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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1351-1356, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050392

RESUMO

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital limb malformation typically limited to a defect of the central rays of the autopod, presenting as a median cleft of hands and feet. It can be associated with long bone deficiency or included in more complex syndromes. Among the numerous genetic causes, WNT10B homozygous variants have been recently identified in consanguineous families, but remain still rarely described (SHFM6; MIM225300). We report on three novel SHFM families harboring WNT10B variants and review the literature, allowing us to highlight some clinical findings. The feet are more severely affected than the hands and there is a frequent asymmetry without obvious side-bias. Syndactyly of third-fourth fingers was a frequent finding (62%). Polydactyly, which was classically described in SHFM6, was only present in 27% of patients. No genotype-phenotype correlation is delineated but heterozygous individuals might have mild features of SHFM, suggesting a dose-effect of the WNT10B loss-of-function.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 525-534, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622331

RESUMO

Split-hand-split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition that occurs in 1 in 8500-25,000 newborns and accounts for 15% of all limb reduction defects. SHFM is heterogeneous and can be isolated, associated with other malformations, or syndromic. The mode of inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Seven loci are currently known: SHFM1 at 7q21.2q22.1 (DLX5 gene), SHFM2 at Xq26, SHFM3 at 10q24q25, SHFM4 at 3q27 (TP63 gene), SHFM5 at 2q31 and SHFM6 as a result of variants in WNT10B (chromosome 12q13). Duplications at 17p13.3 are seen in SHFM when isolated or associated with long bone deficiency. Tandem genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24 involving at least the DACTYLIN gene are associated with SHFM3. No point variant in any of the genes residing within the region has been identified so far, but duplication of exon 1 of the BTRC gene may explain the phenotype, with likely complex alterations of gene regulation mechanisms that would impair limb morphogenesis. We report on 32 new index cases identified by array-CGH and/or by qPCR, including some prenatal ones, leading to termination for the most severe. Twenty-two cases were presenting with SHFM and 7 with monodactyly only. Three had an overlapping phenotype. Additional findings were identified in 5 (renal dysplasia, cutis aplasia, hypogonadism and agenesis of corpus callosum with hydrocephalus). We present their clinical and radiological findings and review the literature on this rearrangement that seems to be one of the most frequent cause of SHFM.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

4.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(8): 1010-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25351778

RESUMO

6q16 deletions have been described in patients with a Prader-Willi-like (PWS-like) phenotype. Recent studies have shown that certain rare single-minded 1 (SIM1) loss-of-function variants were associated with a high intra-familial risk for obesity with or without features of PWS-like syndrome. Although SIM1 seems to have a key role in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems. We describe 15 new patients in whom de novo 6q16 deletions were characterised by comparative genomic hybridisation or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, including the first patient with fetopathological data. This fetus showed dysmorphic facial features, cerebellar and cerebral migration defects with neuronal heterotopias, and fusion of brain nuclei. The size of the deletion in the 14 living patients ranged from 1.73 to 7.84 Mb, and the fetus had the largest deletion (14 Mb). Genotype-phenotype correlations confirmed the major role for SIM1 haploinsufficiency in obesity and the PWS-like phenotype. Nevertheless, only 8 of 13 patients with SIM1 deletion exhibited obesity, in agreement with incomplete penetrance of SIM1 haploinsufficiency. This study in the largest series reported to date confirms that the PWS-like phenotype is strongly linked to 6q16.2q16.3 deletions and varies considerably in its clinical expression. The possible involvement of other genes in the 6q16.2q16.3-deletion phenotype is discussed.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Obesidade/genética , Penetrância , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Feto Abortado , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia , Gravidez
6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(6): 637-48, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25466283

RESUMO

Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive condition characterized by nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly and neurological impairment. Through a combination of autozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified WDR73 as a gene in which mutations cause Galloway-Mowat syndrome in two unrelated families. WDR73 encodes a WD40-repeat-containing protein of unknown function. Here, we show that WDR73 was present in the brain and kidney and was located diffusely in the cytoplasm during interphase but relocalized to spindle poles and astral microtubules during mitosis. Fibroblasts from one affected child and WDR73-depleted podocytes displayed abnormal nuclear morphology, low cell viability, and alterations of the microtubule network. These data suggest that WDR73 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of cell architecture and cell survival. Altogether, WDR73 mutations cause Galloway-Mowat syndrome in a particular subset of individuals presenting with late-onset nephrotic syndrome, postnatal microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, and homogenous brain MRI features. WDR73 is another example of a gene involved in a disease affecting both the kidney glomerulus and the CNS.


Assuntos
Hérnia Hiatal/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Nefrose/genética , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Hérnia Hiatal/fisiopatologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitose , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Nefrose/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/fisiopatologia , Podócitos , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas/metabolismo , Polos do Fuso/metabolismo
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(9): 2324-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25044608

RESUMO

We report here on four males from three families carrying de novo or inherited small Xp22.13 duplications including the ARX gene detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). Two of these males had normal intelligence. Our report suggests that, unlike other XLMR genes like MECP2 and FMR1, the presence of an extra copy of the ARX gene may not be sufficient to perturb its developmental functions. ARX duplication does not inevitably have detrimental effects on brain development, in contrast with the effects of ARX haploinsufficiency. The abnormal phenotype ascribed to the presence of an extra copy in some male patients may have resulted from the effect of another, not yet identified, chromosomal or molecular anomaly, alone or in association with ARX duplication.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Duplicação Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Inteligência/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Eur J Med Genet ; 57(1): 5-14, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24239951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 15q11-q13 region is an area of well-known susceptibility to genomic rearrangements, in which several breakpoints have been identified (BP1-BP5). Duplication of this region is observed in two instances: presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC) derived of chromosome 15, or interstitial tandem duplication. Duplications are clinically characterized by a variable phenotype that includes central hypotonia, developmental delay, speech delay, seizure, minor dysmorphic features and autism. METHODS: Retrospective clinical and molecular study of 30 unrelated patients who were identified among the patients seen at the genetic clinics of Robert DEBRE hospital with microduplication of the 15q11-q13 region. RESULTS: Fifteen patients presented with a supernumerary marker derived from chromosome 15. In fourteen cases the SMC was of large size, encompassing the Prader-Willi/Angelman critical region. All but one was maternal in origin. One patient had a PWS-like phenotype in absence of maternal UPD. In one case, the marker had a smaller size and contained only the BP1-BP2 region. Fifteen patients presented with interstitial duplication. Four cases were inherited from phenotypically normal parents (3 maternal and 1 paternal). Phenotypic features were somewhat variable and 57% presented with autism. Twelve patients showed cerebral anomalies and 18 patients had an abnormal EEG with a typical, recognizable pattern of excessive diffuse rapid spikes in the waking record, similar to the pattern observed after benzodiazepine exposure. Duplication of paternally expressed genes MKRN3, MAGEL2 and NDN in two autistic patients without extra material of a neighboring region enhances their likelihood to be genes related to autism.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 22(2): 289-92, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23674175

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is frequent in the general population, with 1 in 50 individuals directly affected worldwide. The multiple etiologies include X-linked ID (XLID). Among syndromic XLID, few syndromes present severe ID associated with postnatal microcephaly and midline stereotypic hand movements. We report on three male patients with ID, midline stereotypic hand movements, hypotonia, hyperkinesia, strabismus, as well as seizures (2/3), and non-inherited and postnatal onset microcephaly (2/3). Using array CGH and exome sequencing we characterised two truncating mutations in IQSEC2, namely two de novo intragenic duplication mapped to the Xp11.22 region and a nonsense mutation in exon 7. We propose that truncating mutations in IQSEC2 are responsible for syndromic severe ID in male patients and should be screened in patients without mutations in MECP2, FOXG1, CDKL5 and MEF2C.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/classificação , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo
10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(10): 556-60, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23933090

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare syndrome associating malformations with intellectual deficiency and numerous visceral, orthopedic, endocrinological, immune and autoimmune complications. The early establishment of a diagnostic of KS leads to better care of the patients and therefore prevents complications such as perception deafness, severe complications of auto-immune diseases or obesity. However, the diagnosis of KS remains difficult because based on the appreciation of facial features combined with other highly variable features. We describe a novel sign, namely the attenuation and/or congenital absence of the IPD crease of the third and fourth fingers associated with limitation of flexion of the corresponding joints, which seems to be specific of KS and could help the clinician to diagnose KS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Face/anormalidades , Dedos/anormalidades , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(5): 274-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454271

RESUMO

Deletions in 15q13.3 belong to the most frequently identified recurrent CNVs, and lead to mental retardation, seizures and minor dysmorphism. We report on two monozygotic twin boys with a mosaic 1.5 Mb deletion in 15q13.3, including CHRNA7. The growth parameters were in the normal range for both twins. Both had language delay with hyperactivity, temper tantrums and poor social interaction but attended regular school. The percentage of abnormal cells was 40% on lymphocytes, and 25 and 35% on buccal smear in the first and second twins, respectively. The mosaicism for the 15q13.3 deletion can explain the milder phenotype observed in these two boys.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Mosaicismo , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Teste de Cultura Mista de Linfócitos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/patologia
12.
J Pediatr ; 163(3): 742-6, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23535010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and types of renal malformations, and to evaluate renal function in a cohort of patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS). STUDY DESIGN: Renal ultrasound scans and plasma creatinine measurements were collected from a French cohort of 94 patients with genotyped KS. Renal function was evaluated based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate. A genotype-phenotype study was conducted for renal and urinary tract malformations. RESULTS: Renal malformations were present in 22% of cases, and urinary tract anomalies were present in 15%. Renal malformations were observed in 28% of the MLL2 mutation-positive group and in 0% of the MLL2 mutation-negative group (P = .015). No correlation was found between the presence or absence of renal or urinary tract malformations and the location or type of MLL2 mutation. Renal function was normal except for 1 patient with a MLL2 mutation diagnosed in the first days of life and severe renal disease due to unilateral renal agenesia and controlateral severe hypoplasia that progressed to the terminal stage at age 2 years. CONCLUSION: Our study emphasizes the need for ultrasound and renal function screening in children diagnosed with KS.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Rim/anormalidades , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/sangue , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Face/anormalidades , Face/fisiopatologia , Feminino , França , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/fisiopatologia , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Doenças Vestibulares/sangue , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(12): 1457-61, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23422940

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinical sign reflecting diverse neurodevelopmental disorders that are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Just recently, partial or complete deletion of methyl-CpG-binding domain 5 (MBD5) gene has been implicated as causative in the phenotype associated with 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome. In the course of systematic whole-genome screening of individuals with unexplained ID by array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified de novo intragenic deletions of MBD5 in three patients leading, as previously documented, to haploinsufficiency of MBD5. In addition, we described a patient with an unreported de novo MBD5 intragenic duplication. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequencing analyses showed the presence of numerous aberrant transcripts leading to premature termination codon. To further elucidate the involvement of MBD5 in ID, we sequenced ten coding, five non-coding exons and an evolutionary conserved region in intron 2, in a selected cohort of 78 subjects with a phenotype reminiscent of 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome. Besides variants most often inherited from an healthy parent, we identified for the first time a de novo nonsense mutation associated with a much more damaging phenotype. Taken together, these results extend the mutation spectrum in MBD5 gene and contribute to refine the associated phenotype of neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genes Duplicados/genética , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Hum Mutat ; 34(1): 88-92, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22965468

RESUMO

Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare disorder characterized by short stature, delayed bone age, speech delay, and dysmorphic facial features. We report here the molecular analysis of nine cases, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for FHS. Using exome sequencing, we identified SRCAP as the disease gene in two cases and subsequently found SRCAP truncating mutations in 6/9 cases. All mutations occurred de novo and were located in exon 34, in accordance with the recent report of Hood et al. However, the absence of SRCAP mutations in 3/9 cases supported genetic heterogeneity of FH syndrome. Importantly, no major clinical differences were observed supporting clinical homogeneity in this series of FHS patients.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Éxons/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Comunicação Interventricular/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(7): 736-42, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23188044

RESUMO

Cohen syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations and/or large rearrangements in the VPS13B gene. CS clinical features, including developmental delay, the typical facial gestalt, chorioretinal dystrophy (CRD) and neutropenia, are well described. CS diagnosis is generally raised after school age, when visual disturbances lead to CRD diagnosis and to VPS13B gene testing. This relatively late diagnosis precludes accurate genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of CS facial features in the early period of life, particularly before school age (6 years), to find clues for an earlier diagnosis. Photographs of 17 patients with molecularly confirmed CS were analysed, from birth to preschool age. By comparing their facial phenotype when growing, we show that there are no special facial characteristics before 1 year. However, between 2 and 6 years, CS children already share common facial features such as a short neck, a square face with micrognathia and full cheeks, a hypotonic facial appearance, epicanthic folds, long ears with an everted upper part of the auricle and/or a prominent lobe, a relatively short philtrum, a small and open mouth with downturned corners, a thick lower lip and abnormal eye shapes. These early transient facial features evolve to typical CS facial features with aging. These observations emphasize the importance of ophthalmological tests and neutrophil count in children in preschool age presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia and the facial features we described here, for an earlier CS diagnosis.


Assuntos
Face/fisiopatologia , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/genética , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Dedos/anormalidades , Dedos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Hipotonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Degeneração Retiniana
16.
J Med Genet ; 49(12): 731-6, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23099646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DYRK1A plays different functions during development, with an important role in controlling brain growth through neuronal proliferation and neurogenesis. It is expressed in a gene dosage dependent manner since dyrk1a haploinsufficiency induces a reduced brain size in mice, and DYRK1A overexpression is the candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID) and microcephaly in Down syndrome. We have identified a 69 kb deletion including the 5' region of the DYRK1A gene in a patient with growth retardation, primary microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, seizures, ataxic gait, absent speech and ID. Because four patients previously reported with intragenic DYRK1A rearrangements or 21q22 microdeletions including only DYRK1A presented with overlapping phenotypes, we hypothesised that DYRK1A mutations could be responsible for syndromic ID with severe microcephaly and epilepsy. METHODS: The DYRK1A gene was studied by direct sequencing and quantitative PCR in a cohort of 105 patients with ID and at least two symptoms from the Angelman syndrome spectrum (microcephaly < -2.5 SD, ataxic gait, seizures and speech delay). RESULTS: We identified a de novo frameshift mutation (c.290_291delCT; p.Ser97Cysfs*98) in a patient with growth retardation, primary severe microcephaly, delayed language, ID, and seizures. CONCLUSION: The identification of a truncating mutation in a patient with ID, severe microcephaly, epilepsy, and growth retardation, combined with its dual function in regulating the neural proliferation/neuronal differentiation, adds DYRK1A to the list of genes responsible for such a phenotype. ID, microcephaly, epilepsy, and language delay are the more specific features associated with DYRK1A abnormalities. DYRK1A studies should be discussed in patients presenting such a phenotype.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Facies , Feminino , Ordem dos Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Síndrome
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(7): 1612-9, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22678952

RESUMO

Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been described in epileptic encephalopathies in females with infantile spasms with features that overlap with Rett syndrome. With more than 80 reported patients, the phenotype of CDKL5-related encephalopathy is well-defined. The main features consist of seizures starting before 6 months of age, severe intellectual disability with absent speech and hand stereotypies and deceleration of head growth, which resembles Rett syndrome. However, some clinical discrepancies suggested the influence of genetics and/or environmental factors. No genotype-phenotype correlation has been defined and thus there is a need to examine individual mutations. In this study, we analyzed eight recurrent CDKL5 mutations to test whether the clinical phenotype of patients with the same mutation is similar and whether patients with specific CDKL5 mutations have a milder phenotype than those with other CDKL5 mutations. Patients bearing missense mutations in the ATP binding site such as the p.Ala40Val mutation typically walked unaided, had normocephaly, better hand use ability, and less frequent refractory epilepsy when compared to girls with other CDKL5 mutations. In contrast, patients with mutations in the kinase domain (such as p.Arg59X, p.Arg134X, p.Arg178Trp/Pro/Gln, or c.145 + 2T > C) and frameshift mutations in the C-terminal region (such as c.2635_2636delCT) had a more severe phenotype with infantile spasms, refractory epileptic encephalopathy, absolute microcephaly, and inability to walk. It is important for clinicians to have this information when such patients are diagnosed.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(2): 333-9, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22247066

RESUMO

Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by characteristic facial dysmorphism, short stature with delayed bone age, and expressive language delay. To date, the gene(s) responsible for FHS is (are) unknown and the diagnosis is only made on the basis of the clinical phenotype. The majority of cases appeared to be sporadic but rare cases following autosomal dominant inheritance have been reported. We identified a 4.7 Mb de novo 12q15-q21.1 microdeletion in a patient with FHS and intellectual deficiency. Pangenomic 244K array-CGH performed in a series of 12 patients with FHS failed to identify overlapping deletions. We hypothesized that FHS is caused by haploinsufficiency of one of the 19 genes or predictions located in the deletion found in our index patient. Since none of them appeared to be good candidate gene by their function, a high-throughput sequencing approach of the region of interest was used in eight FHS patients. No pathogenic mutation was found in these patients. This approach failed to identify the gene responsible for FHS, and this can be explained by at least four reasons: (i) our index patient could be a phenocopy of FHS; (ii) the disease may be clinically heterogeneous (since the diagnosis relies exclusively on clinical features), (iii) these could be genetic heterogeneity of the disease, (iv) the patient could carry a mutation in a gene located elsewhere. Recent descriptions of patients with 12q15-q21.1 microdeletions argue in favor of the phenocopy hypothesis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/patologia , Comunicação Interventricular/genética , Comunicação Interventricular/patologia , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 54(2): 144-51, 2011 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21094706

RESUMO

Chromosome 17q21.31 microdeletion was one of the first genomic disorders identified by chromosome microarrays. We report here the clinical and molecular characterization of a new series of 14 French patients with this microdeletion syndrome. The most frequent clinical features were hypotonia, developmental delay and facial dysmorphism, but scaphocephaly, prenatal ischemic infarction and perception deafness were also described. Genotyping of the parents showed that the parent from which the abnormality was inherited carried the H2 inversion polymorphism, confirming that the H2 allele is necessary, but not sufficient to generate the 17q21.31 microdeletion. Previously reported molecular analyses of patients with 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome defined a 493 kb genomic fragment that was deleted in most patients after taking into account frequent copy number variations in normal controls, but the deleted interval was significantly smaller (205 kb) in one of our patients, encompassing only the MAPT, STH and KIAA1267 genes. As this patient presents the classical phenotype of 17q21.31 syndrome, these data make it possible to define a new minimal critical region of 160.8 kb, strengthening the evidence for involvement of the MAPT gene in this syndrome.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Sequência de Bases , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , França , Humanos , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Proteínas tau/genética
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