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1.
Cancer Sci ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065483

RESUMO

The application of advanced molecular technology has significantly expanded lymphoma classification, allowing risk stratification and treatment optimization. Limited evidence suggests the presence of a genetic predisposition in lymphoma, indicating the potential for better individualized clinical management based on a novel lymphoma classification. Herein, we examined the impact of germline pathogenic variants in 27 cancer-predisposing genes with lymphoma risk and explored the clinical characteristics of pathogenic variant carriers. This study included 2,066 lymphoma patients and 38,153 cancer-free controls from the Japanese population. Following quality control of sequencing data, samples from 1,982 lymphoma patients and 37,592 controls were further analyzed. We identified 309 pathogenic variants among 4,850 variants in the 27 cancer-predisposing genes. Pathogenic variants in the following four cancer-predisposing genes were associated with a high risk of lymphoma: ATM (odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-5.51; p = 1.06 × 10-2 ), BRCA1 (OR, 5.88; 95% CI, 2.65-13.02; p = 1.27 × 10-5 ), BRCA2 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.60-5.42; p = 5.25 × 10-4 ), and TP53 (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 1.43-19.02; p = 1.23 × 10-2 ). The proportion of carriers of these genes was 1.6% of lymphoma patients. Furthermore, pathogenic variants in these genes were especially associated with a higher risk of mantle cell lymphoma (OR, 21.57; 95% CI, 7.59-61.26; p = 8.07 × 10-9 ). These results provide novel insights concerning monogenic form into lymphoma classification. Some lymphoma patients may benefit from surveillance and targeted treatment, such as other neoplasms.

2.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093724

RESUMO

Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma is a rare cancer that has been associated with mismatch repair genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. In addition, patients with pathogenic variants of cancer-predisposing genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported. However, how cancer-predisposing genes affect the risk of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma in the Japanese population remains unclear. Thus, we performed a case-control sequencing study of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 208 upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma patients and 37 727 controls. Only MSH6 and MSH2 were observed with a value of P < 0.05. However, there was no difference in the prevalence of pathogenic variants of BRCA1/2, which does not support the use of a poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibitor in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Only mismatch repair genes were associated with patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, but the prevalence of pathogenic variants in mismatch repair genes was lower than that reported in previous studies from other populations.

3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A meta-analysis suggests a relationship between abnormal glucose metabolism and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG); however, the causal association between them remains controversial. We therefore conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to assess the causal association between genetically predicted glycemic traits and the risk of POAG. DESIGN: Two-sample MR design. METHODS: We examined the genetically predicted measures of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and fasting C-peptide, in relation to POAG. For the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-exposure analyses, we meta-analyzed the study-level genome-wide associations of fasting glucose levels (n=17,289; n of SNPs=34), HbA1c (n=52,802; n of SNPs=43), and fasting C-peptide levels (n=1,666; n of SNPs=17) from the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies. We used summary statistics from the BioBank Japan projects (n=3,980 POAG cases and 18,815 controls) for the SNP-outcome association. RESULTS: We observed no association of genetically predicted HbA1c and fasting C-peptide with POAG. The MR inverse-variance weighted (IVW) odds ratios (ORs) were 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-2.65; P=0.25) for HbA1c (per 1 % increment) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.56-1.53; P=0.76) for fasting C-peptide (per two-fold increment). A significant association between fasting glucose (per 10 mg/dL increment) and POAG was observed according to the MR IVW analysis (OR=1.48 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79, P=0.009]); however, sensitivity analyses, including MR-Egger and weighted-median methods, did not support this association (P>0.10). CONCLUSIONS: We did not provide strong evidence to support the association between genetically predicted glycemic traits and POAG in the Japanese population.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(37): e30580, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123890

RESUMO

Genetic factors play a role in individual differences in pain experience. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel loci regulating pain processing. We conducted a 2-stage GWAS and the candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association study on pain experience using an exploratory cohort of patients with cancer pain. The confirmatory cohort comprised of participants from the general population with and without habitual use of analgesic medication. In the exploratory cohort, we evaluated pain intensity using a numerical rating scale, recorded daily opioid dosages, and calculated pain reduction rate. In the confirmatory cohort, pain experience was defined as habitual nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage. Using linear regression models, we identified candidate SNP in the exploratory samples, and tested the association between phenotype and experienced pain in the confirmatory samples. We found 1 novel SNP (rs11764598)-located on the gene encoding for pleiotrophin on chromosome 7-that passed the genome-wide suggestive significance at 20% false discovery rate (FDR) correction in the exploratory samples of patients with cancer pain (P = 1.31 × 10-7, FDR = 0.101). We confirmed its significant association with daily analgesic usage in the confirmatory cohort (P = .028), although the minor allele affected pain experience in an opposite manner. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with pain experience. Further studies are required to validate the role of pleiotrophin in pain processing.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas , Humanos , Japão , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040498

RESUMO

The associations between blood lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and colorectal cancer risk are controversial. We evaluated potential causal relationships between blood lipids and colorectal cancer risk. Using the baseline data from the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies, we estimated the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-exposure associations (n=34,546 for TC, n=50,290 for HDL-C, n=51,307 for triglycerides, and n=30,305 for LDL-C). We also estimated the SNP-outcome associations in another Japanese dataset (n=7,936 colorectal cancer cases and n=38,042 controls). We conducted Mendelian randomization analyses for the association between each blood lipid type and the risk of colorectal cancer using an inverse variance-weighted method. The total variances explained by the selected SNPs in TC (68 SNPs), HDL-C (50 SNPs), log-transformed triglycerides (26 SNPs), and LDL-C (35 SNPs) were 7.0%, 10.0%, 6.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. The odds ratios for colorectal cancer were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.32) per 1 standard deviation (SD) (33.3 mg/dL) increase in TC, 1.11 (0.98-1.26) per 1 SD (15.4 mg/dL) increase in HDL-C, 1.06 (0.90-1.26) per 1 SD (0.5 log-mg/dL) increase in log-transformed triglycerides, and 1.17 (0.91-1.50) per 1 SD (29.6 mg/dL) increase in LDL-C. Sensitivity analyses consistently suggested the positive association between TC and colorectal cancer, whereas results of each lipid component were inconsistent. In conclusion, this large Mendelian randomization study of a Japanese population showed a potentially causal association between high TC and colorectal cancer risk, although the association between each lipid component and colorectal cancer remained inconclusive.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of germline variants in homologous recombination repair genes in advanced prostate cancer (PCa), especially with regard to hormonal therapy, remains controversial. METHODS: Germline DNA from 549 Japanese men with metastatic and/or castration-resistant PCa was sequenced for 27 cancer-predisposing genes. The associations between pathogenic variants and clinical outcomes were examined. Further, for comparison, DNA from prostate biopsy tissue samples from 80 independent patients with metastatic PCa were analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four (8%) patients carried germline pathogenic variants in one of the analysed genes. BRCA2 was most frequently altered (n = 19), followed by HOXB13 (n = 9), PALB2 (n = 5) and ATM (n = 5). Further, the BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and ATM variants showed significant association with a short time to castration resistance and overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.99 and 2.36; 95% CI, 1.15-3.44 and 1.23-4.51, respectively), independent of other clinical variables. Based on log-rank tests, the time to castration resistance was also significantly short in patients with BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 or ATM somatic mutations and TP53 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: Germline variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 or ATM are independent prognostic factors of the short duration of response to hormonal therapy in advanced PCa.

8.
J Med Genet ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710107

RESUMO

Despite the successful identification of causative genes and genetic variants of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), many patients have not been molecularly diagnosed. Our recent study using targeted short-read sequencing showed that the proportion of carriers of pathogenic variants in EYS, the cause of autosomal recessive RP, was unexpectedly high in Japanese patients with unsolved RP. This result suggested that causative genetic variants, which are difficult to detect by short-read sequencing, exist in such patients. Using long-read sequencing technology (Oxford Nanopore), we analysed the whole genomes of 15 patients with RP with one heterozygous pathogenic variant in EYS detected in our previous study along with structural variants (SVs) in EYS and another 88 RP-associated genes. Two large exon-overlapping deletions involving six exons were identified in EYS in two patients with unsolved RP. An analysis of an independent patient set (n=1189) suggested that these two deletions are not founder mutations. Our results suggest that searching for SVs by long-read sequencing in genetically unsolved cases benefits the molecular diagnosis of RP.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(12): 1962-1969, 2022 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35764097

RESUMO

Identifying causative genes via genetic testing is useful for screening, preventing and treating cancer. Several hereditary syndromes occur in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the evidence is from the European population; it remains unclear how the RCC-related genes and other cancer-predisposing genes contribute to RCC development in the Japanese population. A case-control study of 14 RCC-related genes and 26 cancer-predisposing genes was performed in 1563 Japanese patients with RCC and 6016 controls. The patients were stratified into clear cell RCC (ccRCC) or non-ccRCC (nccRCC). Gene-based analysis of germline pathogenic variants in patients with each subtype and cancer-free subjects was performed. Following quality control, 1532 patients with RCC and 5996 controls were analyzed. For ccRCC, 52 of 1283 (4.05%) patients carried pathogenic variants mainly in the cancer-predisposing genes such as TP53 (P = 1.73 × 10-4; OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 2.2-15.7). Approximately 80% of patients with pathogenic variants in TP53 had p.Ala189Val that was specific in East Asian population. For nccRCC, 14 of 249 (5.62%) patients carried pathogenic variants mainly in the RCC-related genes such as BAP1 and FH (P = 6.27 × 10-5; OR, Inf; 95% CI, 10.0-Inf). The patients with the pathogenic variants in the associated genes were diagnosed 15.8 years earlier and had a higher proportion of patients with a family history of RCC (OR, 20.0; 95% CI, 1.3-237.4) than the non-carriers. We showed different and population-specific contributions of risk genes between ccRCC and nccRCC in Japanese for improved personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Japão , Neoplasias Renais/genética
10.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 15(4): e003612, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cardiovascular traits have been developed in European populations, it is an urgent task to construct a PRS and to evaluate its ability in non-European populations. We developed a genome-wide PRS for blood pressure in a Japanese population and examined the associations between this PRS and hypertension prevalence. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in 11 252 Japanese individuals who participated in the J-MICC (Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort) study. Using publicly available GWAS summary statistics from Biobank Japan, we developed the PRS in the target data (n=7876). With >30 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we evaluated PRS performance in the test data (n=3376). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or more, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mm Hg or more, or taking an antihypertensive drug. RESULTS: Compared with the middle PRS quintile, the prevalence of hypertension at the top PRS quintile was higher independently from traditional risk factors (odds ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.32-2.27]). The difference of mean systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure between the middle and the top PRS quintile was 4.55 (95% CI, 2.26-6.85) and 2.32 (95% CI, 0.86-3.78) mm Hg, respectively. Subgroups reflecting combinations of Japanese PRS and modifiable lifestyles and factors (smoking, alcohol intake, sedentary time, and obesity) were associated with the prevalence of hypertension. A European-derived PRS was not associated with hypertension in our participants. CONCLUSIONS: A PRS for blood pressure was significantly associated with hypertension and BP traits in a general Japanese population. Our findings also highlighted the importance of a combination of PRS and risk factors for identifying high-risk subgroups.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Herança Multifatorial , Estudos Transversais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Blood Adv ; 6(14): 4137-4146, 2022 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533259

RESUMO

Heparin, a widely used anticoagulant, carries the risk of an antibody-mediated adverse drug reaction, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). A subset of heparin-treated patients produces detectable levels of antibodies against complexes of heparin bound to circulating platelet factor 4 (PF4). Using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with anti-PF4/heparin antibodies that account for the variable antibody response seen in HIT. We performed a GWAS on anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels determined via polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Our discovery cohort (n = 4237) and replication cohort (n = 807) constituted patients with European ancestry and clinical suspicion of HIT, with cases confirmed via functional assay. Genome-wide significance was considered at α = 5 × 10-8. No variants were significantly associated with anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels in the discovery cohort at a genome-wide significant level. Secondary GWAS analyses included the identification of variants with suggestive associations in the discovery cohort (α = 1 × 10-4). The top variant in both cohorts was rs1555175145 (discovery ß = -0.112 [0.018], P = 2.50 × 10-5; replication ß = -0.104 [0.051], P = .041). In gene set enrichment analysis, 3 gene sets reached false discovery rate-adjusted significance (q < 0.05) in both discovery and replication cohorts: "Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration," "Innate Immune Response," and "Lyase Activity." Our results indicate that genomic variation is not significantly associated with anti-PF4/heparin antibody levels. Given our power to identify variants with moderate frequencies and effect sizes, this evidence suggests genetic variation is not a primary driver of variable antibody response in heparin-treated patients with European ancestry.


Assuntos
Fator Plaquetário 4 , Trombocitopenia , Anticorpos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fator Plaquetário 4/genética , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/genética
12.
Blood ; 140(3): 274-284, 2022 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377938

RESUMO

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an unpredictable, potentially catastrophic adverse effect resulting from an immune response to platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin complexes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with positive functional assay as the outcome in a large discovery cohort of patients divided into 3 groups: (1) functional assay-positive cases (n = 1269), (2) antibody-positive (functional assay-negative) controls (n = 1131), and (3) antibody-negative controls (n = 1766). Significant associations (α = 5 × 10-8) were investigated in a replication cohort (α = 0.05) of functional assay-confirmed HIT cases (n = 177), antibody-positive (function assay-negative) controls (n = 258), and antibody-negative controls (n = 351). We observed a strong association for positive functional assay with increasing PF4/heparin immunoglobulin-G (IgG) level (odds ratio [OR], 16.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.83-19.74; P = 1.51 × 10-209) and female sex (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32; P = .034). The rs8176719 C insertion variant in ABO was significantly associated with positive functional assay status in the discovery cohort (frequency = 0.41; OR, 0.751; 95% CI, 0.682-0.828; P = 7.80 × 10-9) and in the replication cohort (OR, 0.467; 95% CI, 0.228-0.954; P = .0367). The rs8176719 C insertion, which encodes all non-O blood group alleles, had a protective effect, indicating that the rs8176719 C deletion and the O blood group were risk factors for HIT (O blood group OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.26-1.61; P = 3.09 × 10-8). Meta-analyses indicated that the ABO association was independent of PF4/heparin IgG levels and was stronger when functional assay-positive cases were compared with antibody-positive (functional assay-negative) controls than with antibody-negative controls. Sequencing and fine-mapping of ABO demonstrated that rs8176719 was the causal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Our results clarify the biology underlying HIT pathogenesis with ramifications for prediction and may have important implications for related conditions, such as vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Trombocitopenia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Masculino , Fator Plaquetário 4/genética , Fatores de Risco , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/genética
13.
Cell Genom ; 2(3)2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373174

RESUMO

More than 40% of the germline variants in ClinVar today are variants of uncertain significance (VUSs). These variants remain unclassified in part because the patient-level data needed for their interpretation is siloed. Federated analysis can overcome this problem by "bringing the code to the data": analyzing the sensitive patient-level data computationally within its secure home institution and providing researchers with valuable insights from data that would not otherwise be accessible. We tested this principle with a federated analysis of breast cancer clinical data at RIKEN, derived from the BioBank Japan repository. We were able to analyze these data within RIKEN's secure computational framework without the need to transfer the data, gathering evidence for the interpretation of several variants. This exercise represents an approach to help realize the core charter of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH): to responsibly share genomic data for the benefit of human health.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(6): 871-878, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420638

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical importance of genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast, ovarian, prostate, and pancreatic cancers is widely recognized. However, there is insufficient evidence to include other cancer types that are potentially associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 in clinical management guidelines. Objective: To evaluate the association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants with additional cancer types and their clinical characteristics in 100 914 individuals across 14 cancer types. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control analysis to identify cancer types and clinical characteristics associated with pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 included DNA samples and clinical information from 63 828 patients with 14 common cancer types and 37 086 controls that were sourced from a multi-institutional hospital-based registry, BioBank Japan, between April 2003 and March 2018. The data were analyzed between August 2019 and October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Germline pathogenic variants in coding regions and 2 bp flanking intronic sequences in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were identified by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based target sequence method. Associations of (likely) pathogenic variants with each cancer type were assessed by comparing pathogenic variant carrier frequency between patients in each cancer type and controls. Results: A total of 65 108 patients (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 64.1 [11.6] years; 27 531 [42.3%] female) and 38 153 controls (mean [SD] age at registration, 61.8 [14.6] years; 17 911 [46.9%] female) were included in this study. A total of 315 unique pathogenic variants were identified. Pathogenic variants were associated with P < 1 × 10-4 with an odds ratio (OR) of greater than 4.0 in biliary tract cancer (OR, 17.4; 95% CI, 5.8-51.9) in BRCA1, esophageal cancer (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.9-11.0) in BRCA2, and gastric cancer (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.6-10.5) in BRCA1, and (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.1-7.1) in BRCA2 in addition to the 4 established cancer types. We also observed an association with 2 and 4 other cancer types in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Biliary tract, female breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers showed enrichment of carrier patients according to the increased number of reported cancer types in relatives. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this large-scale registry-based case-control study suggest that pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with the risk of 7 cancer types. These results indicate broader clinical relevance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Neoplasias , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética
16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 114, 2022 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous genetic loci contribute to hereditary hearing loss; more than 100 deafness genes have been identified, and the number is increasing. To detect pathogenic variants in multiple deafness genes, in addition to novel candidate genes associated with hearing loss, whole exome sequencing (WES), followed by analysis prioritizing genes categorized in four tiers, were applied. RESULTS: Trios from families with non-syndromic or syndromic hearing loss (n = 72) were subjected to WES. After segregation analysis and interpretation according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines, candidate pathogenic variants in 11 previously reported deafness genes (STRC, MYO15A, CDH23, PDZD7, PTPN11, SOX10, EYA1, MYO6, OTOF, OTOG, and ZNF335) were identified in 21 families. Discrepancy between pedigree inheritance and genetic inheritance was present in one family. In addition, eight genes (SLC12A2, BAIAP2L2, HKDC1, SVEP1, CACNG1, GTPBP4, PCNX2, and TBC1D8) were screened as single candidate genes in 10 families. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that four-tier assessment of WES data is efficient and can detect novel candidate genes associated with hearing loss, in addition to pathogenic variants of known deafness genes.


Assuntos
Surdez , Perda Auditiva , Surdez/genética , Surdez/patologia , Exoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Japão , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Linhagem , Membro 2 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Cancer Sci ; 113(5): 1821-1829, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238112

RESUMO

Environmental and genetic factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, which is likely to follow a multistep process that includes intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The pathogenesis of familial pancreatic cancer has been reported; however, epidemiological characteristics and causative genes remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the family history of pancreatic cancer and tumor malignancy and identify novel susceptible germline variants of pancreatic cancer. We performed an epidemiologic study at our institute on a cohort of 668 patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and 242 with pancreatic cancer but without associated intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm stratified by family history of pancreatic cancer. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for 10 patients from seven families with familial pancreatic cancer and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. We found that patients who had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with positive family history of pancreatic cancer within first-degree relatives were more likely to develop malignancy in a shorter period than those without family history. Duplicate frameshift variants in TET2 c.3180dupG (p.Pro1061fs) and ASXL1 c.1934dupG (p.Gly646fs) in one family and POLN c.1194dupT (p.Glu399fs) in another were identified as pathogenic truncating germline variants which were previously recognised susceptibility genes. Moreover, PDIA2 c.1403C>T (p.Pro468Leu) and DPYSL4 c.926C>A (p.Pro309Gln) were shared in four and two patients, respectively. In particular, PDIA2 was identified as a novel candidate for one of the deleterious variants of familial pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
18.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(8): 1103-1110, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) are useful for weight reduction, and 50-55% carbohydrate consumption is associated with minimal risk. Genetic differences were related to nutritional consumption, food preferences, and dietary patterns, but whether particular genetic differences in individuals influence LCD adherence is unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We conducted a GWAS on adherence to LCD utilizing 14,076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a previously validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food consumption. Association of the imputed variants with the LCD score by Halton et al. we used linear regression analysis adjusting for sex, age, total dietary energy consumption, and components 1 to 10 by principal component analysis. We repeated the analysis with adjustment for alcohol consumption (g/day) in addition to the above-described variables. RESULTS: Men and women combined analysis without adjustment for alcohol consumption; we found 395 variants on chromosome 12 associated with the LCD score having P values <5 × 10-8. A conditional analysis with the addition of the dosage data of rs671 on chromosome 12 as a covariate, P values for all 395 SNPs on chromosome 12 turned out to be insignificant. In the analysis with additional adjustment for alcohol consumption, we did not identify any SNPs associated with the LCD score. CONCLUSION: We found rs671 was inversely associated with adherence to LCD, but that was strongly confounded by alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Risco
19.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(1)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118230

RESUMO

Background: Multiple common variants and also rare variants in monogenic risk genes such as BRCA2 and HOXB13 have been reported to be associated with risk of prostate cancer (PCa); however, the clinical setting in which germline genetic testing could be used for PCa diagnosis remains obscure. Herein, we tested the clinical utility of a 16 common variant-based polygenic risk score (PRS) that has been developed previously for Japanese men and also evaluated the frequency of PCa-associated rare variants in a prospective cohort of Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy. Methods: A total of 1336 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy were included. PRS was calculated based on the genotype of 16 common variants, and sequencing of 8 prostate cancer-associated genes was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction based target sequencing. PRS was combined with clinical factors in logistic regression models to assess whether addition of PRS improves the prediction of biopsy positivity. Results: The top PRS decile was associated with an odds ratio of 4.10 (95% confidence interval = 2.46 to 6.86) with reference to the patients at average risk, and the estimated lifetime absolute risk approached 20%. Among the patients with prostate specific antigen 2-10 ng/mL who had prebiopsy magnetic resonance imaging, high PRS had an equivalent impact on biopsy positivity as a positive magnetic resonance imaging finding. Rare variants were detected in 19 (2.37%) and 7 (1.31%) patients with positive and negative biopsies, respectively, with BRCA2 variants being the most prevalent. There was no association between PRS and high-risk rare variants. Conclusions: Germline genetic testing could be clinically useful in both pre- and post-PSA screening settings.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Biópsia por Agulha/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalos de Confiança , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
20.
J Hum Genet ; 67(3): 149-156, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671089

RESUMO

No genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were reported for colorectal polyps and the overlap in polygenic backgrounds conferring risk of colorectal cancer and polyps remains unclear. We performed GWAS on subjects with colorectal polyps using the BioBank Japan data with 4447 cases and 157,226 controls. We evaluated genetic correlations between colorectal polyps and cancer, and effects on colorectal polyps of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with colorectal cancer. We identified CUX2, a known genetic locus to colorectal cancer, as a susceptibility locus to colorectal polyps (p value = 1.1 × 10-15). Subsequent fine-mapping analysis indicated that rs11065828 in CUX2 is the causal variant for colorectal polyps. We found that known colorectal cancer-susceptible SNPs were also associated with colorectal polyps. The genetic correlation between colorectal cancer and polyps is very high (r = 0.98 and p value = 0.0006). We additionally identified 14 significant loci of colorectal polyps and three significant loci of colorectal cancer by applying the multi-trait analysis of GWAS of colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps. We showed very similar germline polygenic features, which gives us the additional insight into potential cancers at polygenic levels for patients with polyps who are followed up at outpatients' clinic; thus, close observation and polypectomy is critical to prevent colorectal cancers.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Pólipos do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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