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1.
Acta Trop ; 232: 106498, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513072

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused by a single serotype of a virus belonging to the Phenuiviridae family (genus Phlebovirus). It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in endemic areas, because the virus, transmitted by different mosquito genera, leads to abortions in susceptible animal hosts especially sheep, goat, cattle, and buffaloes, resulting in severe economic losses. Humans can also acquire the infection, and the major sources are represented by the direct contact with infected animal blood, aerosol, consumption of unpasteurized contaminated milk and the bite of infected mosquitoes. Actually, the EU territory does not seem to be exposed to an imminent risk of RVFV introduction, however, the recent outbreaks in a French overseas department and some cases detected in Turkey, Tunisia and Libya, raised the attention of the EU for a possible risk of introduction of infected vectors. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic and/or preventive drugs, such as vaccines. In our work, we studied the immunogenicity of an inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine produced using a Namibian field strain of RVF virus (RVFV). The vaccine object of this study was formulated with Montanide Pet Gel A, a polymer-based adjuvant that has been previously reported for its promising safety profile and for the capacity to elicit a strong immune response. The produced inactivated vaccine was tested on six sheep and the level of IgM and IgG after the immunization of animals was evaluated by a commercial competitive ELISA, in order to assess the immunogenicity profile of our vaccine and to evaluate its potential use, as an alternative to the attenuated vaccines commercially available, in case of Rift Valley fever epidemic disease on EU territory. Following the administration of the second dose, 35 days after the first one, all animals seroconverted.

2.
Transl Oncol ; 20: 101400, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334283

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour resistant to treatments. It has been postulated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) persist in tumours causing relapse after multimodality treatment. In the present study, a novel miRNA-based therapy approach is proposed. MPM-derived spheroids have been treated with exosome-delivered miR-126 (exo-miR) and evaluated for their anticancer effect. The exo-miR treatment increased MPM stem-cell like stemness and inhibited cell proliferation. However, at a prolonged time, the up taken miR-126 was released by the cells themselves through exosomes; the inhibition of exosome release by an exosome release inhibitor GW4869 induced miR-126 intracellular accumulation leading to massive cell death and in vivo tumour growth arrest. Autophagy is involved in these processes; miR-126 accumulation induced a protective autophagy and the inhibition of this process by GW4869 generates a metabolic crisis that promotes necroptosis, which was associated with PARP-1 over-expression and cyt-c and AIF release. Here, for the first time, we proposed a therapy against CSCs, a heterogeneous cell population involved in cancer development and relapse.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Proper breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP) management is of pivotal importance. Although rapid-acting, oral and nasal transmucosal, fentanyl formulations (rapid-onset opioids, ROOs) are licensed for BTcP treatment, not all guidelines recommend their use. Presumably, some research gaps need to be bridged to produce solid evidence. We present a bibliometric network analysis on ROOs for BTcP treatment. METHODS: Documents were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) online database. The string was "rapid onset opioids" or "transmucosal fentanyl" and "breakthrough cancer pain". Year of publication, journal metrics (impact factor and quartile), title, document type, topic, and clinical setting (in-patients, outpatients, and palliative care) were extracted. The software tool VOSviewer (version 1.6.17) was used to analyze the semantic network analyzes, bibliographic coupling, journals analysis, and research networks. RESULTS: 502 articles were found in WOS. A declining trend in published articles from 2014 to 2021 was observed. Approximately 50% of documents regard top quartile (Q1) journals. Most articles focused on ROOs efficacy, but abuse and misuse issues are poorly addressed. With respect to article type, we calculated 132 clinical investigations. The semantic network analysis found interconnections between the terms "breakthrough cancer pain," "opioids," and "cancers." The top co-cited article was published in 2000 and addressed pain assessment. The largest number of partnerships regarded the United States, Italy, and England. CONCLUSION: In this research area, most articles are published in top-ranked journals. Nevertheless, paramount topics should be better addressed, and the implementation of research networks is needed.

4.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216009

RESUMO

The actual contribution of migratory birds in spreading West Nile (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) across Europe and from Africa to old countries is still controversial. In this study, we reported the results of molecular and serological surveys on migrating birds sampled during peaks of spring and autumn migration at 11 Italian sites located along important flyways, from 2012 to 2014. A total of 1335 specimens made of individual or pooled sera, and organs from 275 dead birds were tested for WNV and USUV RNA by real time PCR (RT-PCR). Furthermore, sera were tested by serum neutralization assay for detecting WNV and USUV neutralizing antibodies. Molecular tests detected WNV lineage 2 RNA in a pool made of three Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) sera sampled in autumn, and lineage 1 in kidneys of six trans-Saharan birds sampled in spring. Neutralizing antibodies against WNV and USUV were found in 5.80% (n = 72; 17 bird species) and 0.32% (n = 4; 4 bird species) of the tested sera, respectively. Our results do not exclude the role of migratory birds as potential spreaders of WNV and USUV from Africa and Central Europe to Mediterranean areas and highlight the importance of a more extensive active surveillance of zoonotic viruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Aves/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Flavivirus/genética , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Flavivirus/sangue , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade
5.
Head Neck ; 44(1): 18-33, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC) have an unfavorable prognosis, and new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are needed to improve clinical management. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based miRNome analysis was performed on 43 ITAC patients who underwent surgical resection, and microRNA (miRNA) data were obtained from 35 cases. Four miRNAs were identified, and their expression levels were detected by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and related to the relevant patient outcome. Overall survival and disease-free survival rates were evaluated through the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and multivariate analysis was performed by means of Cox proportional hazard analysis. RESULTS: High levels of miR-205 and miR-34c/miR-449 cluster expression were associated with an increased recurrence risk and, therefore, a worse prognosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that miR-205 and miR-449 were significant prognostic predictors. CONCLUSIONS: A high expression of miR-205 and miR-449 is independent predictors of poor survival for ITAC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/genética , Prognóstico
6.
Psychosom Med ; 84(1): 40-49, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the association of psychological distress and radiation exposure as a work-related stressor with mitochondrial function in health care professionals. METHODS: Health care professionals at a regional hospital in Italy were evaluated for physical health and psychological measures using self-report questionnaires (n = 41; mean age = 47.6 [13.1] years; 66% women). In a second sample, individuals exposed to elevated levels of ionizing radiation (IR; likely effective dose exceeding 6 mSv/y; n = 63, mean age = 45.8 [8.8] years; 62% women) were compared with health care workers with low IR (n = 57; mean age = 47.2 [9.5] years; 65% women) because exposure to a toxic agent might act as a (work-related) stressor. Associations were examined between psychological factors (12-item General Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale), work ability (Work Ability Index), and IR exposure at the workplace with markers of mitochondrial function, including mitochondrial redox activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, biogenesis, and mtDNA damage response measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: All participants were in good physical health. Individuals reporting high levels of psychological distress showed lower mitochondrial biogenesis as indicated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α and lower nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) expression (2.5 [1.0] versus 1.0 [0.9] relative expression [rel exp], p = .035, and 31.5 [5.0] versus 19.4 [6.9] rel exp, p = .013, respectively). However, exposure to toxic agents (IR) was primarily associated with mitochondrial metabolism and reduced mtDNA integrity. Participants with IR exposure displayed higher mitochondrial redox activity (4480 [1202] mean fluorescence intensity [MFI]/min versus 3376 [983] MFI/min, p < .001) and lower mitochondrial membrane potential (0.89 [0.09] MFI versus 0.95 [0.11] MFI, p = .001), and reduced mtDNA integrity (1.18 [0.21] rel exp versus 3.48 [1.57] rel exp, p < .001) compared with nonexposed individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the notion that psychological distress and potential stressors related to toxic agents might influence various aspects of mitochondrial biology, and that chronic stress exposure can lead to molecular and functional recalibrations among mitochondria.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares , Angústia Psicológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
7.
Clin Hematol Int ; 3(3): 77-82, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820612

RESUMO

The use of convalescent plasma (CP) from individuals recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a promising therapeutic modality for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CP has been in use for at least a century to provide passive immunity against a number of diseases, and was recently proposed by the World Health Organization for human Ebola virus infection. Only a few small studies have so far been published on patients with COVID-19 and concomitant hematological malignancies (HM). The Italian Hematology Alliance on HM and COVID-19 has found that HM patients with COVID-19 clinically perform more poorly than those with either HM or COVID-19 alone. A COVID-19 infection in patients with B-cell lymphoma is associated with impaired generation of neutralizing antibody titers and lowered clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Treatment with CP was seen to increase antibody titers in all patients and to improve clinical response in 80% of patients examined. However, a recent study has reported impaired production of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in an immunosuppressed individual treated with CP, possibly supporting the notion of virus escape, particularly in immunocompromised individuals where prolonged viral replication occurs. This may limit the efficacy of CP treatment in at least some HM patients. More recently, it has been shown that CP may provide a neutralising effect against B.1.1.7 and other SARS-CoV-2 variants, thus expanding its application in clinical practice. More extensive studies are needed to further assess the use of CP in COVID-19-infected HM patients.

8.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(10): 5741-5751, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease, with few available treatment options. Identification of novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers is a priority. In MPM patients, BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) alterations are detected in about 60% of cases and miR-31 seems to be involved in BAP1 regulation at post-transcriptional level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between BAP1 and miR-31 in MPM and their prognostic role in MPM. METHODS: The expression of BAP1 and miR-31 was analyzed in tissues of 55 MPM patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test was used to investigate differences among subgroups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate independent predictors of survival. RESULTS: In the whole cohort, loss of BAP1 was associated with a significant improvement in OS, but not in PFS. Lower miR-31 levels were detected in epithelioid MPM (e-MPM) compared to the non-epithelioid subtypes and resulted associated with BAP1 loss. By looking at the e-MPM subgroup, loss of BAP1 was not able to predict clinical outcome. Conversely, miR-31 levels were significantly associated with PFS (P=0.028), but not with OS (P=0.059). By combining the two biomarkers, e-MPM patients with BAP1 loss/low miR-31 levels showed a better prognosis compared to the ones with BAP1 retained/high miR-31 levels (median OS 22.6 vs. 17.0 months, P=0.017 and median PFS 8.7 vs. 5.1 months, P=0.020). The BAP1 and miR-31 combination was confirmed at multivariate analysis as an independent prognostic factor for e-MPM patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary study, we found that the prognostic stratification of e-MPM patients may be improved by simultaneously assessing of BAP1 status and miR-31 levels. The two-biomarker score is useful to identify a subgroup of e-MPM tumors characterized by BAP1 retained and high miR-31 levels with worse clinical outcome.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 263: 109262, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715462

RESUMO

West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are the two most widespread mosquito-borne flaviviruses in Europe causing severe neuroinvasive disease in humans. Here, following standardization of the murine model with wild type (wt) viruses, we engineered WNV and USUV genome by reverse genetics. A recombinant virus carrying the 5' UTR of WNV within the USUV genome backbone (r-USUV5'-UTR WNV) was rescued; when administered to mice this virus did not cause signs or disease as wt USUV suggesting that 5' UTR of a marked neurotropic parental WNV was not per se a virulence factor. Interestingly, a chimeric virus carrying the envelope (E) protein of USUV in the WNV genome backbone (r-WNVE-USUV) showed an attenuated profile in mice compared to wt WNV but significantly more virulent than wt USUV. Moreover, except when tested against serum samples originating from a live WNV infection, r-WNVE-USUV showed an identical antigenic profile to wt USUV confirming that E is also the major immunodominant protein of USUV.


Assuntos
Flavivirus , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Flavivirus/genética , Flavivirus/imunologia , Genoma Viral , Camundongos , Virulência , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade
10.
Oral Oncol ; 122: 105554, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: identification of the miRNA expression profile in sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP) as a tool to evaluate the risk of transformation into sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: paired tumour tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from SNIP and SNSCC patients who had undergone surgical resection and used for next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based miRNome analysis. SNIP tissues with concomitant dysplasia (SNIP-DISP) were used as malignant transition samples. By comparing the deregulated miRNAs in SNIP and SNSCC, an miRNA cluster was identified and its physio- and clinical-pathological value was predicted. RESULTS: NGS identified 54 miRNAs significantly down- and upregulated in SNIP. Among them, the miR-449 cluster was upregulated in SNIP and could differentiate the benign tumour from normal tissue. Notably, the miR-449 cluster was found to be significantly underexpressed in SNSCC, and the cluster markedly changed in SNIP during the malignant transition into SNSCC. miRNA enrichment analysis and GO analysis revealed that miR-449 is involved in apoptotic and cell proliferation pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that miR-449 may be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of SNIP and its malignant transformation into SNSCC. miR-449 might therefore be a useful tumour biomarker in patients with SNIP and may also have the potential to be used as a tool for detecting and monitoring the course of the possible malignant transformation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Papiloma Invertido , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Papiloma Invertido/genética , Neoplasias dos Seios Paranasais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
11.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 681354, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222404

RESUMO

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus enzootically maintained in birds. However, it can incidentally infect other species, leading to sometimes severe clinical consequences like in horses and especially human beings. Despite the topic relevance, the presence and distribution of WNV are currently unknown in Namibia. Several countries implement surveillance systems based on virus detection in birds, mosquitoes, and vertebrate species including horses. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by serologically evaluating WNV exposure in Namibian donkeys, whose population is remarkably bigger than the horse one. Forty-seven out of 260 sampled animals showed neutralizing antibodies against WNV (18.07% [95% CI = 13.59-23.30%]), demonstrating its circulation in all country territory, although, with apparent regional differences. On the contrary, no association with animal age or sex could be identified. The present study demonstrates the widespread presence of WNV in Namibia as well as the practical utility and effectiveness of donkeys as sentinels for infection surveillance. Due to clinical relevance, vaccination campaigns should be considered for horses of high economic or genetic value. Additionally, the burden of WNV infection on human health should be carefully evaluated.

12.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(3): 244.e1-244.e8, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781522

RESUMO

The optimal stem cell (SC) mobilization strategy for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) remains a matter of debate. Possible approaches include low or high doses of cyclophosphamide (Cy), other chemotherapeutic agents, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone. The scope of the study was to compare low-dose Cy plus G-CSF versus intermediate-high-dose Cy plus G-CSF versus G-CSF alone for SC mobilization in MM, in terms of efficacy and safety. We retrospectively analyzed 422 MM patients undergoing SC mobilization in 6 Italian centers, including 188 patients who received low-dose Cy (LD-Cy group, defined as 2 g/m2), 163 patients who received intermediate-high-dose Cy (HD-Cy group, defined as ≥ 3 g/m2), and 71 patients who received G-CSF alone (G-CSF group). The median peak of circulating CD34+ cells was 77/µL in the LD-Cy group, 92/µL in the HD-Cy group, and 55/µL in the G-CSF group (P = .0001). The median amount of SCs collected was 9.1 × 106/kg, 9.7 × 106/kg, and 5.6 × 106/kg in the 3 groups, respectively (P = .0001). The rate of mobilization failure (defined as failure to collect ≥2 × 106/kg) was 3.7% in the LD-Cy group, 3.4% in the HD-Cy group, and 4.3% in the G-CSF group (P = .9). The target SC dose of at least 4 × 106/kg was reached in 90.4%, 91.1%, and 78.6% of the patients in these 3 groups, respectively (P = .014). The "on demand" use of plerixafor was higher in the G-CSF group (76%) compared with the LD-Cy group (19%) and the HD-Cy group (6%). In multivariate analysis, G-CSF mobilization and previous use of melphalan or radiotherapy were independently associated with failure to collect the target SC dose of ≥4 × 106/kg. No impacts of age, blood counts, or previous treatment with lenalidomide, bortezomib, or carfilzomib were observed. Our results suggest that LD-Cy may be considered for successful SC mobilization in patients with MM.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos , Mieloma Múltiplo , Antígenos CD34 , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging neurotropic arthropod-borne virus recently involved in massive die offs of wild birds predominantly reported in Europe. Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clinical signs, humans infected by USUV can develop neuroinvasive pathologies (including encephalitis and meningoencephalitis). Similar to other flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus, USUV is capable of reaching the central nervous system. However, the neuropathogenesis of USUV is still poorly understood, and the virulence of the specific USUV lineages is currently unknown. One of the major complexities of the study of USUV pathogenesis is the presence of a great diversity of lineages circulating at the same time and in the same location. METHODS: The aim of this work was to determine the neurovirulence of isolates from the six main lineages circulating in Europe using mouse model and several neuronal cell lines (neurons, microglia, pericytes, brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and in vitro Blood-Brain Barrier model). RESULTS: Our results indicate that all strains are neurotropic but have different virulence profiles. The Europe 2 strain, previously described as being involved in several clinical cases, induced the shortest survival time and highest mortality in vivo and appeared to be more virulent and persistent in microglial, astrocytes, and brain endothelial cells, while also inducing an atypical cytopathic effect. Moreover, an amino acid substitution (D3425E) was specifically identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain of the NS5 protein of this lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these data show a broad neurotropism for USUV in the central nervous system with lineage-dependent virulence. Our results will help to better understand the biological and epidemiological diversity of USUV infection.


Assuntos
Flavivirus/fisiologia , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Imunocompetência/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/virologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aves , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Chlorocebus aethiops , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Células Vero , Virulência/fisiologia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108933, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278734

RESUMO

There is strong evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, originated from an animal reservoir. However, the exact mechanisms of emergence, the host species involved, and the risk to domestic and agricultural animals are largely unknown. Some domestic animal species, including cats, ferrets, and minks, have been demonstrated to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while others, such as pigs and chickens, are not. Importantly, the susceptibility of ruminants to SARS-CoV-2 is unknown, even though they often live in close proximity to humans. We investigated the replication and tissue tropism of two different SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the respiratory tract of three farm animal species - cattle, sheep, and pigs - using respiratory ex vivo organ cultures (EVOCs). We demonstrate that the respiratory tissues of cattle and sheep, but not of pigs, sustain viral replication in vitro of both isolates and that SARS-CoV-2 is associated to ACE2-expressing cells of the respiratory tract of both ruminant species. Intriguingly, a SARS-CoV-2 isolate containing an amino acid substitution at site 614 of the spike protein (mutation D614G) replicated at higher magnitude in ex vivo tissues of both ruminant species, supporting previous results obtained using human cells. These results suggest that additional in vivo experiments involving several ruminant species are warranted to determine their potential role in the epidemiology of this virus.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Ruminantes/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Tropismo Viral , Replicação Viral , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Bovinos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Ovinos/virologia , Suínos/virologia
16.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062268

RESUMO

In Italy, West Nile virus (WNV) appeared for the first time in the Tuscany region in 1998. After 10 years of absence, it re-appeared in the areas surrounding the Po River delta, affecting eight provinces in three regions. Thereafter, WNV epidemics caused by genetically divergent isolates have been documented every year in the country. Since 2018, only WNV Lineage 2 has been reported in the Italian territory. In October 2020, WNV Lineage 1 (WNV-L1) re-emerged in Italy, in the Campania region. This is the first occurrence of WNV-L1 detection in the Italian territory since 2017. WNV was detected in the internal organs of a goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). The RNA extracted in the goshawk tissue samples was sequenced, and a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was performed by a maximum-likelihood tree. Genome analysis, conducted on the goshawk WNV complete genome sequence, indicates that the strain belongs to the WNV-L1 Western-Mediterranean (WMed) cluster. Moreover, a close phylogenetic similarity is observed between the goshawk strain, the 2008-2011 group of Italian sequences, and European strains belonging to the Wmed cluster. Our results evidence the possibility of both a new re-introduction or unnoticed silent circulation in Italy, and the strong importance of keeping the WNV surveillance system in the Italian territory active.


Assuntos
Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/classificação , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Itália , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Análise de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339456

RESUMO

Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occurred in Namibia in 2010 and 2011. Complete genome characterization was obtained from virus isolates collected during disease outbreaks in southern Namibia in 2010 and from wildlife in Etosha National Park in 2011, close to the area where RVF outbreaks occurred in domestic livestock. The virus strains were sequenced using Sanger sequencing (Namibia_2010) or next generation sequencing (Namibia_2011). A sequence-independent, single-primer amplification (SISPA) protocol was used in combination with the Illumina Next 500 sequencer. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments of RVF virus (RVFV) provided evidence that two distinct RVFV strains circulated in the country. The strain collected in Namibia in 2010 is genetically similar to RVFV strains circulating in South Africa in 2009 and 2010, confirming that the outbreaks reported in the southern part of Namibia in 2010 were caused by possible dissemination of the infection from South Africa. Isolates collected in 2011 were close to RVFV isolates from 2010 collected in humans in Sudan and which belong to the large lineage containing RVFV strains that caused an outbreak in 2006-2008 in eastern Africa. This investigation showed that the RVFV strains circulating in Namibia in 2010 and 2011 were from two different introductions and that RVFV has the ability to move across regions. This supports the need for risk-based surveillance and monitoring.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Febre do Vale de Rift/epidemiologia , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , História do Século XXI , Itália/epidemiologia , Gado , Namíbia , Filogenia , Febre do Vale de Rift/história
18.
EFSA J ; 18(3): e06041, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020705

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by a broad spectrum of mosquito species, especially Aedes and Culex genus, to animals (domestic and wild ruminants and camels) and humans. Rift Valley fever is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Arabian Peninsula, with periodic epidemics characterised by 5-15 years of inter-epizootic periods. In the last two decades, RVF was notified in new African regions (e.g. Sahel), RVF epidemics occurred more frequently and low-level enzootic virus circulation has been demonstrated in livestock in various areas. Recent outbreaks in a French overseas department and some seropositive cases detected in Turkey, Tunisia and Libya raised the attention of the EU for a possible incursion into neighbouring countries. The movement of live animals is the most important pathway for RVF spread from the African endemic areas to North Africa and the Middle East. The movement of infected animals and infected vectors when shipped by flights, containers or road transport is considered as other plausible pathways of introduction into Europe. The overall risk of introduction of RVF into EU through the movement of infected animals is very low in all the EU regions and in all MSs (less than one epidemic every 500 years), given the strict EU animal import policy. The same level of risk of introduction in all the EU regions was estimated also considering the movement of infected vectors, with the highest level for Belgium, Greece, Malta, the Netherlands (one epidemic every 228-700 years), mainly linked to the number of connections by air and sea transports with African RVF infected countries. Although the EU territory does not seem to be directly exposed to an imminent risk of RVFV introduction, the risk of further spread into countries neighbouring the EU and the risks of possible introduction of infected vectors, suggest that EU authorities need to strengthen their surveillance and response capacities, as well as the collaboration with North African and Middle Eastern countries.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986725

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arboviral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but can also cause illness in humans. The increasing impact of RVF in Africa and Middle East and the risk of expansion to other areas such as Europe, where competent mosquitos are already established, require the implementation of efficient surveillance programs in animal populations. For that, it is pivotal to regularly assess the performance of existing diagnostic tests and to evaluate the capacity of veterinary labs of endemic and non-endemic countries to detect the infection in an accurate and timely manner. In this context, the animal virology network of the MediLabSecure project organized between October 2016 and March 2017 an external quality assessment (EQA) to evaluate the RVF diagnostic capacities of beneficiary veterinary labs. This EQA was conceived as the last step of a training curriculum that included 2 diagnostic workshops that were organized by INIA-CISA (Spain) in 2015 and 2016. Seventeen veterinary diagnostic labs from 17 countries in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions participated in this EQA. The exercise consisted of two panels of samples for molecular and serological detection of the virus. The laboratories were also provided with positive controls and all the kits and reagents necessary to perform the recommended diagnostic techniques. All the labs were able to apply the different protocols and to provide the results on time. The performance was good in the molecular panel with 70.6% of participants reporting 100% correct results, and excellent in the serological panel with 100% correct results reported by 94.1% of the labs. This EQA provided a good overview of the RVFV diagnostic capacities of the involved labs and demonstrated that most of them were able to correctly identify the virus genome and antibodies in different animal samples.


Assuntos
Febre do Vale de Rift/diagnóstico , Animais , Mar Negro , Culicidae , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mar Mediterrâneo , Febre do Vale de Rift/virologia , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/genética , Ruminantes
20.
Pathogens ; 9(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858963

RESUMO

Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging arbovirus isolated in 1959 (Usutu River, Swaziland). Previously restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, the virus was introduced in Europe in 1996. While the USUV has received little attention in Africa, the virus emergence has prompted numerous studies with robust epidemiological surveillance programs in Europe. The natural transmission cycle of USUV involves mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (amplifying hosts) with humans and other mammals considered incidental ("dead-end") hosts. In Africa, the virus was isolated in mosquitoes, rodents and birds and serologically detected in horses and dogs. In Europe, USUV was detected in bats, whereas antibodies were found in different animal species (horses, dogs, squirrels, wild boar, deer and lizards). While bird mortalities were not reported in Africa, in Europe USUV was shown to be highly pathogenic for several bird species, especially blackbirds (Turdus merula) and great gray owls (Strix nebulosa). Furthermore, neurotropism of USUV for humans was reported for the first time in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Epizootics and genetic diversity of USUV in different bird species as well as detection of the virus in mosquitoes suggest repeated USUV introductions into Europe with endemization in some countries. The zoonotic potential of USUV has been reported in a growing number of human cases. Clinical cases of neuroinvasive disease and USUV fever, as well as seroconversion in blood donors were reported in Europe since 2009. While most USUV strains detected in humans, birds and mosquitoes belong to European USUV lineages, several reports indicate the presence of African lineages as well. Since spreading trends of USUV are likely to continue, continuous multidisciplinary interventions ("One Health" concept) should be conducted for monitoring and prevention of this emerging arboviral infection.

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