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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find out if there are any differences in biomarkers between severe isolated right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severe isolated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 46 patients who had severe isolated RV or LV dysfunction after cardiac surgery. INTERVENTION: The authors collected perioperative clinical and biomarker data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Severe isolated RV dysfunction patients (n = 20) had higher postoperative direct bilirubin (p = 0.030), total bilirubin (p = 0.044), glucose (p = 0.011), and international normalized ratio (INR) (p = 0.050) by repeated measure analysis of variance when compared with patients with severe isolated LV dysfunction (n = 26). The RV group also showed lower preoperative alanine transferase (19.3 ± 1.5 v 32.7 ± 4.2, p = 0.001), higher 4-hour INR (1.5 ± 0.3 v 1.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.008), and higher 48-hour INR (1.8 ± 0.4 v 1.4 ± 0.1, p < 0.001). None in the LV group died, whereas 4 patients in the RV group died (all of them had preoperative atrial fibrillation and underwent double valve replacement surgery). CONCLUSION: The authors observed biomarkers differences between severe isolated RV dysfunction and severe isolated RV dysfunction.

2.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 58(1): 13-22, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Open repair of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) is a challenging procedure, associated with high rates of peri-operative bleeding and blood product transfusions. A large intra-operative volume transfusion has been associated with higher in hospital mortality and prolonged mechanical ventilation. A propensity score matched study was carried out to assess whether the introduction of a rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) based transfusion strategy reduces allogenic blood transfusion and affects morbidity in patients undergoing open TAAA repair. METHODS: All patients undergoing open TAAA repair at the San Raffaele Scientific Institute between 2009 and 2017 were included. Until 2016, a protocol based on estimated blood loss and conventional coagulation tests was used. After March 2016 a ROTEM guided transfusion protocol was developed and adopted. To account for selection bias, propensity score matching was performed. RESULTS: Five hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients were included. After propensity score matching, 77 patients in the ROTEM algorithm group were successfully matched with 77 patients in the standard algorithm group. Patients managed with ROTEM received fewer red blood cells units (3.5 [range 0-11] vs. 4 [range 0-17]; p = .026) and a lower volume of fresh frozen plasma (286 ± 496 vs. 2,050 ± 1,120; p < .001). In addition, fewer patients received fresh frozen plasma (35% vs. 97%; p < .001). Patients in the ROTEM group showed a significant decrease in the occurrence of pulmonary complications (44% vs. 83%; p = .01). Cost analysis showed a relevant reduction of per-patient expense after the introduction of ROTEM (€834 ± €577 vs. €1,285 ± €851; p < .001) CONCLUSION: A ROTEM guided transfusion strategy significantly limited the quantity of transfused blood products during open TAAA repair, improving clinical outcomes while reducing costs, allowing for better resource distribution in a setting where blood loss is relevant.

3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
5.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1845-1851, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable predictors of periprocedural intensive care unit (ICU) admission after transvenous lead extraction (LE) in a high-volume center. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients undergoing LE at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, from 2005 to 2015. INTERVENTIONS: LE procedures were performed in the electrophysiology laboratories with a cardiac operating room on standby between the end of the morning surgical case and before the start of the afternoon surgical case. Most procedures were conducted with the patient under procedural sedation and analgesia. After LE, patients were admitted either to the ward or to the ICU. Medical history and intraprocedural data were recorded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 389 procedures performed during the study period, 50 patients (13%) were admitted to the ICU owing to persistent hemodynamic instability or intraoperative complications requiring endotracheal intubation. Complete procedural success was achieved in 370 patients (95%), and the clinical success rate was 98.4%. No deaths were recorded. Five complications requiring emergency surgery (1.3%) were reported. Preprocedural right ventricular dysfunction (odds ratio (OR) 7.41; confidence interval 1.85-29.7; p < 0.01) and the need for general anesthesia (OR 12; confidence interval 1.49-97.06; p = 0.019) were independent predictors of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative identification of patients who need ICU admission after LE is crucial to increase patient safety and decrease hospital costs. Severe right ventricular dysfunction and need for general anesthesia identify patients with low cardiac reserve who are at increased risk for ICU admission after the procedure.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(7): 1883-1889, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30581110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing transapical cardiac procedure are a minority of cardiac surgery patients but represent a challenge for cardiac anesthesiologists because they generally are older and have more comorbidities than do open heart cardiac surgery patients. The aims of this study were to describe the anesthetic experience with transapical procedures in a single high-volume center and to analyze the most critical aspects for anesthetic management. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: All patients undergoing a cardiac transapical procedure from January 2009 to April 2018 were included in this case series. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were managed by a multidisciplinary heart team. The perioperative anesthetic approach and hemodynamic management were consistent and performed by a group of trained cardiac anesthesiologists. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study population comprised 143 patients: 81 (57%) underwent an aortic valve procedure, 60 (42%) a mitral valve intervention, 1 patient underwent a procedure involving both the aortic and mitral valves, and 1 patient underwent correction of a congenital heart defect. A major intraoperative complication occurred in 5 (3.5%) patients, the procedure was not technically feasible because of unsuitable anatomy in 3 patients, and conversion to open heart surgery was needed in 2 patients. All patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Intensive care unit stay was 1 (1-3) days, and hospital stay was 6 (5-8) days. Hospital survival was 94%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing transapical cardiac procedures are a minority of cardiac surgery patients, but represent a high-risk population. A patient-tailored anesthetic approach, in the context of the therapeutic strategy shared by the heart team, is crucial to improve outcomes.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the beneficial effects of noninvasive ventilation in treating postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) open repair surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty patients who underwent elective TAAA open repair. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to the "noninvasive ventilation" group, receiving 2-hour cycles of noninvasive ventilation every 8 hours for at least 3 days in addition to the best available postoperative treatment currently in use at the authors' institution versus the "standard" group, not receiving noninvasive ventilation treatment MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome of clinical worsening, described as a composite outcome of need for therapeutic noninvasive ventilation, need for mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory causes, need for intensive care unit admission owing to respiratory causes, and in-hospital mortality, occurred in 2 (11%) patients in the noninvasive ventilation group versus 12 (57%) in the standard group (p = 0.002; relative risk 0.18; 95% confidence interval 0.047-0.72). CONCLUSION: Noninvasive ventilation is a promising, affordable, and easy-to-use tool to prevent postoperative respiratory complications after TAAA open surgical repair.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to predict the displacement of self-expanding transcatheter heart valves (THV) during final deployment. BACKGROUND: Accurate device positioning during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is crucial for optimal results. METHODS: At our institution, 103 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI with Evolut R were retrospectively identified. Multiple linear regression models were created, and a predictor equation was built to quantify the factors that may affect THV behavior. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis for THV displacement on the left coronary cusp (LCC) identified the angle between the THV and the ascending aorta (ATA), predilation, and less operator experience as independent predictors of upward displacement, whereas estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was inversely related with THV behavior (95% confidence interval: 0.219 to 0.340, 0.447 to 2.092, 0.165 to 1.757, and -0.053 to -0.011, respectively). Predictors of THV displacement on the noncoronary cusp side could not be identified using this model. CONCLUSIONS: The ATA at the point of recapture, predilation, and less operator experience were independent predictors of upward displacement of THV on the LCC side. eGFR was an independent predictor of THV downward displacement on the LCC side. Of them, the ATA was the strongest predictor. Physicians may need to adjust this angle adequately before deployment to achieve the appropriate position.

9.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(15): 1519-1526, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine predictors of advanced conduction disturbances requiring late (≥48 h) permanent pacemaker replacement (PPM) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Data of consecutive patients were identified by retrospective review of a TAVR database of a single center in Milan, Italy, between October 2007 and July 2015. We defined delta PR (ΔPR) and delta QRS (ΔQRS) interval as the difference between the last PR and QRS length available 48 h after TAVR and the baseline PR and QRS length. RESULTS: Overall population included 740 patients. We excluded 78 patients who already had a PPM and 51 patients who received a PPM <48 h after TAVR. The final analysis included 611 patients. Fifty-four patients (8.8%) developed an advanced conduction disturbance requiring PPM ≥48 h following TAVR. Patients who required a late PPM implant had a wider QRS width (113 ± 25 ms vs. 105 ± 23 ms; p = 0.009) and a higher prevalence of baseline right bundle branch block (12.9% vs. 5.3%; p = 0.026) and were more likely to have a self-expandable valve implanted (51.8% vs. 31.9%; p = 0.003). The ΔPR was 40 ± 51 ms (p = 0.0001) and the ΔQRS was 22 ± 61 ms (p = 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that baseline right bundle branch block (odds ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 11.77; p = 0.037) and ΔPR (odds ratio for each 10-ms increase: 1.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 1.45; p = 0.0001) are independent predictors of delayed advanced conduction disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis showed that baseline right bundle branch block and the amount of increase of PR length after TAVR are independent predictors of late (≥48 h) advanced conduction disturbances requiring PPM replacement after TAVR in this cohort. A simple ECG analysis could help in detecting potentially lethal advanced conduction disturbances that could occur more than 48 h after TAVR.

11.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(8): 1088.e1-1088.e2, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056846

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is usually based on the correction of both annular dilation and leaflet disease to minimize the risk of recurrence of MR at follow-up. This combined approach may also represent an interesting strategy during transcatheter mitral valve repair systems. We report a successful case of combined Cardioband (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) and MitraClip (Abbott, Santa Clara, California) implantation for the treatment of functional MR, with good acute and medium-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes.

12.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(4): 1955-1970, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709436

RESUMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used with increasing frequency to treat severe cardiac or respiratory failure as it can provide respiratory only or combined circulatory and respiratory support. Despite efforts aimed at increasing its diffusion however, ECMO is currently reserved, usually as last resort, in very severe cases, which are managed almost exclusively in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent improvements in both technology and patients' management is leading to constant improvement in patients' outcome, especially in centers with a high caseload volume and after ensuring careful patients' selection. Moreover, since short ECMO runs are associated with limited complications, there are now several potential situations outside the ICU and outside the cardiac surgery setting where ECMO is being (or could be) successfully employed to provide cardio-respiratory support, including: high-risk structural heart interventions, ventricular tachycardia ablation, cesarean section, trauma, and, most interestingly, non-cardiac elective procedures in patients at high risk for perioperative cardiac or respiratory complications. Given the increased availability and the good outcomes of ECMO, when carefully employed, we are thus moving towards a future in which no patient should be denied diagnostic or therapeutic procedure exclusively due to high cardiorespiratory risk.

13.
J Vasc Surg ; 68(4): 966-975, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the perioperative and short-term results in a cohort of patients treated during the last year at our institution with the stent-assisted balloon-induced intimal disruption and relamination in aortic dissection repair (STABILISE) technique for acute complicated aortic dissection. METHODS: Between June 2016 and June 2017, 10 patients (all male; mean age, 62.6 ± 7.4 years) received treatment for acute complicated aortic dissection with the STABILISE technique. After a standard provisional extension to induce complete attachment procedure using the commercially available endovascular dissection system (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind), the distal stent graft area and the bare stent area were ballooned to completely exclude the thoracic false lumen (FL) and to obtain a single-channeled abdominal aorta. Computed tomography was routinely performed within the first postoperative week before discharge and then at 3 months, at 6 months, and yearly thereafter. The technical and clinical success rates were analyzed. RESULTS: The 30-day technical and clinical success rates were 100%, with complete thrombosis of the thoracic FL and no type I endoleak. Malperfusion was resolved in all cases. No aortic ruptures were recorded, and no open conversion was required. One case of delayed spinal cord ischemia fully resolved within the discharge period. Predischarge computed tomography showed complete thrombosis of the thoracic FL in all cases. In two cases, some degree of patency of the abdominal FL was observed. At short-term follow-up, the overall aortic diameters remained stable with no further dilation. CONCLUSIONS: The STABILISE technique was safe and feasible in this cohort of patients, with complete thrombosis of the thoracic FL and creation of a single-channeled aorta in most cases. Further studies are needed to ascertain the long-term behavior of the treated aorta.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Aortografia/métodos , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 66(6): 691-699, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642696

RESUMO

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a common valvular lesion which may affect morbidity and mortality. It can be related to an intrinsic abnormality of the tricuspid valve leaflets (organic) or secondary to annular dilatation (functional). Often organic and functional TR coexist in the same patient. A long-standing TR is associated with ascites, congestive hepatopathy, peripheral edema, renal failure, and abdominal fullness which significantly affect the outcome. In particular, the perioperative course may be complicated due to both the presence of comorbidities and the development of a severe postoperative right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. In fact, the TR may conceal a preoperative RV dysfunction due to a backflow in in the right atrium, which becomes overt only after the tricuspid valve (TV) repair/replacement (afterload mismatch). In light of this, an appropriate medical treatment before surgery may improve the performance of the RV, maximizing the result of the elective surgical therapy. The perioperative optimization should reduce the right atrial and ventricle overload, decrease the pulmonary vascular resistances, improve RV contractility and treat aggressively the arrhythmias. In doing so, the following rules should be considered: careful fluid administration, ß1-agonists favored over α-agonists to treat hemodynamic instability, and maintenance of a normal-to-elevated heart rate. Since the TV repair/replacement needs mechanical ventilation in both open and percutaneous surgery, a careful volume and pharmacological management should be adopted to counteract the detrimental effect of the mechanical ventilation on the top of an already dysfunctional RV. In fact, in the context of RV failure the cardiac output is strictly dependent on the preload and the increase of the intrathoracic pressure, reducing the venous return, may lead to acute heart failure. The intraoperative administration of volume and vasoactive drugs, titrated on the basis of the transesophageal echocardiography, permit to support the RV intraoperatively. Paracorporeal mechanical hemodynamic support should be always available as "bail out" in the event of intractable RV failure. In conclusion the patients undergoing TV surgery are complex and only a detailed anesthesiologic and surgical workup may decrease the perioperative mortality and morbidity.

15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2152-2159, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan might reduce the incidence of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors investigated whether levosimendan administration could reduce AKI incidence in a high-risk cardiac surgical population. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery operating rooms and intensive care units of 14 centers in 3 countries. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 90 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and perioperative myocardial dysfunction. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive levosimendan (0.025-0.2 µg/kg/min) or placebo in addition to standard inotropic treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and 44 to receive placebo. Postoperative AKI occurred in 14 (30%) patients in the levosimendan group versus 23 (52%) in the placebo group (absolute difference -21.8; 95% confidence interval -41.7 to -1.97; p = 0.035). The incidence of major complications also was lower (18 [39%]) in the levosimendan group versus that in the placebo group (29 [66%]) (absolute difference -26.8 [-46.7 to -6.90]; p = 0.011). A trend toward lower serum creatinine at intensive care unit discharge was observed in the levosimendan group (1.18 [0.99-1.49] mg/dL) versus that in the placebo group (1.39 [1.05-1.76] mg/dL) (95% confidence interval -0.23 [-0.49 to 0.01]; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan may improve renal outcome in cardiac surgery patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing mitral valve surgery who develop perioperative myocardial dysfunction. Results of this exploratory analysis should be investigated in future properly designed randomized controlled trials.

16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(2): 762-770, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is experimental evidence that phosphocreatine (PCr) can decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart. The authors investigated if PCr would improve heart performance as compared with standard treatment in cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The ability of PCr to improve cardiac outcomes as compared with standard treatment was investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANGFANG DATA, and VIP Paper Check System were searched to March 1 2017. The authors included 26 randomized controlled trials comprising 1,948 patients. Random and fixed-effects models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). PCr use was associated with reduced rates of intraoperative inotropic support (27% v 44%; OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.61; p < 0.001), major arrhythmias (16% v 28%; OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.69; p < 0.001), as well as increased spontaneous recovery of the cardiac rhythm immediately after aortic declamping (50% v 34%; OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.82-3.30; p < 0.001) as compared with standard treatment. The use of PCr decreased myocardial damage and augmented left ventricular ejection fraction in the postoperative period; however, MD for these outcomes were small and do not seem to be clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In randomized trials, PCr administration was associated with reduced rates of intraoperative inotropic support and major arrhythmias, and increased spontaneous recovery of the cardiac rhythm after aortic declamping. Large multicenter evidence is needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Fosfocreatina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
18.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(3): 1415-1425, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398384

RESUMO

ß-Blockers are useful drugs in several clinical cardiologic scenarios. Their use in the perioperative period and in critically ill patients is increasing, but their effect on clinically relevant outcomes remains controversial. Long-acting ß-blockers can have detrimental effects that are difficult to be counteracted in these settings. The authors describe the possible clinical uses of ultra-short-acting ß-blockers (esmolol and landiolol) in the perioperative period and in critically ill patients because these drugs have the beneficial effects of ß-blockers, but do not have the detrimental effects of long-acting agents. This narrative review focuses on ultra-short-acting ß-blockers in the following clinical settings: prevention and treatment of arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia in noncardiac and cardiac surgery, usage as cardioplegia adjuvants or to test the reversibility of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in cardiac surgery, medical treatment of aortic dissection before surgery, improvement of microcirculation and oxygenation in critically ill patients experiencing sepsis or undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, anesthesia induction, and coronary computed tomography angiography.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal/terapia , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Período Perioperatório/métodos , Propanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Período Perioperatório/tendências , Ureia/administração & dosagem
20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
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