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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and replicate, using data-driven methods, a novel classification system in Takayasu's arteritis based on distribution of arterial lesions. METHODS: Patients were included from four international cohorts at major academic centres: India (Christian Medical College Vellore); North America (National Institutes of Health, Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium and Cleveland Clinic Foundation). All patients underwent whole-body angiography of the aorta and branch vessels, with categorization of arterial damage (stenosis, occlusion or aneurysm) in 13 territories. K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify subgroups of patients based on pattern of angiographic involvement. Cluster groups were identified in the Indian cohort and independently replicated in the North American cohorts. RESULTS: A total of 806 patients with Takayasu's arteritis from India (n = 581) and North America (n = 225) were included. Three distinct clusters defined by arterial damage were identified in the Indian cohort and replicated in each of the North American cohorts. Patients in cluster one had significantly more disease in the abdominal aorta, renal and mesenteric arteries (P < 0.01). Patients in cluster two had significantly more bilateral disease in the carotid and subclavian arteries (P < 0.01). Compared with clusters one and two, patients in cluster three had asymmetric disease with fewer involved territories (P < 0.01). Demographics, clinical symptoms and clinical outcomes differed by cluster. CONCLUSION: This large study in Takayasu's arteritis identified and replicated three novel subsets of patients based on patterns of arterial damage. Angiographic-based disease classification requires validation by demonstrating potential aetiological or prognostic implications.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated potential circulating biomarkers of disease activity in giant cell arteritis (GCA), Takayasu's arteritis (TAK), polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss). METHODS: A panel of 22 serum proteins was tested in patients enrolled in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Longitudinal Studies of GCA, TAK, PAN, or EGPA. Mixed models were used for most analyses. A J48 classification tree method was used to find the most relevant markers to differentiate between active and inactive GCA. RESULTS: 418 samples from 152 patients (60 GCA, 29 TAK, 26 PAN, 37 EGPA), during both active vasculitis and remission, were tested. In GCA, BCA-1/CXCL13, ESR, IP-10/CXCL10, sIL-2Rα, and TIMP-1 showed significant (P<0.05) differences between disease states. In EGPA, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, and sIL-2Rα showed significant increases during active disease, as did BCA-1/CXCL13 but only after adjustment for treatment. In PAN, ESR and MMP-3 showed significant differences between disease states. Differences in biomarker levels between diseases were significant for 11 markers and were more striking (all P<0.01) than differences related to disease activity. A combination of lower values of TIMP-1, IL-6, INFÉ£, and MMP-3 correctly classified 87% of samples with inactive GCA. CONCLUSION: We identified novel biomarkers of disease activity in GCA and EGPA. Differences of biomarker levels between diseases, independent of disease activity, were more apparent than differences related to disease activity. Further studies are needed to determine whether these serum proteins have potential for clinical use in distinguishing active disease from remission or in predicting longer-term outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate, using computer-driven methods, patterns of arterial disease in Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) and giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: Patients with TAK or GCA were studied from the Diagnostic and Classification Criteria for Vasculitis (DCVAS) cohort and a combined North American (NA) cohort. Case inclusion required evidence of large-vessel involvement, defined as stenosis, occlusion, or aneurysm by angiography/ultrasonography, or increased FDG uptake by positron-emission tomography (PET) in at least one of 11 specified arterial territories. K-means cluster analysis identified groups of patients based on pattern of arterial involvement. Cluster groups were identified in the DCVAS cohort and independently validated in the NA cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1,068 patients were included (DCVAS: TAK=461, GCA=217; NA: TAK=225, GCA=165). Six distinct clusters of patients were identified in DCVAS and validated in the NA cohort. Patients with TAK were more likely to have disease in the abdominal vasculature, bilateral disease of the subclavian and carotid arteries, or focal disease limited to the left subclavian artery than GCA (p<0.01). Patients with GCA were more likely to have diffuse disease, involvement of bilateral axillary/subclavian arteries, or minimal disease without a definable pattern than TAK (p<0.01). Patients with TAK were more likely to have damage by angiography, and patients with GCA were more likely to have arterial FDG-uptake by PET without associated vascular damage. CONCLUSION: Arterial patterns of disease highlight both shared and divergent vascular patterns between TAK and GCA and should be incorporated into classification criteria for large-vessel vasculitis.

4.
J Autoimmun ; : 102302, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum IL-6 (sIL-6) levels during active disease, complete remission (CR), and relapse in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), and to explore the association of changes in sIL-6 with clinical outcomes. METHODS: sIL-6 levels were measured at baseline and longitudinally over 18 months, in 78 patients with AAV enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with either rituximab (RTX) or cyclophosphamide (CYC)/azathioprine (AZA). Outcome variables included baseline clinical features, ANCA specificity, disease activity (active disease versus CR), time to relapse events, B cell repopulation, and ANCA titer increases. RESULTS: At baseline, sIL6 levels were detectable in 81% of patients; 73% (n = 57) of subjects were proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA positive, sIL-6 levels were higher in subjects with PR3-ANCAs and positively correlated with their levels (rs = 0.36,p < 0.01), but not with levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA (rs = -0.17,p = 0.47). Higher baseline sIL-6 levels were associated with PR3-ANCA positivity, fever, pulmonary nodules/cavities, conductive deafness, and absence of urinary red blood cell casts (p < 0.05). Baseline sIL6 levels did not predict CR at month 6 (p = 0.71), and the median sIL-6 level declined from baseline with induction therapy, regardless of CR achievement. An increase in sIL-6 during CR was a predictor for subsequent severe relapse in RTX-treated patients (hazard ratio (HR):7.24,p = 0.01), but not in CYC/AZA-treated patients (HR:0.62,p = 0.50). In contrast, a sIL-6 increase did not predict B cell repopulation or ANCA titer increase in either treatment arm (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: At baseline, sIL-6 concentrations correlate with PR3-ANCA titers and are associated with specific clinical manifestations of AAV. Baseline sIL6 concentrations do not predict CR at 6 months, but the increase in sIL-6 concentrations during CR is associated with subsequent severe relapse among RTX-treated patients. Further investigation into the mechanistic role of IL6 in AAV might lead to identifying this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe tracheobronchial disease in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and evaluate the utility of dynamic expiratory CT to detect large-airway disease. METHODS: Demographic and clinical features associated with the presence of subglottic stenosis (SGS) or endobronchial involvement were assessed in a multicentre, observational cohort of patients with GPA. A subset of patients with GPA from a single-centre cohort underwent dynamic chest CT to evaluate the airways. RESULTS: Among 962 patients with GPA, SGS and endobronchial disease were identified in 95 (10%) and 59 (6%) patients, respectively. Patients with SGS were more likely to be female (72% vs 53%, P < 0.01), younger at time of diagnosis (36 vs 49 years, P < 0.01), and have saddle-nose deformities (28% vs 10%, P < 0.01), but were less likely to have renal involvement (39% vs 62%, P < 0.01). Patients with endobronchial disease were more likely to be PR3-ANCA positive (85% vs 66%, P < 0.01), with more ENT involvement (97% vs 77%, P < 0.01) and less renal involvement (42% vs 62%, P < 0.01). Disease activity in patients with large-airway disease was commonly isolated to the subglottis/upper airway (57%) or bronchi (32%). Seven of 23 patients screened by dynamic chest CT had large-airway pathology, including four patients with chronic, unexplained cough, discovered to have tracheobronchomalacia. CONCLUSION: SGS and endobronchial disease occur in 10% and 6% of patients with GPA, respectively, and may occur without disease activity in other organs. Dynamic expiratory chest CT is a potential non-invasive screening test for large-airway involvement in GPA.

6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(11): 1888-1893, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of venous thromboembolism (VTE) events in the Rituximab in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis (RAVE) trial and identify novel potential risk factors. METHODS: VTE events in 197 patients enrolled in the RAVE trial were analyzed. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with VTE in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). RESULTS: VTE occurred in 16 patients (8.1%) with an overall average time to event of 1.5 months (range 1.0-2.75). In univariate analyses with calculation of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), heart involvement (HR 17.408 [95% CI 2.247-134.842]; P = 0.006), positive proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA (HR 7.731 [95% CI 1.021-58.545]; P = 0.048), pulmonary hemorrhage (HR 3.889 [95% CI 1.448-10.448]; P = 0.008), and the presence of red blood cell casts (HR 15.617 [95% CI 3.491-69.854]; P < 0.001) were associated with the onset of VTE. In multivariate models adjusted for age and sex, the significant associations between VTE events and heart involvement (HR 21.836 [95% CI 2.566-185.805]; P = 0.005), PR3-ANCA (HR 9.12 [95% CI 1.158-71.839]; P = 0.036), pulmonary hemorrhage (HR 3.91 [95% CI 1.453-10.522]; P = 0.007), and urinary red blood cell casts (HR 16.455 [95% CI 3.607-75.075]; P < 0.001) remained. CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed as having AAV with pulmonary hemorrhage, positive PR3-ANCA, heart involvement, and the presence of red blood cell casts are at an increased risk to develop VTE. Further studies are needed to confirm and expand these findings and to explore the mechanisms of hypercoagulability in these patients with the aim of informing potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

7.
J Rheumatol ; 46(8): 928-934, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a collection of item banks of self-reported health. This study assessed the feasibility and construct validity of using PROMIS instruments in vasculitis. METHODS: Data from a multicenter longitudinal cohort of subjects with systemic vasculitis were used. Instruments from 10 PROMIS item banks were selected with direct involvement of patients. Subjects completed PROMIS instruments using computer adaptive testing (CAT). The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) was also administered. Cross-sectional construct validity was assessed by calculating correlations of PROMIS scores with SF-36 measures and physician and patient global scores for disease activity. Longitudinal construct validity was assessed by correlations of between-visit differences in PROMIS scores with differences in other measures. RESULTS: During the study period, 973 subjects came for 2306 study visits and the PROMIS collection was completed at 2276 (99%) of visits. The median time needed to complete each PROMIS instrument ranged from 40 to 55 s. PROMIS instruments correlated cross-sectionally with individual scales of the SF-36, most strongly with subscales of the SF-36 addressing the same domain as the PROMIS instrument. For example, PROMIS fatigue correlated with both the physical component score (PCS; r = -0.65) and with the mental component score (MCS; r = -0.54). PROMIS physical function correlated strongly with PCS (r = 0.81) but weakly with MCS (r = 0.29). Weaker correlations were observed longitudinally between change in PROMIS scores with change in PCS and MCS. CONCLUSION: Collection of data using CAT PROMIS instruments is feasible among patients with vasculitis and has some cross-sectional and longitudinal construct validity.

8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 117(2): 40-44, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) remains poorly understood, and may overlap with eosinophilic asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). The aim of this study was to analyse a panel of serum cytokines and chemokines as markers of disease activity in patients with these conditions. METHODS: The levels of 54 cytokines and chemokines were measured in the sera of 40 patients with active EGPA, 10 of these patients during inactive disease, 6 patients with HES, 8 with asthma, and 10 healthy controls. Serum cytokine/chemokines measured included interleukin (IL)-1α, 1ß, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 15, 17A, 17E(25), 18, 23 and 33, soluble IL-2 receptor alpha, eotaxin-1 (CCL11), -2 (CCL24) and -3 (CCL26), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a and -1b, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Results were compared between disease and control groups using regression analysis, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (significant p value ≤0.00093). RESULTS: Significant differences were observed only in serum levels of MDC, IL-8, MIP-1a and -1b, TNF-α, each of which were lower in patients with active EGPA than in healthy controls (p<0.0001). Differences between patients with active disease and other disease groups did not reach significance. Paired comparisons between sera from patients with active or inactive EGPA showed no significant difference for any of the studied cytokines or chemokines. CONCLUSIONS: No clear difference in the serum levels of measured cytokines and chemokines helped distinguish between active EGPA or inactive EGPA, or other disease or control groups.


Assuntos
Asma , Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Granulomatose com Poliangiite , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica , Asma/sangue , Asma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/sangue , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/sangue , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380100

RESUMO

Background: Prior work has shown that urinary soluble CD163 (usCD163) displays excellent biomarker characteristics for detection of active renal vasculitis using samples that included new diagnoses with highly active renal disease. This study focused on the use of usCD163 in the detection of the more clinically relevant state of mild renal flare and compared results of usCD163 testing directly to testing of urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1). Methods: Patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV, n = 88) were identified within a serially sampled, longitudinal and multicentre cohort. Creatinine-normalized usCD163 and uMCP-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and, both alone and in combination, were compared between times of active renal AAV and during remission and/or active non-renal AAV. Results: Samples from 320 study visits included times of active renal vasculitis (n = 39), remission (n = 233) and active extrarenal vasculitis (n = 48). Median creatinine levels were 0.9 mg/dL [interquartile range (IQR) 0.8-1.2] in remission and 1.4 mg/dL (IQR 1.0-1.8) during renal flare. usCD163 levels were higher in patients with active renal vasculitis compared with patients in remission and those with active extrarenal vasculitis, with median values of 162 ng/mmol (IQR 79-337), 44 (17-104) and 38 (7-76), respectively (P < 0.001). uMCP-1 levels were also higher in patients with active renal vasculitis compared with patients in remission and those with active extrarenal vasculitis, with median values of 10.6 pg/mmol (IQR 4.6-23.5), 4.1 (2.5-8.4) and 4.1 (1.9-6.8), respectively (P < 0.001). The proposed diagnostic cut-points for usCD163 and uMCP-1 were 72.9 ng/mmol and 10.0 pg/mmol, respectively. usCD163 and uMCP-1 levels were marginally correlated (r2 = 0.11, P < 0.001). Combining novel and existing biomarkers using recursive tree partitioning indicated that elevated usCD163 plus either elevated uMCP-1 or new/worse proteinuria improved the positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of active renal vasculitis to 19.2. Conclusion: A combination of usCD163 and uMCP-1 measurements appears to be useful in identifying the diagnosis of subtle renal vasculitis flare.

10.
Steroids ; 140: 159-166, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352204

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids are standard of care for many chronic inflammatory conditions, including juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We sought to define pharmacodynamic biomarkers of therapeutic efficacy and safety concerns of glucocorticoid treatment for these two disorders. Previous proteomic profiling of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treated with glucocorticoids identified candidate biomarkers for efficacy and safety concerns of glucocorticoids. Serial serum samples from patients with AAV (n = 30) and JDM (n = 12) were obtained during active disease, and after treatment with glucocorticoids. For AAV, 8 of 11 biomarkers of the anti-inflammatory response to glucocorticoids were validated (P-value ≤0.05; CD23, macrophage-derived cytokine, interleukin-22 binding protein, matrix metalloproteinase-12, T lymphocyte surface antigen Ly9, fibrinogen gamma chain, angiopoietin-2 [all decreased], and protein C [increased]), as were 5 of 7 safety biomarkers (P-value ≤0.05; afamin, matrix metalloproteinase-3, insulin growth factor binding protein-5, angiotensinogen, leptin [all increased]). For JDM, 10 of 11 efficacy biomarkers were validated (P-value ≤0.05; all proteins except fibrinogen gamma chain) and 6 of 7 safety biomarkers (P-value ≤0.05; AAV proteins plus growth hormone binding protein). The identified efficacy biomarkers may be useful as objective outcome measures for early phase proof-of-concept studies when assessing novel anti-inflammatory drugs in JDM and AAV, and likely in other inflammatory disorders. Similarly, safety biomarkers may also be helpful assessing toxicity of alternatives to glucocorticoids.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205768, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identification of a biomarker for disease activity in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss) remains an unmet need. This study examined the value of serum periostin, a marker of type 2 inflammation, as a measure of disease activity in patients with EGPA. METHODS: Participants enrolled in a multicenter, prospective cohort of patients with EGPA were included in this study if they had disease activity (defined as Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [BVAS] > 0) during follow-up. Serum levels of periostin were measured at flare visit as well as two pre- and two post-flare visits, if available. The outcome of disease activity was assessed either with BVAS or Physician Global Assessment (PGA). Mixed-effect models were used to examine the association between periostin levels and disease activity. Comparisons were made with a historical cohort of healthy individuals and patients with asthma. RESULTS: In the 49 patients included in the study, the median periostin level was 60 ng/ml (IQR 50 to 73) in all visits and did not significantly change across visits. Multivariate analyses found no association between periostin level and presence or absence of flare according to the BVAS (adjusted OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.98 to 1.02], p = 0.98) but an increase in periostin level was significantly associated with greater disease severity during a flare according to the PGA (adjusted beta-coefficient 0.02 [95% CI 0.004 to 0.03], p = 0.01). Periostin levels in EGPA were significantly higher than previously studied healthy controls and patients with asthma. CONCLUSION: In EGPA serum periostin level is modestly associated with greater disease severity during a flare but does not discriminate active from inactive disease. Periostin levels in EGPA are higher than in other previously studied cohorts, including healthy populations and patients with asthma, and are relatively stable over time.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(12): 2077-2086, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in human subjects, and to assess the role of MIF in a murine model of granulomatous vasculitis. METHODS: The human study involved 1,077 patients with GPA and healthy controls whose serum was genotyped by capillary electrophoresis for the MIF -794 CATT5-8 promoter microsatellite (rs5844572). MIF promoter, CATT-length-dependent gene expression in response to ß-glucan was assessed by gene reporter assays. In mouse studies, granulomatous disease was induced by injection of Candida albicans ß-glucan into wild-type (WT) or Mif-knockout (Mif-KO) C57BL/6 mice and C57BL/6 mice transgenically overexpressing Mif in lung epithelium (Mif lung-Tg2.1). Mice were treated with a neutralizing anti-MIF antibody and analyzed for the density of pulmonary granulomas, expression of inflammatory chemokines, and frequency of mortality. RESULTS: The percentage of human subjects carrying >5 CATT repeats in each MIF allele (high genotypic MIF expressers) was 60.2% among patients with GPA and 53.9% among healthy controls (adjusted P = 0.049). In response to granulomatous stimulation, human MIF gene expression increased proportionally with CATT length. Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice exhibited more pulmonary granulomas than WT mice, which in turn showed more granulomas than Mif-KO mice. A significantly higher percentage of Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice, compared to Mif-KO or WT mice, died when injected with Candida albicans ß-glucan, and treatment of these mice with an anti-MIF monoclonal antibody protected against a lethal outcome. Levels of MIF-dependent neutrophil/macrophage chemokines were elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or plasma of Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice. CONCLUSION: Patients with GPA have an increased frequency of high MIF expression CATT alleles. Higher Mif expression increases the incidence of mortality and pulmonary granulomas in Mif lung-Tg2.1 mice, while anti-MIF treatment protects these mice against death. Blockade of MIF in high genotypic MIF expressers may therefore offer a selective pharmacologic therapy for GPA.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate large-vessel (LV) abnormalities on serial imaging in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and discern predictors of new lesions. METHODS: Clinical and imaging data from patients with GCA (including subjects diagnosed by LV imaging) enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study and/or a randomized clinical trial were included. New arterial lesions were defined as a lesion in a previously unaffected artery. RESULTS: The study included 187 patients with GCA, 146 (78%) female, mean (±SD) age at diagnosis 68.5 ± 8.5 years; 39% diagnosed by LV imaging. At least one arterial lesion was present in 123 (66%) on the first study. The most frequently affected arteries were subclavian (42%), axillary (32%), and thoracic aorta (20%). In 106 patients (57%) with serial imaging, new arterial lesions were noted in 41 patients (39%), all of whom had a baseline abnormality, over a mean (±SD) follow-up of 4.39 (2.22) years. New abnormalities were observed in 33% patients by year 2; clinical features of active disease were present at only 50% of these cases. There were no differences in age, sex, temporal artery biopsy positivity, or disease activity in patients with or without new lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with GCA, LV abnormalities on first imaging were common. Development of new arterial lesions occurred in patients with arterial abnormalities at first imaging, often in the absence of symptoms of active disease. Arterial imaging should be considered in all patients with GCA at diagnosis and serial imaging at least in patients with baseline abnormalities.

14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(7): 1114-1121, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate circulating cytokine profiles in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), classified by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) specificity (proteinase 3 ANCA [PR3-ANCA] versus myeloperoxidase ANCA [MPO-ANCA]) or by clinical diagnosis (granulomatosis with polyangiitis [GPA] versus microscopic polyangiitis [MPA]). METHODS: A panel of 29 cytokines was tested in 186 patients with active AAV at inclusion into the Rituximab in AAV trial. Cytokine concentrations were compared between groups within each classification system. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex, and renal insufficiency were performed, with each biomarker as a dependent variable and ANCA specificity and clinical diagnosis as explanatory variables of interest. RESULTS: Levels of 9 circulating cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], IL-15, IL-18, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL-17/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC], IL-18 binding protein [IL-18 BP], soluble IL-2 receptor α [sIL-2Rα], and nerve growth factor ß [NGFß]) were significantly higher in PR3-AAV than MPO-AAV, 4 cytokines (sIL6R, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II [sTNFRII], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [sICAM-1]) were higher in MPO-AAV than in PR3-AAV, 6 cytokines (IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-15, IL-18, sIL-2Rα, and NGFß) were higher in GPA than in MPA, and 3 cytokines (osteopontin, sTNFRII, and NGAL) were higher in MPA than in GPA (all P < 0.05). For nearly all cytokines, the difference between PR3-AAV and MPO-AAV was larger than that between GPA and MPA. The multivariate analysis showed that 8 cytokines (IL-15, IL-8, IL-18 BP, NGF-ß, sICAM-1, TARC, osteopontin, and kidney injury molecule 1 (P < 0.05) distinguished patients with AAV better (lower P values and larger effect sizes) when grouped by ANCA specificity than by clinical diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Distinct cytokine profiles were identified for PR3-AAV versus MPO-AAV and for GPA versus MPA. Differences in these circulating immune mediators are more strongly associated with ANCA specificity than with clinical diagnosis, suggesting that heterogeneity in the AAV subtypes extends beyond clinical phenotypes.

15.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(2): 251-257, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The significance of persistent hematuria or proteinuria in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis who are otherwise in clinical remission is unclear. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A post hoc analysis was conducted using participants enrolled in two randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials who had active GN due to ANCA-associated vasculitis, had positive ANCA, and achieved remission by month 6. Dipstick and microscopic urinalyses were performed at each visit. Persistent hematuria or proteinuria for at least 6 months and the cumulative duration of hematuria were examined. Renal relapse was defined as new or worsening red blood cell casts and/or worsening kidney function according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis. RESULTS: There were 149 patients included in this study: 42% had persistent hematuria, and 43% had persistent proteinuria beyond 6 months. Persistent hematuria was associated with a significantly higher risk of relapse, even after adjusting for potential confounders (subdistribution hazard ratio, 3.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 13.25; P=0.02); persistent proteinuria was not associated with renal relapse (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 4.42; P=0.53). Furthermore, greater cumulative duration of hematuria was significantly associated with a higher risk of renal relapse (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.08 per each month; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.12; P<0.01). The median time to renal relapse was 22 months. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis and kidney involvement who achieve remission after induction therapy, the presence of persistent hematuria, but not proteinuria, is a significant predictor of future renal relapse.

16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(4): 639-650, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340623

RESUMO

Objectives: To study the determinants of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rituximab (RTX) in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and its association with clinical outcomes. Methods: This study included data from 89 patients from the RTX in AAV trial who received the full dose of RTX (four weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2). RTX was quantified at weeks 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24, and summarized by computing the trapezoidal area under the curve. We explored potential determinants of the PK-RTX, and analysed its association with clinical outcomes: achievement of remission at 6 months, duration of B-cell depletion and time to relapse in patients who achieved complete remission. Results: RTX serum levels were significantly lower in males and in newly diagnosed patients, and negatively correlated with body surface area, baseline B-cell count and degree of disease activity. In multivariate analyses, the main determinants of PK-RTX were sex and new diagnosis. Patients reaching complete remission at month 6 had similar RTX levels compared with patients who did not reach complete remission. Patients with higher RTX levels generally experienced longer B-cell depletion than patients with lower levels, but RTX levels at the different time points and area under the curve were not associated with time to relapse. Conclusion: Despite the body-surface-area-based dosing protocol, PK-RTX is highly variable among patients with AAV, its main determinants being sex and newly diagnosed disease. We did not observe any relevant association between PK-RTX and clinical outcomes. The monitoring of serum RTX levels does not seem clinically useful in AAV.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Infusões Intravenosas , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(2): 322-328, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112740

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate damage and variables associated with damage in GCA. Methods: Patients with GCA enrolled in a prospective, multicentre, longitudinal study were included. Per-protocol assessments were made with the Vasculitis Damage Index and the Large-Vessel Vasculitis Index of Damage. Results: The study included 204 patients: 156 women (76%), mean age at diagnosis 71.3 years (s.d. 8.3), mean follow-up of 3.5 years (s.d. 1.9). One or more damage item was present in 54% at baseline and 79% at the last follow-up on the Vasculitis Damage Index, and 60% at baseline and 82% at the last follow-up on the Large-Vessel Vasculitis Index of Damage. The most frequently observed damage items were large-artery complications (29% cohort) and ocular (22%). Among 117 patients with new damage, most new items were ocular (63 patients), cardiac/vascular (48) and musculoskeletal (34). Of these, treatment-associated items were frequently observed, including cataracts (46 patients), osteoporosis (22) and weight gain (22). Disease-associated new damage included ischaemic optic neuropathy (3 patients), limb claudication (13), arterial occlusions (10) and damage requiring vascular intervention (10). In univariate analysis, the risk of damage increased 22% for every additional year of disease duration [odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (95% CI 1.04, 1.45)]. In 94 patients enrolled within ⩽90 days of diagnosis of GCA, the risk of new damage at the last follow-up decreased 30% for each additional relapse [OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.51, 0.97)]. Conclusions: Large-artery complications and ocular manifestations are the most commonly occurring items of damage in GCA. Most new damage is associated with treatment. These findings emphasize the cumulative burden of disease in GCA.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Arterite de Células Gigantes/complicações , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Am J Nephrol ; 46(3): 231-238, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunopathologic features predict renal function at baseline and follow-up in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). The interstitial infiltrate consists predominantly of T lymphocytes, but their pathophysiologic significance is unclear, especially in light of the success of B-cell-directed therapy. METHODS: Renal biopsies from 33 patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC; n = 17) or rituximab (RTX; n = 16) in the RTX in ANCA-associated vasculitis (RAVE) trial were classified according to the new ANCA GN classification. T- and B-cell infiltration in the interstitium was assessed by immunostaining for CD3 and CD20. Correlations of clinical and histologic parameters with renal function at set time points were examined. RESULTS: The mean (SD) baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 36 (20) mL/min/1.73 m2. ANCA GN class distribution was 46% focal, 33% mixed, 12% sclerotic and 9% crescentic. The interstitial infiltrate consisted of >50% CD3 positive cells in 69% of biopsies, but >50% CD20 positive cells only in 8% of biopsies. In a multiple linear regression model, only baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) correlated with GFR at 6, 12, and 18 months. Interstitial B- and T-cell infiltrates had no significant impact on long-term prognosis, independent of the treatment limb. A differential effect was noted only at 6 months, where a dense CD3 positive infiltrate predicted lower GFR in the RTX group and a CD20 positive infiltrate predicted higher GFR in the CYC group. CONCLUSIONS: In ANCA-associated GN, the interstitial infiltrate contains mainly T lymphocytes. However, it is neither reflecting baseline renal function nor predictive of response to treatment, regardless of the immunosuppression regimen employed.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/patologia , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Rim/patologia , Idoso , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Antígenos CD20/análise , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Biópsia , Complexo CD3/análise , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Glomerulonefrite/sangue , Glomerulonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Humanos , Rim/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/imunologia
19.
J Clin Invest ; 127(5): 1714-1724, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28375155

RESUMO

The growth factor receptor Kit is involved in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic development. Mice bearing Kit defects lack mast cells; however, strains bearing different Kit alleles exhibit diverse phenotypes. Herein, we investigated factors underlying differential sensitivity to IgG-mediated arthritis in 2 mast cell-deficient murine lines: KitWsh/Wsh, which develops robust arthritis, and KitW/Wv, which does not. Reciprocal bone marrow transplantation between KitW/Wv and KitWsh/Wsh mice revealed that arthritis resistance reflects a hematopoietic defect in addition to mast cell deficiency. In KitW/Wv mice, restoration of susceptibility to IgG-mediated arthritis was neutrophil independent but required IL-1 and the platelet/megakaryocyte markers NF-E2 and glycoprotein VI. In KitW/Wv mice, platelets were present in numbers similar to those in WT animals and functionally intact, and transfer of WT platelets did not restore arthritis susceptibility. These data implicated a platelet-independent role for the megakaryocyte, a Kit-dependent lineage that is selectively deficient in KitW/Wv mice. Megakaryocytes secreted IL-1 directly and as a component of circulating microparticles, which activated synovial fibroblasts in an IL-1-dependent manner. Transfer of WT but not IL-1-deficient megakaryocytes restored arthritis susceptibility to KitW/Wv mice. These findings identify functional redundancy among Kit-dependent hematopoietic lineages and establish an unanticipated capacity of megakaryocytes to mediate IL-1-driven systemic inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Megacariócitos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit , Membrana Sinovial , Animais , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Interleucina-1/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/patologia , Megacariócitos/imunologia , Megacariócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Subunidade p45 do Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/genética , Subunidade p45 do Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/imunologia , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/genética , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
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