muscle, and the ability of prediction of ageing time was validated using full (leave-one-out) cross-validation, whereas authentication performance was evaluated using the parameters of sensitivity, specificity and overall correct classification. The results indicate that overall correct classification ranging from 94.2 to 100% was achieved, depending on the muscle. In conclusion, Vis-NIRS technology seems a valid tool for the authentication of ageing time of beef steaks.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha/análise , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Carne Vermelha/normas , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Food Chem ; 235: 86-97, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554651

RESUMO

Fatty acids, volatile compounds and sensory attributes of beef from bulls fed concentrates to slaughter (C), grass silage for 120days (GS) followed by C (GSC), or GS followed by 100days at pasture and then C (GSPC), and slaughtered at 3 target carcass weights, were determined. Total intramuscular fat (IMF) was lower for GSPC than for GSC and C. C18:3n-3 concentration and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio were higher and C18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio lower for GSPC than C. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1c9 increased with carcass weight when expressed quantitatively, but not when expressed proportionately. Hexanal concentration was higher and 2-methyl-1-butanol and toluene lower for C and GSC than for GSPC. Overall liking was negatively correlated with C20:5n-3 and PUFA/SFA ratio, but differences in sensory attributes (tenderness, flavour liking, overall liking) were most strongly correlated with IMF.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Poaceae , Carne Vermelha/normas , Silagem , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino
12.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 71(4): 272-284, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429613

RESUMO

To elucidate the influence of dietary carnosic acid (CA) and vitamin E on animal performance, immune response indicators and haematological parameters before and after transport stress, 24 lambs were individually fed ad libitum with milk replacer (MR) using an auto-feeder. Once daily the lambs received MR alone (Group CON, n = 8), MR + 0.096 g CA/kg live weight (LW) (Group CARN, n = 8) or MR + 0.024 g of α-tocopheryl acetate per kg LW (Group VitE, n = 8). After reaching the target slaughter weight (12 ± 0.5 kg), blood samples were collected to measure haematological and immunological parameters. Then, lambs were subjected to 4-h road transport and blood samples were collected again for haematological assessment. The animals were subsequently slaughtered. Before road transport, dietary CA supplementation promoted a descent of circulating white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration when compared with Groups CON and VitE (p < 0.05), but it did not affect production of cytokines by blood mononuclear cells. Road transport did not affect either RBC or haematocrit significantly. Nevertheless, transport affected leucocyte profile similarly in all the treatments, increasing granulocytes and monocytes proportions and decreasing lymphocytes. In contrast, after transport, WBC was increased in Group CARN, reaching similar values than Groups CON and VitE. However, under conditions of the present study, those modifications did not influence animal performance or immunity parameters of artificially reared suckling lambs.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Rosmarinus/química , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Carneiro Doméstico/sangue , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
BMC Genomics ; 17(1): 746, 2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27654331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences between cattle production systems can influence the nutritional and sensory characteristics of beef, in particular its fatty acid (FA) composition. As beef products derived from pasture-based systems can demand a higher premium from consumers, there is a need to understand the biological characteristics of pasture produced meat and subsequently to develop methods of authentication for these products. Here, we describe an approach to authentication that focuses on differences in the transcriptomic profile of muscle from animals finished in different systems of production of practical relevance to the Irish beef industry. The objectives of this study were to identify a panel of differentially expressed (DE) genes/networks in the muscle of cattle raised outdoors on pasture compared to animals raised indoors on a concentrate based diet and to subsequently identify an optimum panel which can classify the meat based on a production system. RESULTS: A comparison of the muscle transcriptome of outdoor/pasture-fed and Indoor/concentrate-fed cattle resulted in the identification of 26 DE genes. Functional analysis of these genes identified two significant networks (1: Energy Production, Lipid Metabolism, Small Molecule Biochemistry; and 2: Lipid Metabolism, Molecular Transport, Small Molecule Biochemistry), both of which are involved in FA metabolism. The expression of selected up-regulated genes in the outdoor/pasture-fed animals correlated positively with the total n-3 FA content of the muscle. The pathway and network analysis of the DE genes indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and FYN/AMPK could be implicit in the regulation of these alterations to the lipid profile. In terms of authentication, the expression profile of three DE genes (ALAD, EIF4EBP1 and NPNT) could almost completely separate the samples based on production system (95 % authentication for animals on pasture-based and 100 % for animals on concentrate- based diet) in this context. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of DE genes between muscle of the outdoor/pasture-fed and concentrate-fed cattle were related to lipid metabolism and in particular ß-oxidation. In this experiment the combined expression profiles of ALAD, EIF4EBP1 and NPNT were optimal in classifying the muscle transcriptome based on production system. Given the overall lack of comparable studies and variable concordance with those that do exist, the use of transcriptomic data in authenticating production systems requires more exploration across a range of contexts and breeds.

14.
Meat Sci ; 122: 90-96, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27501233

RESUMO

Eating quality of the same meat samples from different animal types cooked at two end-point cooking temperatures (55°C and 74°C) was evaluated by trained panels in France and the United Kingdom. Tenderness and juiciness scores were greater at 55°C than at 74°C, irrespective of the animal type and location of the panel. The UK panel, independently of animal type, gave greater scores for beef flavour (+7 to +24%, P<0.001) but lower scores for abnormal flavour (-10 to -17%, P<0.001) at 74°C. Abnormal flavour score by the French panel was higher at 74°C than at 55°C (+26%, P<0.001). Irrespective of the data set, tenderness was correlated with juiciness and beef flavour. Overall, this study found that cooking beef at a lower temperature increased tenderness and juiciness, irrespective of the location of the panel. In contrast, cooking beef at higher temperatures increased beef flavour and decreased abnormal flavour for the UK panelists but increased abnormal flavour for the French panel.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , França , Humanos , Masculino , Sensação , Paladar , Temperatura Ambiente , Reino Unido
15.
Meat Sci ; 97(3): 384-94, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24697921

RESUMO

This paper focuses on dietary approaches to control intramuscular fat deposition to increase beneficial omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid content and reduce saturated fatty acids in beef. Beef lipid trans-fatty acids are considered, along with relationships between lipids in beef and colour shelf-life and sensory attributes. Ruminal lipolysis and biohydrogenation limit the ability to improve beef lipids. Feeding omega-3 rich forage increases linolenic acid and long-chain PUFA in beef lipids, an effect increased by ruminally-protecting lipids, but consequently may alter flavour characteristics and shelf-life. Antioxidants, particularly α-tocopherol, stabilise high concentrations of muscle PUFA. Currently, the concentration of long-chain omega-3 PUFA in beef from cattle fed non-ruminally-protected lipids falls below the limit considered by some authorities to be labelled a source of omega-3 PUFA. The mechanisms regulating fatty acid isomer distribution in bovine tissues remain unclear. Further enhancement of beef lipids requires greater understanding of ruminal biohydrogenation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Carne/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Animais , Bovinos , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Humanos , Carne/normas , Rúmen
16.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 28(9): 1011-8, 2014 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24677522

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Isotope ratio analysis of bovine tissues is a tool for inferring aspects of the dietary history of cattle. The objective of this experiment was to quantify the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopic turnover in blood (serum and residue) and inner organs (liver, kidney, heart and brain) of beef cattle. METHODS: Growing beef cattle (n = 70 in total) were either switched from a control diet containing barley and urea to an experimental diet containing maize and (15)N-enriched urea, for various intervals prior to slaughter or maintained on the control diet for 168 days pre-slaughter. Samples of blood, liver, kidney, heart and brain were collected at 0, 14, 28, 56, 112 and 168 days and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. RESULTS: After 168 days, C- and N-isotopic equilibrium was reached in the blood serum, liver and kidney, approached in the heart and brain, but not reached in the non-serum component of blood. The estimated C and N half-lives were 16.5 and 20.7 days for liver, 19.2 and 25.5 days for kidney, 29.2 and 35.6 days for blood serum, 37.6 and 49.9 days for heart, 53.3 and 52.2 days for brain and 113.3 and 115.0 days for the non-serum blood residue, respectively. Modelling the C and N turnover in the different tissue combinations revealed that a combined analysis of liver and heart as well as brain and kidney can provide the most accurate estimation of the timing of the diet switch. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the difference in turnover rates, bovine soft tissues can provide isotopic information on short- and long-term dietary changes, which in turn may be linked to the geographic or production origin of beef cattle. This study also provides basic biological data on organ C and N turnover in a large herbivorous mammal.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Química Encefálica , Isótopos de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Isótopos de Carbono/sangue , Bovinos , Rim/química , Fígado/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/sangue , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Metallomics ; 5(11): 1470-82, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23963064

RESUMO

We report Cu, Fe, and Zn natural isotope compositions in organs, body fluids, diets and feces of mice and sheep. Large and systematic isotope variability is observed, notably in the δ(66)Zn in liver and δ(65)Cu in kidneys, but significant differences exist between mice, sheep and humans, especially in the δ(66)Zn value of blood. The results are interpreted with reference to current knowledge of metal trafficking and redox conditions in cells. In general, the light isotopes preferentially fractionate into 'softer' bonds involving sulfur such as cysteine and glutathione, whereas heavy isotopes fractionate into 'harder' bonds involving nitrogen (histidine) and even more oxygen, notably hydroxides, phosphates, and carbonates. Bonds involving the reduced forms Cu(+) and Fe(2+) are enriched in the light isotopes relative to bonds involving the oxidized Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) forms. Differences in blood Zn isotope abundances between mice, sheep and humans may reflect a different prevalence of Zn ZIP transporters. The isotopically heavy Cu in the kidneys may reflect isotope fractionation during redox processes and may be relevant to ascorbate degradation into oxalate.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Isótopos/análise , Isótopos de Zinco/análise , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Ovinos
18.
Food Chem ; 141(3): 2795-801, 2013 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23871026

RESUMO

This work aimed to identify a combination of isotopic and molecular biomarkers in bovine muscle and adipose tissue for authentication of the diet of beef cattle. Muscle and adipose tissue samples were collected from animals one of four dietary treatments fed over a 1 year period : pasture (P), barley-based concentrate (C), silage followed by pasture (SiP) or silage followed by pasture with concentrate (SiPC). In total, 83 variables were studied including volatile compounds, colour and reflectance measurements, stable isotope ratios, fatty acids, ß-carotene, lutein and α-tocopherol. Chemometric models were created for each dietary treatment using the entire and an attenuated variable set. Meat from each dietary treatment was identified with a high level of accuracy (correct classification between 90.8% and 100%) using a discriminant approach. After elimination of insignificant variables, accuracy was maintained or marginally improved. SIMCA class-modelling performed moderately well, especially with the reduced variable set (76.1-100% correct classification).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Tecido Adiposo/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dieta , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Teóricos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
19.
J Nutr Biochem ; 24(2): 401-11, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22626767

RESUMO

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found naturally in meat and dairy products, and represents a potential therapeutic functional nutrient. However, given the discrepancies in isomer composition and concentration, controversy surrounds its proposed antidiabetic, antiobesity effects. This study focused on the effects of CLA-enriched beef (composed predominantly of c9, t11-CLA) in two separate models of metabolic disease: proatherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice and diabetic, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Animals were fed CLA-enriched beef for 28 days, and markers of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis were assessed. Comprehensive hepatic transcriptomic analysis was completed to understand divergent metabolic effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol and increased adiponectin levels in ob/ob mice. In contrast, plasma lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis deteriorated and promoted atherosclerosis following the CLA-enriched beef diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. Hepatic transcriptomic profiling revealed divergent effects of CLA-enriched beef on insulin signaling and lipogenic pathways, which were adversely affected in ApoE(-/-) mice. This study demonstrated clear divergence in the effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef improved metabolic flexibility in ob/ob mice, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, CLA-enriched diet increased expression of lipogenic genes, resulting in inefficient fatty acid storage which increases lipotoxicity in peripheral organs, and led to profound metabolic dysfunction in ApoE(-/-) mice. While CLA may have potential health effects, in some circumstances, caution must be exercised in presenting this bioactive lipid as a potential functional food for the treatment of metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Bovinos , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos
20.
Proteomics ; 12(3): 461-76, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22144173

RESUMO

cis-9, trans-11-Conjugated linoleic acid (c9 t11 CLA) exerts anti-diabetic effects by improving systemic insulin sensitivity and inflammation. Levels of CLA in beef can be increased by feeding cattle on pasture. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of a CLA-rich diet (0.6% w/w c9 t11 CLA), presented as beef enriched with CLA or beef supplemented with synthetic CLA (c9 t11 CLA), for 28 days on molecular biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome, and adipose, hepatic, and skeletal muscle proteome in male ob/ob mice. Despite equal weight gain, CLA-fed mice had lower plasma glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid, triacylglycerol and interleukin-6, and higher adiponectin concentrations than controls. c9 t11 CLA induced differential regulation of redox status across all tissues, and decreased hepatic and muscle endoplasmic reticulum stress. CLA also modulated mechanistic links between the actin cytoskeleton, insulin signalling, glucose transport and inflammation in the adipose tissue. In the liver and muscle, c9 t11 CLA improved metabolic flexibility through co-ordination between carbohydrate and energy metabolism. c9 t11 CLA may ameliorate systemic insulin sensitivity in obesity-induced diabetes by altering cellular stress and redox status, and modulating nutrient handling in key insulin-sensitive tissues through complex biochemical interplay among representative proteomic signatures.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-6/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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