Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 56
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1223-1232, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130282

RESUMO

Aberrant signaling through pathways controlling cell response to extracellular stimuli constitutes a central theme in disorders affecting development. Signaling through RAS and the MAPK cascade controls a variety of cell decisions in response to cytokines, hormones, and growth factors, and its upregulation causes Noonan syndrome (NS), a developmental disorder whose major features include a distinctive facies, a wide spectrum of cardiac defects, short stature, variable cognitive impairment, and predisposition to malignancies. NS is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in more than ten genes have been reported to underlie this disorder. Despite the large number of genes implicated, about 10%-20% of affected individuals with a clinical diagnosis of NS do not have mutations in known RASopathy-associated genes, indicating that additional unidentified genes contribute to the disease, when mutated. By using a mixed strategy of functional candidacy and exome sequencing, we identify RRAS2 as a gene implicated in NS in six unrelated subjects/families. We show that the NS-causing RRAS2 variants affect highly conserved residues localized around the nucleotide binding pocket of the GTPase and are predicted to variably affect diverse aspects of RRAS2 biochemical behavior, including nucleotide binding, GTP hydrolysis, and interaction with effectors. Additionally, all pathogenic variants increase activation of the MAPK cascade and variably impact cell morphology and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Finally, we provide a characterization of the clinical phenotype associated with RRAS2 mutations.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1040-1059, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079900

RESUMO

The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP) genes code for a set of RNA-binding proteins that function primarily in the spliceosome C complex. Pathogenic variants in these genes can drive neurodegeneration, through a mechanism involving excessive stress-granule formation, or developmental defects, through mechanisms that are not known. Here, we report four unrelated individuals who have truncating or missense variants in the same C-terminal region of hnRNPR and who have multisystem developmental defects including abnormalities of the brain and skeleton, dysmorphic facies, brachydactyly, seizures, and hypoplastic external genitalia. We further identified in the literature a fifth individual with a truncating variant. RNA sequencing of primary fibroblasts reveals that these HNRNPR variants drive significant changes in the expression of several homeobox genes, as well as other transcription factors, such as LHX9, TBX1, and multiple HOX genes, that are considered fundamental regulators of embryonic and gonad development. Higher levels of retained intronic HOX sequences and lost splicing events in the HOX cluster are observed in cells carrying HNRNPR variants, suggesting that impaired splicing is at least partially driving HOX deregulation. At basal levels, stress-granule formation appears normal in primary and transfected cells expressing HNRNPR variants. However, these cells reveal profound recovery defects, where stress granules fail to disassemble properly, after exposure to oxidative stress. This study establishes an essential role for HNRNPR in human development and points to a mechanism that may unify other "spliceosomopathies" linked to variants that drive multi-system congenital defects and are found in hnRNPs.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

RESUMO

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1081-1089, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778173

RESUMO

Hexokinase 1 (HK1) phosphorylates glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, the first rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Homozygous and heterozygous variants in HK1 have been shown to cause autosomal recessive non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia, autosomal recessive Russe type hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). We report seven patients from six unrelated families with a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, structural brain abnormality, and visual impairments in whom we identified four novel, de novo missense variants in the N-terminal half of HK1. Hexokinase activity in red blood cells of two patients was normal, suggesting that the disease mechanism is not due to loss of hexokinase enzymatic activity.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2036-2042, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739909

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the clinical characteristics of patients with variants in TCF20, we describe 27 patients, 26 of whom were identified via exome sequencing. We compare detailed clinical data with 17 previously reported patients. METHODS: Patients were ascertained through molecular testing laboratories performing exome sequencing (and other testing) with orthogonal confirmation; collaborating referring clinicians provided detailed clinical information. RESULTS: The cohort of 27 patients all had novel variants, and ranged in age from 2 to 68 years. All had developmental delay/intellectual disability. Autism spectrum disorders/autistic features were reported in 69%, attention disorders or hyperactivity in 67%, craniofacial features (no recognizable facial gestalt) in 67%, structural brain anomalies in 24%, and seizures in 12%. Additional features affecting various organ systems were described in 93%. In a majority of patients, we did not observe previously reported findings of postnatal overgrowth or craniosynostosis, in comparison with earlier reports. CONCLUSION: We provide valuable data regarding the prognosis and clinical manifestations of patients with variants in TCF20.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

14.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TANGO2-related disorders were first described in 2016 and prior to this publication, only 15 individuals with TANGO2-related disorder were described in the literature. Primary features include metabolic crisis with rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy, intellectual disability, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias. We assess whether genotype and phenotype of TANGO2-related disorder has expanded since the initial discovery and determine the efficacy of exome sequencing (ES) as a diagnostic tool for detecting variants. METHODS: We present a series of 14 individuals from 11 unrelated families with complex medical and developmental histories, in whom ES or microarray identified compound heterozygous or homozygous variants in TANGO2. RESULTS: The initial presentation of patients with TANGO2-related disorders can be variable, including primarily neurological presentations. We expand the phenotype and genotype for TANGO2, highlighting the variability of the disorder. CONCLUSION: TANGO2-related disorders can have a more diverse clinical presentation than previously anticipated. We illustrate the utility of routine ES data reanalysis whereby discovery of novel disease genes can lead to a diagnosis in previously unsolved cases and the need for additional copy-number variation analysis when ES is performed.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 969-972, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446546

RESUMO

Myelin Regulatory Factor (MYRF) is a transcription factor that has previously been associated with the control of the expression of myelin-related genes. However, it is highly expressed in human tissues and mouse embryonic tissues outside the nervous system such as the stomach, lung, and small intestine. It has not previously been reported as a cause of any Mendelian disease. We report here two males with Scimitar syndrome [MIM 106700], and other features including penoscrotal hypospadias, cryptorchidism, pulmonary hypoplasia, tracheal anomalies, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cleft spleen, thymic involution, and thyroid fibrosis. Gross neurologic functioning appears to be within normal limits. In both individuals a de novo variant in MYRF was identified using exome sequencing. Neither variant is found in gnomAD. Heterozygous variants in MYRF should be considered in patients with variants of Scimitar syndrome and urogenital anomalies.

16.
Child Neurol Open ; 4: 2329048X17733214, 2017 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051910

RESUMO

Synaptosomal-associated protein 29 (SNAP29) is a t-SNARE protein that is implicated in intracellular vesicle fusion. Mutations in the SNAP29 gene have been associated with cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome (CEDNIK). In patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, mutations in SNAP29 on the nondeleted chromosome are linked to similar ichthyotic and neurological phenotypes. Here, the authors report a patient with cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome who presented with global developmental delay, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, optic nerve dysplasia, gaze apraxia, and dysmorphic features. He has developed ichthyosis and palmoplantar keratoderma as he has grown. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in SNAP29 gene designated as c.85C>T (p.Arg29X). The authors compare the findings in the proband with previously reported cases. The previously unreported mutation in this patient and his phenotype add to the characterization of cerebral dysgenesis, neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma syndrome and the accumulating scientific evidence that implicates synaptic protein dysfunction in various neuroectodermal conditions.

17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(24): 4937-4950, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040572

RESUMO

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors essential to various cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, DNA repair, and iron homeostasis. A steadily increasing number of disorders are being associated with disrupted biogenesis of Fe-S clusters. Here, we conducted whole-exome sequencing of patients with optic atrophy and other neurological signs of mitochondriopathy and identified 17 individuals from 13 unrelated families with recessive mutations in FDXR, encoding the mitochondrial membrane-associated flavoprotein ferrodoxin reductase required for electron transport from NADPH to cytochrome P450. In vitro enzymatic assays in patient fibroblast cells showed deficient ferredoxin NADP reductase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction evidenced by low oxygen consumption rates (OCRs), complex activities, ATP production and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Such defects were rescued by overexpression of wild-type FDXR. Moreover, we found that mice carrying a spontaneous mutation allelic to the most common mutation found in patients displayed progressive gait abnormalities and vision loss, in addition to biochemical defects consistent with the major clinical features of the disease. Taken together, these data provide the first demonstration that germline, hypomorphic mutations in FDXR cause a novel mitochondriopathy and optic atrophy in humans.


Assuntos
Ferredoxinas/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Sulfito Redutase (Ferredoxina)/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mutagênese , Mutação , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sulfito Redutase (Ferredoxina)/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(24): 4849-4860, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036646

RESUMO

We present eight patients with de novo, deleterious sequence variants in the PBX1 gene. PBX1 encodes a three amino acid loop extension (TALE) homeodomain transcription factor that forms multimeric complexes with TALE and HOX proteins to regulate target gene transcription during development. As previously reported, Pbx1 homozygous mutant mice (Pbx1-/-) develop malformations and hypoplasia or aplasia of multiple organs, including the craniofacial skeleton, ear, branchial arches, heart, lungs, diaphragm, gut, kidneys, and gonads. Clinical findings similar to those in Pbx mutant mice were observed in all patients with varying expressivity and severity, including external ear anomalies, abnormal branchial arch derivatives, heart malformations, diaphragmatic hernia, renal hypoplasia and ambiguous genitalia. All patients but one had developmental delays. Previously reported patients with congenital anomalies affecting the kidney and urinary tract exhibited deletions and loss of function variants in PBX1. The sequence variants in our cases included missense substitutions adjacent to the PBX1 homeodomain (p.Arg184Pro, p.Met224Lys, and p.Arg227Pro) or within the homeodomain (p.Arg234Pro, and p.Arg235Gln), whereas p.Ser262Glnfs*2, and p.Arg288* yielded truncated PBX1 proteins. Functional studies on five PBX1 sequence variants revealed perturbation of intrinsic, PBX-dependent transactivation ability and altered nuclear translocation, suggesting abnormal interactions between mutant PBX1 proteins and wild-type TALE or HOX cofactors. It is likely that the mutations directly affect the transcription of PBX1 target genes to impact embryonic development. We conclude that deleterious sequence variants in PBX1 cause intellectual disability and pleiotropic malformations resembling those in Pbx1 mutant mice, arguing for strong conservation of gene function between these two species.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fator de Transcrição 1 de Leucemia de Células Pré-B/genética , Fator de Transcrição 1 de Leucemia de Células Pré-B/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Genet Med ; 19(10): 1171-1178, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425981

RESUMO

PurposeThe aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in fetuses with ultrasound anomalies that resulted in fetal demise or pregnancy termination. The results were also utilized to aid in the identification of candidate genes for fetal development and to expand the clinical phenotype of known genetic conditions.MethodsWES was performed on specimens from 84 deceased fetuses. Data were analyzed and final results were classified into one of four categories: positive, possible, negative, and candidate gene only. WES analysis was predominantly performed in fetus-parent trios or quads (61%, n=52).ResultsOverall, 20% (n = 17) of cases were positive, 45% (n=38) were possible, 9% (n=7) had only candidate gene variants and 26% (n = 22) tested negative. The diagnostic yield for definitive findings for trio analysis was 24% (n = 11) compared to 14% (n = 4) for singletons. The most frequently reported ultrasound anomalies were central nervous system (37%, n = 31), hydrops/edema (36%, n = 30), and cardiovascular anomalies (31%, n = 26).ConclusionOur experience supports the use of WES to identify the molecular etiology of fetal ultrasound anomalies, to identify candidate genes involved in fetal development, and to expand our knowledge of the clinical phenotype of known genetic conditions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Aborto Induzido , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA