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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and severe complication of abdominal surgery, it is associated with increased length of hospital stay, healthcare costs, and mortality. Further, pulmonary complication rates have risen during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This study explored the potential cost-effectiveness of administering preoperative chlorhexidine mouthwash versus no-mouthwash at reducing postoperative pneumonia among abdominal surgery patients. METHODS: A decision analytic model taking the South African healthcare provider perspective was constructed to compare costs and benefits of mouthwash versus no-mouthwash-surgery at 30 days after abdominal surgery. We assumed two scenarios: (i) the absence of COVID-19; (ii) the presence of COVID-19. Input parameters were collected from published literature including prospective cohort studies and expert opinion. Effectiveness was measured as proportion of pneumonia patients. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of parameter uncertainties. The results of the probabilistic sensitivity analysis were presented using cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. RESULTS: In the absence of COVID-19, mouthwash had lower average costs compared to no-mouthwash-surgery, $3,675 (R 63,770) versus $3,958 (R 68,683), and lower proportion of pneumonia patients, 0.029 versus 0.042 (dominance of mouthwash intervention). In the presence of COVID-19, the increase in pneumonia rate due to COVID-19, made mouthwash more dominant as it was more beneficial to reduce pneumonia patients through administering mouthwash. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curves shown that mouthwash surgery is likely to be cost-effective between $0 (R0) and $15,000 (R 260,220) willingness to pay thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Both the absence and presence of SARS-CoV-2, mouthwash is likely to be cost saving intervention for reducing pneumonia after abdominal surgery. However, the available evidence for the effectiveness of mouthwash was extrapolated from cardiac surgery; there is now an urgent need for a robust clinical trial on the intervention on non-cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , COVID-19 , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Pandemias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul
2.
Res Involv Engagem ; 7(1): 50, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Involving patients and communities with health research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) contributes to increasing the likelihood that research is relevant in local context and caters to the needs of the population, including vulnerable and marginalised groups. When done right, it can also support empowerment of wider communities in taking ownership of their own health, lead to increased access and uptake of health services and generally improve the wellbeing of individuals. However, the evidence base of how to undertake successful community engagement and involvement (CEI) activities in LMICs is sparse. This paper aims to add to the available literature and describes how the Global Health Research Unit on Global Surgery's (GSU) team in Ghana worked collaboratively with the Unit's team in the UK and a UK-based Public Advisory Group to involve community stakeholders in rural Ghana with surgical research. The aim was to explore ways of reaching out to patients and community leaders in rural Ghana to have conversations that inform the relevance, acceptability, and feasibility of a clinical trial, called TIGER. METHODS: As this kind of larger scale involvement of community stakeholders with research was a novel way of working for the team in Ghana, a reflective approach was taken to outline step-by-step how the GSU team planned and undertook these involvement activities with 31 hernia patients, two Chiefs (community leaders), a community finance officer and a local politician in various locations in Ghana. The barriers that were experienced and the benefits of involving community stakeholders are highlighted with the aim to add to the evidence base of CEI in LMICs. RESULTS: GSU members from the UK and Ghana planned and organised successful involvement activities that focused on establishing the best way to talk to patients and other community stakeholders about their experiences of living with hernias and undergoing hernia repairs, and their perceptions of the impact of hernias on the wider community. The Ghanaian team suggested 1:1 conversations in easily accessible locations for rural patient contributors, creating a welcoming environment and addressing contributors in their local dialects. A UK-based Public Advisory Group helped in the initial stages of planning these conversations by highlighting potential barriers when approaching rural communities and advising on how to phrase questions around personal experiences. Conversations mainly focused on understanding the needs of hernia patients in rural Ghana to then incorporate these in the design of the TIGER trial to ensure its relevance, acceptability and feasibility. When talking to patient contributors, the GSU teams found that they were more likely to open up when they knew members of the team and the opportunity to speak to local leaders only arose because of the Ghanaian team members being well-respected amongst communities. The experiences of the patient and community contributors led to changes in the study protocol, such as including women in the patient cohort for the trial, and allowed the GSU teams to confirm the relevance and acceptability of this trial. These conversations also taught the team a lot about perceptions of health in rural communities, allowed the Ghanaian team to establish relationships with community leaders that can be utilised when future studies need input from the public, and has changed the minds of the Ghanaian research team about the importance of involving patients with research. CONCLUSION: This paper contributes to the evidence base on successful CEI activities in LMICs by providing an example of how CEI can be planned and organised, and the benefits this provides. The conversations the teams had with patient contributors in Ghana are an example of successful patient consultations. Even though there are certain limitations to the extent of these involvement activities, a solid foundation has been built for researchers and community stakeholders to establish relationships for ongoing involvement.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 276: 113665, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810889

RESUMO

We use individual-level panel data from the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing over the period 2004-2013 to investigate the links between financial health and obesity. We find that having no debt (high savings) is associated with a 3.6 (1.6) percentage point lower probability of having a Body Mass Index in excess of 30. Our results are robust to using different estimation methods, to measuring financial health with a subjective indicator, and adiposity with waist circumference. A lower rate of time preference and lower stress levels may be mechanisms which help to explain the association between good financial health and obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade , Envelhecimento , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141981

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: PhotoVoice as a participatory methodology has been used within mental health to support marginalized communities in addressing the challenges they encounter. The PhotoVoice methodology aims to encourage and foster collaborative and equal partnerships. However, reports of previous projects highlight that not every stage of the process remains participant-centric. There is limited reporting on participant involvement in the latter stages of projects, such as exhibition design. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: It provides a detailed description of the phases involved in planning and executing a mental health PhotoVoice project. It provides an illustration of how collaborative partnerships can extend into the design and construction of a photography exhibition and its narrative. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: PhotoVoice is an ideal methodology for use within the field of mental health nursing as it promotes service user inclusion in research, places value on lived experiences and provides a creative medium through which service users and family members can advocate for themselves and others. PhotoVoice is an effective and creative methodology for disseminating and communicating both the individual and collective outcomes to the general public. When implementing this methodology, clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant of the necessity to include participants as equal partners at every stage, including in the design of photography exhibitions and disseminating the findings to academic and public audiences. ABSTRACT: Introduction PhotoVoice is a participatory methodology in which marginalized communities represent their lived experiences through photography. While the methodology aims to foster partnerships throughout all phases, the literature suggests that in the field of mental health, some phases are often completed without participant involvement. Aims This paper elaborates on how the PhotoVoice method was used to engage service users and family members around their experience of involvement in a co-produced and co-facilitated mental health education intervention, in order to enhance public and policymakers knowledge of the project. Methods Ten participants were recruited and trained in the PhotoVoice method. Participants documented, through photography, their experiences of involvement in the education intervention. Following this, participants came together to co-produce and disseminate the photography exhibition to the public. Results PhotoVoice proved to be a flexible and creative method by which to include marginalized groups. By adhering to the collaborative principles of the methodology, service users and family members can retain decision-making power from the project's inception to its conclusion. Implications for Practice PhotoVoice is ideal for use within mental health nursing as it coincides with the recovery principle of promoting collaborative partnership between service users, family members and clinicians. Mental health nurses work directly with service users and family members throughout their recovery journey. The PhotoVoice methodology is coherent with the recovery principles of empowerment, collaboration and prioritizing the lived experiences of the individual. As such, this methodology has the potential to enhance greatly what mental health nurses can know and understand about the lived experiences of service users and family members. In turn, engaging with the PhotoVoice methodology can provide a platform from which further collaborative engagement between service users, family members and clinicians can take place.

5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 1023, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a strong evidence base and policy recommendation supporting the implementation of psychoeducation interventions within the mental health system, equitable access for many service users and family members has not been achieved. To enhance translation, developing an evidence-base around the factors that influence implementation of interventions is critical. METHODS: The aim of the study was to explore the factors influencing implementation of a group cofacilitated recovery focused psychoeducation intervention. The study design was explorative qualitative descriptive, involving the collection of data through individual and focus group interviews with key stakeholders (n = 75) involved with the implementation within 14 mental health sites in the Republic of Ireland. The Consolidation Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used as a conceptual framework to guide data collection and analysis. RESULTS: Key enablers and barriers were identified across all CFIR domains of the framework with some factors (depending on context) being both an enabler and a barrier. Important factors in the outer setting domain included structural stability within national systems and the peer payment system, while the extent of a recovery-oriented culture, leadership, implementation readiness, and buy-in were influential factors in the inner setting. The characteristics of the intervention in terms of design, evidence-base and adaptability also shaped the intervention's implementation as did the knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy of facilitators. In terms of processes, implementation was influenced by the degree of engagement of key individuals who championed and supported the programme. The results highlight that while some of the barriers were specific to the programme, many reflected systemic and structural challenges within health services more generally. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the different layers of determinants to implementation of an intervention. Overcoming challenges will involve positive and ongoing engagement and collaboration across the full range of stakeholders that are active within each domain, including policy and operational levels. The quality of leadership at each domain level is of crucial importance to successful implementation.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Coleta de Dados , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda , Liderança , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a worldwide problem which has morbidity, mortality and financial consequences. The incidence rate of SSI is high in Low- and Middle-Income countries (LMICs) compared to high income countries, and the costly surgical complication can raise the potential risk of financial catastrophe. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to critically appraise studies on the cost of SSI in a range of LMIC studies and compare these estimates with a reference standard of high income European studies who have explored similar SSI costs. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken using searches of two electronic databases, EMBASE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, up to February 2019. Study characteristics, comparator group, methods and results were extracted by using a standard template. RESULTS: Studies from 15 LMIC and 16 European countries were identified and reviewed in full. The additional cost of SSI range (presented in 2017 international dollars) was similar in the LMIC ($174-$29,610) and European countries ($21-$34,000). Huge study design heterogeneity was encountered across the two settings. DISCUSSION: SSIs were revealed to have a significant cost burden in both LMICs and High Income Countries in Europe. The magnitude of the costs depends on the SSI definition used, severity of SSI, patient population, choice of comparator, hospital setting, and cost items included. Differences in study design affected the comparability across studies. There is need for multicentre studies with standardized data collection methods to capture relevant costs and consequences of the infection across income settings.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Saúde Global , Gastos em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/economia
7.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 29(6): 1067-1078, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462739

RESUMO

Despite health policy and research increasingly advocating for recovery-enabling principles to be better integrated into mental health services, finding solutions to enhance the translation of recovery policy into practice remains a challenge. This study sought to understand whether a co-facilitated group education intervention for service users and family members reached beyond the intervention and impacted the everyday recovery promoting beliefs and practices of the practitioners involved and the wider organization. The study employed a qualitative design involving semi-structured interviews with a purposively selected sample of 28 participants (mental health nurses and other members of the multidisciplinary team) who were involved in delivering the intervention. Data were analysed using thematic analysis, with the assistance of NVivo. Participants reported that not only did involvement with the programmes help them reconnect with the contextual realities of service user and family members lived experience, but it enabled them to move beyond traditional power relationships and pathologizing discourses. Having engaged with and experienced the feasibility and positive impact of the co-facilitation process practitioners' self-efficacy around partnership working and co-production was enhanced. In addition, those involved demonstrated a willingness to challenge paternalistic practices and advocate for the perspectives of service users and families to be further embedded within the organizational infrastructure and operational spaces. Providing mental health practitioners with real-life examples of partnership working and peer support in action within a co-facilitated psychoeducation context has potential to be a forum for promoting second-order change around recovery-oriented practice within mental health services.

8.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(6): 587-592, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of two rates of enteral feed advancement (18 vs 30 mL/kg/day) in very preterm and very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Within-trial economic evaluation alongside a multicentre, two-arm parallel group, randomised controlled trial (Speed of Increasing milk Feeds Trial). SETTING: 55 UK neonatal units from May 2013 to June 2015. PATIENTS: Infants born <32 weeks' gestation or <1500 g, receiving less than 30 mL/kg/day of milk at trial enrolment. Infants with a known severe congenital anomaly, no realistic chance of survival, or unlikely to be traceable for follow-up, were ineligible. INTERVENTIONS: When clinicians were ready to start advancing feed volumes, infants were randomised to receive daily increments in feed volume of 30 mL/kg (intervention) or 18 mL/kg (control). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cost per additional survivor without moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months of age corrected for prematurity. RESULTS: Average costs per infant were slightly higher for faster feeds compared with slower feeds (mean difference £267, 95% CI -6928 to 8117). Fewer infants achieved the principal outcome of survival without moderate to severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months in the faster feeds arm (802/1224 vs 848/1246). The stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis showed a likelihood of worse outcomes for faster feeds compared with slower feeds. CONCLUSIONS: The stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis shows faster feeds are broadly equivalent on cost grounds. However, in terms of outcomes at 24 months age (corrected for prematurity), faster feeds are harmful. Faster feeds should not be recommended on either cost or effectiveness grounds to achieve the primary outcome.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Nutrição Enteral/economia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(18): 1-94, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that slowly advancing enteral feeds in preterm infants may reduce necrotising enterocolitis but increase late-onset sepsis. The Speed of Increasing milk Feeds Trial (SIFT) compared two rates of feed advancement. OBJECTIVE: To determine if faster (30 ml/kg/day) or slower (18 ml/kg/day) daily feed increments improve survival without moderate or severe disability and other morbidities in very preterm or very low-birthweight infants. DESIGN: This was a multicentre, two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Randomisation was via a web-hosted minimisation algorithm. It was not possible to safely and completely blind caregivers and parents. SETTING: The setting was 55 UK neonatal units, from May 2013 to June 2015. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation or a weight of < 1500 g, who were receiving < 30 ml/kg/day of milk at trial enrolment. INTERVENTIONS: When clinicians were ready to start advancing feed volumes, the infant was randomised to receive daily feed increments of either 30 ml/kg/day or 18 ml/kg/day. In total, 1400 infants were allocated to fast feeds and 1404 infants were allocated to slow feeds. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months of age, corrected for gestational age. The secondary outcomes were mortality; moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months corrected for gestational age; death before discharge home; microbiologically confirmed or clinically suspected late-onset sepsis; necrotising enterocolitis (Bell's stage 2 or 3); time taken to reach full milk feeds (tolerating 150 ml/kg/day for 3 consecutive days); growth from birth to discharge; duration of parenteral feeding; time in intensive care; duration of hospital stay; diagnosis of cerebral palsy by a doctor or other health professional; and individual components of the definition of moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability. RESULTS: The results showed that survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months occurred in 802 out of 1224 (65.5%) infants allocated to faster increments and 848 out of 1246 (68.1%) infants allocated to slower increments (adjusted risk ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.01). There was no significant difference between groups in the risk of the individual components of the primary outcome or in the important hospital outcomes: late-onset sepsis (adjusted risk ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.07) or necrotising enterocolitis (adjusted risk ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.16). Cost-consequence analysis showed that the faster feed increment rate was less costly but also less effective than the slower rate in terms of achieving the primary outcome, so was therefore found to not be cost-effective. Four unexpected serious adverse events were reported, two in each group. None was assessed as being causally related to the intervention. LIMITATIONS: The study could not be blinded, so care may have been affected by knowledge of allocation. Although well powered for comparisons of all infants, subgroup comparisons were underpowered. CONCLUSIONS: No clear advantage was identified for the important outcomes in very preterm or very low-birthweight infants when milk feeds were advanced in daily volume increments of 30 ml/kg/day or 18 ml/kg/day. In terms of future work, the interaction of different milk types with increments merits further examination, as may different increments in infants at the extremes of gestation or birthweight. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76463425. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 18. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

10.
J Ment Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994955

RESUMO

Background: Despite evidence to support the effectiveness of psychoeducation for people experiencing mental health difficulties and their families, understanding issues around the implementation of such programmes is limited.Aim: The aim of this scoping review was to synthesise the peer-reviewed literature on barriers and enablers influencing the implementation of group psychoeducation in adult mental health services.Methods: Using a pre-defined search strategy and PRISMA guidelines, four databases were systematically searched. Two reviewers independently screened and applied exclusion/inclusion criteria. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies were included if they provided empirical evidence on the barriers and enablers. Three reviewers independently extracted data. Following this, data were analysed using a five-level implementation framework.Results: Eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Barriers to implementation were identified at all five levels of the framework: participant; practitioner; intervention; organisational; and structural level. Enablers to implementation were evident at four levels: participant; provider; intervention; and organisational level.Conclusions: The findings of the review provide preliminary information on factors that impact implementation. However, large-scale studies informed by implementation theories are required. In addition, other studies are needed to address the potential impact of different models of intervention and explore strategies to minimize obstacles and support sustainability.

11.
Ir J Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the critical role families play in the care and recovery journeys of people who experience enduring mental distress, they are often excluded by the mental health services in the care and decision-making process. International trends in mental health services emphasise promoting a partnership approach between service users, families and practitioners within an ethos of recovery. OBJECTIVE: This paper evaluated the acceptability of and initial outcomes from a clinician and peer co-led family information programme. METHODS: A sequential design was used involving a pre-post survey to assess changes in knowledge, confidence, advocacy, recovery and hope following programme participation and interviews with programme participants. Participants were recruited from mental health services running the information programme. In all, 86 participants completed both pre- and post-surveys, and 15 individuals consented to interviews. RESULTS: Survey findings indicated a statistically significant change in family members' knowledge about mental health issues, recovery attitudes, sense of hope and confidence. In addition, the interviews suggested that the programme had a number of other positive outcomes for family members, including increased communication with members of the mental health team and increased awareness of communication patterns within the family unit. Family members valued the opportunity to share their experiences in a 'safe' place, learn from each other and provide mutual support. CONCLUSION: The evaluation highlights the importance of developing information programmes in collaboration with family members as well as the strength of a programme that is jointly facilitated by a family member and clinician.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027986, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of using a blood pressure (BP) self-measurement kiosk-a solid-cuff sphygmomanometer combined with technology to integrate the BP readings into patient electronic medical records- to improve hypertension detection. DESIGN: A concurrent mixed-methods feasibility study incorporating observational and qualitative interview components. SETTING: Two English general practitioner (GP) surgeries. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients registered at participating surgeries. Staff working at these sites. INTERVENTIONS: BP self-measurement kiosks were placed in the waiting rooms for a 12-month period between 2015 and 2016 and compared with a 12-month control period prior to installation. OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The number of patients using the kiosk and agreeing to transfer of their data into their electronic medical records; (2) the cost of using a kiosk compared with GP/practice nurse BP screening; (3) qualitative themes regarding use of the equipment. RESULTS: Out of 15 624 eligible patients, only 186 (1.2%, 95% CI 1.0% to 1.4%) successfully used the kiosk to directly transfer a BP reading into their medical record. For a considerable portion of the intervention period, no readings were transferred, possibly indicating technical problems with the transfer link. A comparison of costs suggests that at least 52.6% of eligible patients would need to self-screen in order to bring costs below that of screening by GPs and practice nurses. Qualitative interviews confirmed that both patients and staff experienced technical difficulties, and used alternative methods to enter BP results into the medical record. CONCLUSIONS: While interviewees were generally positive about checking BP in the waiting room, the electronic transfer system as tested was neither robust, effective nor likely to be a cost-effective approach, thus may not be appropriate for a primary care environment. Since most of the cost of a kiosk system lies in the transfer mechanism, a solid-cuff sphygmomanometer and manual entry of results may be a suitable alternative.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Autocuidado/métodos , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/economia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/economia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
13.
Hypertension ; 73(6): 1231-1239, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067190

RESUMO

The use of self-monitoring of blood pressure, with or without telemonitoring, to guide therapy decisions by physicians for patients with hypertension has been recently demonstrated to reduce blood pressure compared with using clinic monitoring (usual care). However, both the cost-effectiveness of these strategies compared with usual care, and whether the additional benefit of telemonitoring compared with self-monitoring alone could be considered value for money, are unknown. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of physician titration of antihypertensive medication using self-monitored blood pressure, with or without telemonitoring, to make hypertension treatment decisions in primary care compared with usual care. A Markov patient-level simulation model was developed taking a UK Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective. The model adopted a lifetime time horizon with 6-month time cycles. At a willingness to pay of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life year, self-monitoring plus telemonitoring was the most cost-effective strategy (£17 424 per quality-adjusted life year gained) compared with usual care or self-monitoring alone (posting the results to the physician). However, deterministic sensitivity analysis showed that self-monitoring alone became the most cost-effective option when changing key assumptions around long-term effectiveness and time horizon. Overall, probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that self-monitoring regardless of transmission modality was likely to be cost-effective compared with usual care (89% probability of cost-effectiveness at £20 000/quality-adjusted life year), with high uncertainty as to whether telemonitoring or self-monitoring alone was the most cost-effective option. Self-monitoring in clinical practice is cost-effective and likely to lead to reduced cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/economia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Autocuidado/economia , Telemedicina/economia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Econômicos , Autocuidado/métodos
14.
Midwifery ; 64: 29-37, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify midwives' competency in perinatal mental health care in terms of their knowledge, confidence, skill and educational priorities, and to explore their clinical practices in relation to the assessment and management of perinatal mental health problems. RESEARCH DESIGN: An exploratory descriptive study design was used on a sample of 438 midwives in the Republic of Ireland. Data were collected over a two-month period in 2016 using an anonymous, self-completed survey designed by the research team. FINDINGS: The majority of midwives cared for women with perinatal mental health problems in their clinical practice; however, beyond depression and anxiety, their knowledge of perinatal mental health problems was quite limited. Similarly, midwives reported a lack of skill in opening a discussion with women on sensitive issues, such as sexual abuse, intimate partner violence and psychosis, and providing information to women's partners/families. The findings indicated that midwives adopted a selective approach to screening for perinatal mental health problems, with a tendency not to inquire about sensitive topics, or address them only with women deemed at-risk. CONCLUSIONS: Timely and appropriate care is required to ensure the best outcomes for women with perinatal mental health problems and their families. A greater understanding of perinatal mental health among midwives is required to enable them to provide support and information to women and their families, and to identify when specialist intervention is required. Education and other structural supports, such as care pathways and documentation, is required to train and support midwives in their key role of caring for, and collaborating with, women with perinatal mental health problems.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Saúde Mental/tendências , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/normas , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Gravidez , Autoeficácia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(36): 1-162, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eleven million people suffer a fire-related injury worldwide every year, and 71% have significant scarring. Pressure garment therapy (PGT) is a standard part of burn scar management, but there is little evidence of its clinical effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To identify the barriers to, and the facilitators of, conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of burn scar management with and without PGT and test whether or not such a trial is feasible. DESIGN: Web-based surveys, semistructured individual interviews, a pilot RCT including a health economic evaluation and embedded process evaluation. SETTING: UK NHS burns services. Interviews and the pilot trial were run in seven burns services. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty NHS burns services and 245 staff provided survey responses and 15 staff participated in individual interviews. Face-to-face interviews were held with 24 adult patients and 16 parents of paediatric patients who had undergone PGT. The pilot trial recruited 88 participants (57 adults and 31 children) who were at risk of hypertrophic scarring and were considered suitable for scar management therapy. Interviews were held with 34 participants soon after recruitment, with 23 participants at 12 months and with eight staff from six sites at the end of the trial. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention was standard care with pressure garments. The control was standard care comprising scar management techniques involving demonstration and recommendations to undertake massage three or four times per day with moisturiser, silicone treatment, stretching and other exercises. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility was assessed by eligibility rates, consent rates, retention in allocated arms, adherence with treatment and follow-up and completion of outcome assessments. The outcomes from interview-based studies were core outcome domains and barriers to, and facilitators of, trial participation and delivery. RESULTS: NHS burns services treat 2845 patients per annum (1476 paediatric and 1369 adult) and use pressure garments for 6-18 months, costing £2,171,184. The majority of staff perceived a need for a RCT of PGT, but often lacked equipoise around the research question and PGT as a treatment. Strong views about the use of PGT have the potential to influence the conduct of a full-scale RCT. A range of outcome domains was identified as important via the qualitative research: perceptions of appearance, specific scar characteristics, function, pain and itch, broader psychosocial outcomes and treatment burden. The outcome tools evaluated in the pilot trial did not cover all of these domains. The planned 88 participants were recruited: the eligibility rate was 88% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83% to 92%], the consent rate was 47% (95% CI 40% to 55%). Five (6%) participants withdrew, 14 (16%) were lost to follow-up and 8 (9%) crossed over. Adherence was as in clinical practice. Completion of outcomes was high for adult patients but poorer from parents of paediatric patients, particularly for quality of life. Sections on range of movement and willingness to pay were found to be challenging and poorly completed. LIMITATIONS: The Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile appears more suitable in terms of conceptual coverage than the outcome scales that were used in the trial but was not available at the time of the study. CONCLUSIONS: A definitive RCT of PGT in burn scar management appears feasible. However, staff attitudes to the use of pressure garments may lead to biases, and the provision of training and support to sites and an ongoing assessment of trial processes are required. FUTURE WORK: We recommend that any future trial include an in-depth mixed-methods recruitment investigation and a process evaluation to account for this. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN34483199. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 36. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Vestuário , Bandagens Compressivas , Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Queimaduras/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autoimagem , Medicina Estatal/economia , Reino Unido
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 179, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economic evaluations of interventions for postnatal depression (PND) are essential to ensure optimal healthcare decision-making. Due to the wide-ranging effects of PND on the mother, baby and whole family, there is a need to include outcomes for all those affected and to include health and non-health outcomes for accurate estimates of cost-effectiveness. This study aimed to identify interventions to prevent or treat PND for which an economic evaluation had been conducted and to evaluate the health and non-health outcomes included. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted applying a comprehensive search strategy across eight electronic databases and other sources. Full or partial economic evaluations of interventions involving preventive strategies (including screening), and any treatments for women with or at-risk of PND, conducted in OECD countries were included. We excluded epidemiological studies and those focussing on costs only. The included studies underwent a quality appraisal to inform the analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria, the majority focused on psychological /psychosocial interventions. The interventions ranged from additional support from health professionals, peer support, to combined screening and treatment strategies. Maternal health outcomes were measured in all studies; however child health outcomes were included in only four of them. Across studies, the maternal health outcomes included were quality-adjusted-life-years gained, improvement in depressive symptoms, PND cases detected or recovered, whereas the child health outcomes included were cognitive functioning, depression, sleep and temperament. Non-health outcomes such as couples' relationships and parent-infant interaction were rarely included. Other methodological issues such as limitations in the time horizon and perspective(s) adopted were identified, that were likely to result in imprecise estimates of benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The exclusion of relevant health and non-health outcomes may mean that only a partial assessment of cost-effectiveness is undertaken, leading to sub-optimal resource allocation decisions. Future research should seek ways to expand the evaluative space of economic evaluations and explore approaches to integrate health and non-health outcomes for all individuals affected by this condition. There is a need to ensure that the time horizon adopted in studies is appropriate to allow true estimation of the long-term benefits and costs of PND interventions.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão Pós-Parto/economia , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Psicoterapia/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
17.
Lancet ; 391(10124): 949-959, 2018 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating titration of antihypertensive medication using self-monitoring give contradictory findings and the precise place of telemonitoring over self-monitoring alone is unclear. The TASMINH4 trial aimed to assess the efficacy of self-monitored blood pressure, with or without telemonitoring, for antihypertensive titration in primary care, compared with usual care. METHODS: This study was a parallel randomised controlled trial done in 142 general practices in the UK, and included hypertensive patients older than 35 years, with blood pressure higher than 140/90 mm Hg, who were willing to self-monitor their blood pressure. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to self-monitoring blood pressure (self-montoring group), to self-monitoring blood pressure with telemonitoring (telemonitoring group), or to usual care (clinic blood pressure; usual care group). Randomisation was by a secure web-based system. Neither participants nor investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was clinic measured systolic blood pressure at 12 months from randomisation. Primary analysis was of available cases. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN 83571366. FINDINGS: 1182 participants were randomly assigned to the self-monitoring group (n=395), the telemonitoring group (n=393), or the usual care group (n=394), of whom 1003 (85%) were included in the primary analysis. After 12 months, systolic blood pressure was lower in both intervention groups compared with usual care (self-monitoring, 137·0 [SD 16·7] mm Hg and telemonitoring, 136·0 [16·1] mm Hg vs usual care, 140·4 [16·5]; adjusted mean differences vs usual care: self-monitoring alone, -3·5 mm Hg [95% CI -5·8 to -1·2]; telemonitoring, -4·7 mm Hg [-7·0 to -2·4]). No difference between the self-monitoring and telemonitoring groups was recorded (adjusted mean difference -1·2 mm Hg [95% CI -3·5 to 1·2]). Results were similar in sensitivity analyses including multiple imputation. Adverse events were similar between all three groups. INTERPRETATION: Self-monitoring, with or without telemonitoring, when used by general practitioners to titrate antihypertensive medication in individuals with poorly controlled blood pressure, leads to significantly lower blood pressure than titration guided by clinic readings. With most general practitioners and many patients using self-monitoring, it could become the cornerstone of hypertension management in primary care. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research via Programme Grant for Applied Health Research (RP-PG-1209-10051), Professorship to RJM (NIHR-RP-R2-12-015), Oxford Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care, and Omron Healthcare UK.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Autocuidado , Telemedicina , Idoso , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reino Unido
18.
J Clin Nurs ; 27(9-10): 1872-1883, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314366

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore barriers to midwives and nurses addressing mental health issues with women during the perinatal period. BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental health is considered an important public health issue with health policy internationally identifying the importance of psychological support for women in the perinatal period. Midwives and primary care nurses are ideally positioned to detect mental distress early, but evidence suggests that they are reluctant to discuss mental health issues with women during pregnancy or in the postnatal period. DESIGN: The research used a descriptive design. METHODS: A total of 809 midwives and nurses completed an anonymous, online or hard copy survey. Designed by the research team, the survey listed 26 potential barriers to the provision of perinatal mental health care. RESULTS: Participants identified organisational factors as presenting the greatest barriers. Organisational barriers included lack of perinatal mental health services, absence of care pathways, heavy workload, lack of time, lack of privacy and not seeing women regularly enough to build a relationship. Over 50% of participants identified practitioner-related barriers, such as lack of knowledge on perinatal mental health and cultural issues; lack of skill, in particular, skills to respond to a disclosure of a mental health issue; and fears of causing women offence and distress. Findings also indicated that the context of care and education influenced the degree to which participants perceived certain items as barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Midwives and primary care nurses encounter many organisational- and practitioner-related barriers that negatively impact on their ability to incorporate mental health care into their practice. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Midwifery and nursing services need to develop strategies to address system- and practitioner-related barriers, including the development of services and care pathways, and the provision of culturally sensitive education on perinatal mental health in order to support practitioners to address issues with confidence and competence.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Tocologia/métodos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Carga de Trabalho
19.
Hypertension ; 71(2): 250-261, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203628

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines in the United States and United Kingdom recommend that individuals with suspected hypertension should have ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring to confirm the diagnosis. This approach reduces misdiagnosis because of white coat hypertension but will not identify people with masked hypertension who may benefit from treatment. The Predicting Out-of-Office Blood Pressure (PROOF-BP) algorithm predicts masked and white coat hypertension based on patient characteristics and clinic BP, improving the accuracy of diagnosis while limiting subsequent ambulatory BP monitoring. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of using this tool in diagnosing hypertension in primary care. A Markov cost-utility cohort model was developed to compare diagnostic strategies: the PROOF-BP approach, including those with clinic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg who receive ambulatory BP monitoring as guided by the algorithm, compared with current standard diagnostic strategies including those with clinic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg combined with further monitoring (ambulatory BP monitoring as reference, clinic, and home monitoring also assessed). The model adopted a lifetime horizon with a 3-month time cycle, taking a UK Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective. The PROOF-BP algorithm was cost-effective in screening all patients with clinic BP ≥130/80 mm Hg compared with current strategies that only screen those with clinic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg, provided healthcare providers were willing to pay up to £20 000 ($26 000)/quality-adjusted life year gained. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses supported the base-case findings. The PROOF-BP algorithm seems to be cost-effective compared with the conventional BP diagnostic options in primary care. Its use in clinical practice is likely to lead to reduced cardiovascular disease, death, and disability.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/economia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Clin Nurs ; 27(3-4): e476-e487, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771981

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore public health nurses' engagement, competence and education needs in relation to perinatal mental health care in Ireland. BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 15%-25% of women will experience a mental health problem during or postpregnancy, either as a new problem or a reoccurrence of a pre-existing problem. Public health nurses, or their equivalent, are ideally positioned to support women's mental health and improve health outcomes for the woman and baby, yet little is known about their role and engagement with mental health issues, other than with postnatal depression. The objectives of the study were to identify public health nurses' knowledge, skills and current practices in perinatal mental health and establish their education needs. DESIGN: The research used a descriptive design. METHOD: A total of 186 public health nurses completed an anonymous, online survey, designed by the research team. RESULTS: While public health nurses are positive about their role in supporting women's mental health, they lack the knowledge and skills to address all aspects of mental health, including opening a discussion with women on more sensitive or complex issues, such as trauma and psychosis and providing information to women. Those who received education reported statistically significant higher knowledge and confidence scores than those without. CONCLUSION: Public health nurses lack the knowledge and skills required to provide comprehensive perinatal mental health care to women. Future education programmes need to move beyond postnatal depression and address the range of mental health problems that may impact on women in the perinatal period. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Without knowledge and skill among nurses in all aspects of perinatal mental health, women with significant mental health needs may be left to cope alone and lack the necessary prompt evidence-based interventions and supports.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Depressão Pós-Parto/enfermagem , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental/normas , Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública/normas , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
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