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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(8): 1752-1759, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355577

RESUMO

Recently, sunscreen-based drug photocages have been introduced to provide UV protection to photoactive drugs, thus increasing their photosafety. Here, combined experimental and theoretical studies performed on a photocage based on the commercial UVA filter avobenzone (AB) and on the photosensitizing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen (KP) are presented unveiling the photophysical processes responsible for the light-triggered release. Particular attention is paid to solvent stabilization of the drug and UV filter excited states, respectively, which leads to a switching between the triplet excited state energies of the AB and KP units. Most notably, we show that the stabilization of the AB triplet excited state in ethanol solution is the key requirement for an efficient photouncaging. By contrast, in apolar solvents, in particular hexane, KP has the lowest triplet excited state, hence acting as an energy acceptor quenching the AB triplet manifold, thus inhibiting the desired photoreaction.

2.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348914

RESUMO

The control of ligand-field splitting in iron (II) complexes is critical to slow down the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT)-excited states deactivation pathways. The gap between the metal-centered states is maximal when the coordination sphere of the complex approaches an ideal octahedral geometry. Two new iron(II) complexes (C1 and C2), prepared from pyridylNHC and pyridylquinoline type ligands, respectively, have a near-perfect octahedral coordination of the metal. The photophysics of the complexes have been further investigated by means of ultrafast spectroscopy and TD-DFT modeling. For C1, it is shown that-despite the geometrical improvement-the excited state deactivation is faster than for the parent pseudo-octahedral C0 complex. This unexpected result is due to the increased ligand flexibility in C1 that lowers the energetic barrier for the relaxation of 3MLCT into the 3MC state. For C2, the effect of the increased ligand field is not strong enough to close the prominent deactivation channel into the metal-centered quintet state, as for other Fe-polypyridine complexes.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(44): 25661-25668, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169771

RESUMO

Interaction of nucleic acids with light is a scientific question of paramount relevance not only in the understanding of life functioning and evolution, but also in the insurgence of diseases such as malignant skin cancer and in the development of biomarkers and novel light-assisted therapeutic tools. This work shows that the UVA portion of sunlight, not absorbed by canonical DNA nucleobases, can be absorbed by 5-formyluracil (ForU) and 5-formylcytosine (ForC), two ubiquitous oxidatively generated lesions and epigenetic intermediates present in living beings in natural conditions. We measure the strong propensity of these molecules to populate triplet excited states able to transfer the excitation energy to thymine-thymine dyads, inducing the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). By using steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopy, NMR, HPLC, and theoretical calculations, we quantify the differences in the triplet-triplet energy transfer mediated by ForU and ForC, revealing that the former is much more efficient in delivering the excitation energy and producing the CPD photoproduct. Although significantly slower than ForU, ForC is also able to harm DNA nucleobases and therefore this process has to be taken into account as a viable photosensitization mechanism. The present findings evidence a rich photochemistry crucial to understand DNA damage photobehavior.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(21): 9272-9281, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085491

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 1000000 deaths all over the world and still lacks a medical treatment despite the attention of the whole scientific community. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was recently recognized as the transmembrane protein that serves as the point of entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, thus constituting the first biomolecular event leading to COVID-19 disease. Here, by means of a state-of-the-art computational approach, we propose a rational evaluation of the molecular mechanisms behind the formation of the protein complex. Moreover, the free energy of binding between ACE2 and the active receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is evaluated quantitatively, providing for the first time the thermodynamics of virus-receptor recognition. Furthermore, the action of different ACE2 ligands is also examined in particular in their capacity to disrupt SARS-CoV-2 recognition, also providing via a free energy profile the quantification of the ligand-induced decreased affinity. These results improve our knowledge on molecular grounds of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and allow us to suggest rationales that could be useful for the subsequent wise molecular design for the treatment of COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Ligantes , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diosmina/química , Diosmina/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Plicamicina/química , Plicamicina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Termodinâmica
5.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4291-4315, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119313

RESUMO

The emergence in late 2019 of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the breakthrough of the COVID-19 pandemic that is presently affecting a growing number of countries. The development of the pandemic has also prompted an unprecedented effort of the scientific community to understand the molecular bases of the virus infection and to propose rational drug design strategies able to alleviate the serious COVID-19 morbidity. In this context, a strong synergy between the structural biophysics and molecular modeling and simulation communities has emerged, resolving at the atomistic level the crucial protein apparatus of the virus and revealing the dynamic aspects of key viral processes. In this Review, we focus on how in silico studies have contributed to the understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanism and the proposal of novel and original agents to inhibit the viral key functioning. This Review deals with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, including the mode of action that this structural protein uses to entry human cells, as well as with nonstructural viral proteins, focusing the attention on the most studied proteases and also proposing alternative mechanisms involving some of its domains, such as the SARS unique domain. We demonstrate that molecular modeling and simulation represent an effective approach to gather information on key biological processes and thus guide rational molecular design strategies.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Infecções por Coronavirus , Desenho de Fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-17, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948119

RESUMO

The Inhibitor of IKK-ß (nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta), a specific modulator of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), is considered a valid target to discover new active compounds for various cancers and rheumatoid arthritis treatment. In this study a series of thirty 2-amino-3-cyano-4-alkyl-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl) pyridine derivatives was involved for a quantitative structure activity relationship model (QSAR) elaboration which allows the prediction of the pIC50 values of new designed compounds. The model can be used to predict the activity of new compounds within its applicability domain. Then a molecular docking study was carried out to identify the interactions between the compounds and the amino acids of the active site. After that, golden triangle, Veber's rule, and Lipinski's rule properties were calculated to identify the drug-likeness properties of the investigated compounds. Finally, in-silico-toxicity studies were performed to predict the toxicity of the new designed compounds. The analysis of the results of QSAR model and molecular docking succeeded to screen 21 interesting compounds with better inhibitory concentration having a good affinity to IKK-ß. All compounds were within the range set by Veber's rule and Lipinski's rule. the analysis of golden triangle showed that the thirty 2-amino-3-cyano-4-alkyl-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl) pyridine derivatives would not have clearance and cell membrane permeability problems except comp6 comp12,comp20, comp21, and comp26.As for the new designed compounds, their properties may have these problems, except two compounds which are: A8m, A8p. The A1m, A1p, A3p and A11m compounds were predicted to be nontoxic. These findings indicate that the novel potent candidate drugs have promising potential to IKK-ß enzyme inhibition and should motivate future experimental investigations. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

7.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(9): 5972-5981, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810397

RESUMO

The pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct (64-PP) is an important photoinduced DNA lesion constituting a mutational signature for melanoma. The structural impact of 64-PP on DNA complexed with histones affects the lesion mutagenicity and repair but remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the conformational dynamics of DNA-containing 64-PP within the nucleosome core particle by atomic-resolution molecular dynamics simulations and multiscale data analysis. We demonstrate that the histone core exerts important mechanical restraints that largely decrease global DNA structural fluctuations. However, the local DNA flexibility at the damaged site is enhanced due to imperfect structural adaptation to restraints imposed by the histone core. If 64-PP faces the histone core and is therefore not directly accessible by the repair protein, the complementary strand facing the solvent is deformed and exhibits higher flexibility than the corresponding strand in a naked, undamaged DNA. This may serve as an initial recognition signal for repair. Our simulations also pinpoint the structural role of proximal residues from the truncated histone tails.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 49(33): 11451-11466, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776052

RESUMO

In this perspective, we discuss iron-complexes as drug candidates that are promising alternatives to conventional platinum-based chemotherapies owing to their broad range of reactivities and to the targeting of different biological systems. Breakthroughs in the comprehension of iron complexes' structure-activity relationship contributed to the clarification of their metabolization pathways, sub-cellular localization and influence on iron homeostasis, while enlightening the primary molecular targets of theses likely multi-target metallodrugs. Both the antiproliferative activity and elevated safety index observed among the family of iron complexes showed encouraging results as per their therapeutic potential and selectivity also with the aim of reducing chemotherapy side-effects, and facilitated more pre-clinical investigations. The purpose of this perspective is to summarize the recent advances that contributed in unveiling the intricate relationships between the structural modifications on iron-complexes and their reactivity, cellular trafficking and global mechanisms of action to broaden their use as anticancer drugs and advance to clinical evaluation.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(29): 16956-16964, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672774

RESUMO

Computational tools have been used to study the photophysical and photochemical features of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) - a minimally invasive, less aggressive alternative for cancer treatment. PDT is mainly based on the activation of molecular oxygen through the action of a photoexcited sensitizer (photosensitizer). Temoporfin, widely known as mTHPC, is a second-generation photosensitizer, which produces the cytotoxic singlet oxygen when irradiated with visible light and hence destroys tumor cells. However, the bioavailability of the mostly hydrophobic photosensitizer, and hence its incorporation into cells, is fundamental to achieve the desired effect on malignant tissues via PDT. In this study, we focus on the optical properties of the temoporfin chromophore in different environments -in vacuo, in solution, encapsulated in drug delivery agents, namely cyclodextrin, and interacting with a lipid bilayer.

10.
Molecules ; 25(13)2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640764

RESUMO

Recently synthetized iron complexes have achieved long-lived excited states and stabilities which are comparable, or even superior, to their ruthenium analogues, thus representing an eco-friendly and cheaper alternative to those materials based on rare metals. Most of computational tools which could help unravel the origin of this large efficiency rely on ab-initio methods which are not able, however, to capture the nanosecond time scale underlying these photophysical processes and the influence of their realistic environment. Therefore, it exists an urgent need of developing new low-cost, but still accurate enough, computational methodologies capable to deal with the steady-state and transient spectroscopy of transition metal complexes in solution. Following this idea, here we focus on the comparison between general-purpose transferable force-fields (FFs), directly available from existing databases, and specific quantum mechanical derived FFs (QMD-FFs), obtained in this work through the Joyce procedure. We have chosen a recently reported FeIII complex with nanosecond excited-state lifetime as a representative case. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrated that the QMD-FF nicely reproduces the structure and the dynamics of the complex and its chemical environment within the same precision as higher cost QM methods, whereas general-purpose FFs failed in this purpose. Although in this particular case the chemical environment plays a minor role on the photo physics of this system, these results highlight the potential of QMD-FFs to rationalize photophysical phenomena provided an accurate QM method to derive its parameters is chosen.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(27): 15496-15508, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602504

RESUMO

An extensive theoretical characterization of the singlet excited state manifold of the five canonical DNA/RNA nucleobases (thymine, cytosine, uracil, adenine and guanine) in gas-phase is carried out with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and restricted active space second-order perturbation theory (RASPT2) approaches. Both ground state and excited state absorptions are analyzed and compared between these different theoretical approaches, assessing the performance of the hybrid B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP (long-range corrected) functionals with respect to the RASPT2 reference. By comparing the TD-DFT estimates with our reference for high-lying excited states, we are able to narrow down specific energetic windows where TD-DFT may be safely employed to qualitatively reproduce the excited state absorption (ESA) signals registered in non-linear and time-resolved spectroscopy for monitoring photoinduced phenomena. Our results show a qualitative agreement between the RASPT2 reference and the B3LYP computed ESAs of pyrimidines in the near-IR/Visible spectral probing window while for purines the agreement is limited to the near-IR ESAs, with generally larger discrepancies obtained with the CAM-B3LYP functional. This outcome paves the way for appropriate application of cost-effective TD-DFT approaches to simulate linear and non-linear spectroscopies of realistic multichromophoric DNA/RNA systems with biological and nanotechnological relevance.

12.
Chemistry ; 26(62): 14236-14241, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597544

RESUMO

Some bacterial species enter a dormant state in the form of spores to resist to unfavorable external conditions. Spores are resistant to a wide series of stress agents, including UV radiation, and can last for tens to hundreds of years. Due to the suspension of biological functions, such as DNA repair, they accumulate DNA damage upon exposure to UV radiation. Differently from active organisms, the most common DNA photoproducts in spores are not cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, but rather the so-called spore photoproducts. This noncanonical photochemistry results from the dry state of DNA and its binding to small, acid-soluble proteins that drastically modify the structure and photoreactivity of the nucleic acid. Herein, multiscale molecular dynamics simulations, including extended classical molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics based dynamics, are used to elucidate the coupling of electronic and structural factors that lead to this photochemical outcome. In particular, the well-described impact of the peculiar DNA environment found in spores on the favored formation of the spore photoproduct, given the small free energy barrier found for this path, is rationalized. Meanwhile, the specific organization of spore DNA precludes the photochemical path that leads to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation.

13.
Chemistry ; 26(49): 11340-11344, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511805

RESUMO

The effect of ionizing radiation on DNA constituents is a widely studied fundamental process using experimental and computational techniques. In particular, radiation effects on nucleobases are usually tackled by mass spectrometry in which the nucleobase is embedded in a water nanodroplet. Here, we present a multiscale theoretical study revealing the effects and the dynamics of water droplets towards neutral and ionized thymine. In particular, by using both hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics and full ab initio molecular dynamics, we reveal an unexpected proton transfer from thymine cation to a nearby water molecule. This leads to the formation of a neutral radical thymine and a Zundel structure, while the hydrated proton localizes at the interface between the deprotonated thymine and the water droplet. This observation opens entirely novel perspectives concerning the reactivity and further fragmentation of ionized nucleobases.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(14): 5661-5667, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536162

RESUMO

Coronaviruses may produce severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). As a matter of fact, a new SARS-type virus, SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for the global pandemic in 2020 with unprecedented sanitary and economic consequences for most countries. In the present contribution we study, by all-atom equilibrium and enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, the interaction between the SARS Unique Domain and RNA guanine quadruplexes, a process involved in eluding the defensive response of the host thus favoring viral infection of human cells. Our results evidence two stable binding modes involving an interaction site spanning either the protein dimer interface or only one monomer. The free energy profile unequivocally points to the dimer mode as the thermodynamically favored one. The effect of these binding modes in stabilizing the protein dimer was also assessed, being related to its biological role in assisting the SARS viruses to bypass the host protective response. This work also constitutes a first step in the possible rational design of efficient therapeutic agents aiming at perturbing the interaction between SARS Unique Domain and guanine quadruplexes, hence enhancing the host defenses against the virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimerização , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(32): 4404-4407, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239074

RESUMO

The propensity of 5-formyluracil and 5-formylcytosine, i.e. oxidative lesions and epigenetic intermediates, in acting as intrinsic DNA photosensitizers is unraveled by using a combination of molecular modeling, simulation and spectroscopy. Exploration of potential energy surfaces and non-adiabatic dynamics confirm a higher intersystem crossing rate for 5-formyluracil, whereas the kinetic models evidence different equilibria in the excited states for both compounds.

16.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(19): 3865-3875, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285672

RESUMO

A broad series of quinoxalinone-based π-conjugated donor-acceptor fluoro- and NLO-phores is characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray analysis supported by quantum chemical computations. Intense Raman spectroscopic markers that allow the differentiation of even closely related structures are identified. The intensities of these bands are shown to be related to the conjugation of the different molecular moieties, and they can provide an estimation of its extent. The intensity redistribution between these markers serves as a source of auxiliary structural information capable of pointing to a distortion of the conjugation or to the influence of aggregation effects in the condensed state. A simple relation between the intensity of the marker and the position and oscillator strength of the lowest-energy electronic absorption band of quinoxalinones allows a linking of the Raman effect with the optical properties of these compounds, which can be used for the rational design of novel species with improved optical characteristics.

17.
Theor Chem Acc ; 139(3): 65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214889

RESUMO

We present a computational study of sub-picosecond nonadiabatic dynamics in a rhenium complex coupled electronically to a tryptophan (Trp) side chain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, a prototypical protein used in the study of electron transfer in proteins. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the photoinduced processes in this system, we have carried out vertical excitation calculations at the TDDFT level of theory as well as nonadiabatic dynamics simulations using the surface hopping including arbitrary couplings (SHARC) method coupled to potential energy surfaces represented with a linear vibronic coupling model. The results show that the initial photoexcitation populates both singlet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and singlet charge-separated (CS) states, where in the latter an electron was transferred from the Trp amino acid to the complex. Subsequently, a complex mechanism of simultaneous intersystem crossing and electron transfer leads to the sub-picosecond population of triplet MLCT and triplet CS states. These results confirm the assignment of the sub-ps time constants of previous experimental studies and constitute the first computational evidence for the ultrafast formation of the charge-separated states in Re-sensitized azurin.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(8): 4749-4757, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057038

RESUMO

Cyclocurcumin is a turmeric component that has attracted much less attention compared to the well-known curcumin. In spite of the less deep characterization of its properties, cyclocurcumin has shown promising anticancer effects when used in combination with curcumin. Especially, due to its peculiar molecular structure, cyclocurcumin can be regarded as an almost ideal photoswitch, whose capabilities can also be exploited for relevant biological applications. Here, by means of state-of-the-art computational methods for electronic excited-state calculations (TD-DFT, MS-CASPT2, and XMS-CASPT2), we analyze in detail the absorption and photoisomerization pathways leading from the more stable trans isomer to the cis one. The different molecular surroundings, taken into account by means of the electrostatic solvent effect and compared with available experimental data, have been found to be critical in describing the fate of irradiated cyclocurcumin: when in non-polar environments, an excited state barrier prevents photoisomerization and favours fluorescence, whereas in polar solvents, an almost barrierless path results in a striking decrease of fluorescence, opening the way toward a crossing region with the ground state and thus funneling the photoproduction of the cis isomer.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 124(7): 1390-1398, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999922

RESUMO

We have modeled possible photo-oxidative degradation pathways for a set of boron-containing oligothiophenes, which have potential use in organic electronic devices. Photogenerated reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, hydroperoxyl radical, and singlet and triplet molecular oxygen are taken into account in three main pathways, namely, sulfoxide formation, sequential addition, and stepwise singlet molecular oxygen addition. Density functional theory at the B3LYP level is used to assess the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. Our findings show that the influence of the number of thiophene rings and the presence of boron is in most cases minor in terms of degradation. The formation of sulfoxide on the thiophene ring is among the easiest degradation pathways if hydroxyl radical is present in the system. The hydroxyl radical attack on the Cß of thiophene ring of BMBE-1T (2,5-bis(E-dimesitylborylethenyl)thiophene) forms the BMBE-1T(C)OH radical adduct which is kinetically and thermodynamically more favorable than the hydroperoxyl radical attack. The stepwise triplet molecular oxygen addition on the BMBE-1T(C)OH radical adduct has a free energy barrier around 19 kcal·mol-1, and it results in thermodynamically stable degradation product via ring cleavage. Stepwise reactions with singlet molecular oxygen have energy barriers of roughly 40 kcal·mol-1. Singlet molecular oxygen attack on the α-carbon of the thiophene ring is kinetically much more favored than the attack on the beta carbon. Our results elucidate the preferred degradation mechanism of the thiophene backbone of the selected photoactive oligomers. Moreover, the findings of this theoretical study clarify the photostability, and hence the potential drawbacks, of the large-scale use of this class of polythiophenes.

20.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(22): 7200-7207, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693374

RESUMO

DNA compaction is essential to ensure the packaging of the genetic material in living cells and also plays a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In both humans and bacteria, DNA packaging is achieved by specific well-conserved proteins. Here, by means of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, including the determination of relevant free-energy profiles, we rationalize the molecular bases for this remarkable process in bacteria, illustrating the crucial role played by positively charged amino acids of a small histone-like protein. We also present compelling evidence that this histone-like protein alone can induce strong bending of a DNA duplex around its core domain, a process that requires overcoming a major free-energy barrier.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Borrelia burgdorferi/química , Empacotamento do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/química , Histonas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Modelos Moleculares
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