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Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(3): 1171-1180, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830404


Lead (Pb) induces neurotoxicity in both children and adults. Children are more vulnerable to Pb toxicity than adults. Little is known about the effects of Pb on the mental health of the children who are prenatally exposed. Therefore, we designed an animal experiment to compare the adverse effects of Pb on neurobehavioral and hepatic functions between Pb-exposed (Pb mice) and parental Pb-exposed (P-Pb mice) group mice. Mice were treated with Pb-acetate (10 mg/kg bodyweight/day) via drinking water. Male mice from unexposed parents treated with Pb for 90 days were defined as Pb mice, whereas male mice from Pb-exposed parents treated with Pb for further 90 days were defined as P-Pb mice. Anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory and learning were assessed by elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Serum hepatic enzyme activities and butyrylcholinesterase activity were measured by an analyzer. P-Pb mice displayed increased anxiety-like behavior and memory and learning impairments compared to Pb mice. BChE activity was significantly decreased in P-Pb mice compared to Pb mice. Pb levels in the brains of P-Pb mice were significantly higher than those of Pb mice. The activities of serum hepatic enzymes of P-Pb mice were also higher than those of Pb mice. Additionally, histopathology data revealed that hepatic tissue injury was more pronounced in P-Pb mice than in Pb mice. Thus, the results suggest that persistent exposure to Pb from fetus to adult causes more severe neurobehavioral changes and hepatic toxicities than adult exposure only.

Butirilcolinesterase , Chumbo , Animais , Encéfalo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Memória Espacial
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 420: 115532, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845054


Limited information is available regarding the effects of arsenic exposure on immune function. We have recently reported that chronic exposure to As was associated asthma, as determined by spirometry and respiratory symptoms. Because T helper 2 (Th2)-driven immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma, we studied the associations of serum Th1 and Th2 mediators with the As exposure markers and the features of asthma among individuals exposed to As. A total of 553 blood samples were selected from the same study subjects recruited in our previous asthma study. Serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed by immunoassay. Subjects' arsenic exposure levels (drinking water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Arsenic exposure levels of the subjects showed significant positive associations with serum Th2-mediators- interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin without any significant changes in Th1 mediators- interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 mediators were significantly increased with increasing exposure to As. Notably, most of the Th2 mediators were positively associated with serum levels of total immunoglobulin E and eotaxin. The serum levels of Th2 mediators were significantly higher in the subjects with asthma than those without asthma. The results of our study suggest that the exacerbated Th2-driven immune responses are involved in the increased susceptibility to allergic asthma among individuals chronically exposed to As.

Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/sangue , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
Environ Int ; 143: 105890, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619914


BACKGROUND: Alargebodyof evidence has shown a link between arsenic exposure and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVE: We explored the association between arsenic exposure and the reduction of skeletal muscle mass as a potential mechanism of insulin resistance for developing arsenic-related hyperglycemia. METHODS: A total of 581 subjects were recruited from arsenic-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh and their fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin, and serum creatinine levels were determined. Subjects' arsenic exposure levels were assessed by arsenic concentrations in water, hair, and nails. HOMA-IR and HOMA-ß were used to calculate insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction, respectively. Serum creatinine levels and lean body mass (LBM) were used as muscle mass indicators. RESULTS: Water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations showed significant positive associations with FBG, serum insulin and HOMA-IR and inverse associations with serum creatinine and LBM in a dose-dependent manner both in males and females. Water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant inverse associations with HOMA-ß in females but not in males. FBG and HOMA-IR were increased with the decreasing levels of serum creatinine and LBM. Odds ratios (ORs)of hyperglycemia were significantly increased with the increasing concentrations of arsenic in water, hair and nails and with the decreasing levels of serum creatinine and LBM. Females' HOMA-IR showed greater susceptibility to the reduction of serum creatinine and LBM, possibly causing the greater risk of hyperglycemia in females than males. Path analysis revealed the mediating effect of serum creatinine level on the relationship of arsenic exposure with HOMA-IR and hyperglycemia. CONCLUSION: Arsenic exposure elevates FBG levels and the risk of hyperglycemia through increasing insulin resistance with greater susceptibility in females than males. Additionally, arsenic exposure-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass may be a mechanism underlying the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.

Arsênio , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Bangladesh , Glicemia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química
Chemosphere ; 246: 125790, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918100


Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) has become a global public health concern. Exposure to As causes respiratory complications. Asthma, a major respiratory complication, is increasing worldwide. However, the effect of chronic As exposure on the risk of asthma remains to be clarified. This study aims to examine the associations between As exposure (water, hair and nail As) and the risk of asthma among 842 individuals exposed to a wide range of As concentrations through drinking water in Bangladesh. Subjects' As exposure levels were measured with ICP-MS. Lung function was examined by a handheld spirometer. Characteristic features of asthma were evaluated by bronchodilator-mediated reversibility in airway obstruction and asthma-like symptoms through a structured questionnaire. Total serum immunoglobulin E (sIgE) levels were measured by immunoassay. As exposure metrics showed inverse associations with lung function measures (FEV1, FEV6, and FEV1/FEV6 ratio) and positive associations with the risks of airway obstruction (AO), reversible airway obstruction (RAO), and asthma-like symptoms. The majority of AO patients (70 of 97) were RAO with one or more characteristic symptoms of asthma. Intriguingly, subjects' As exposure levels showed positive associations with total sIgE levels. Total sIgE in RAO patients was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that in the control group. Thus the results revealed that chronic As exposure was associated with the risk of the characteristic features of asthma. Additionally the association between As exposure and subjects' total sIgE levels and an elevated level of total sIgE in RAO group suggested that As exposure-related asthma might be allergic in nature.

Arsênio/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Arsênio/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química
Environ Int ; 131: 105029, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352261


BACKGROUND: Arsenic poisoning is a public health problem worldwide. A few studies have reported the effects of arsenic exposure on adult cognitive function, but with limitations in the subject selection and exposure markers. Moreover, information regarding the association between arsenic exposure and biomarker of cognitive impairment is scarce. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between arsenic exposure and adult cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a potential biomarker of cognitive health status. METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study that recruited 693 adult (18-60 years old) subjects from the areas of low- and high­arsenic exposure in rural Bangladesh. The subjects' arsenic exposure levels (drinking water, hair, and nail arsenic concentrations) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The Bangla version of the MMSE was used as a cognitive assessment tool. Serum BDNF (sBDNF) levels were assessed by immunoassay. RESULTS: In this study, we found that average MMSE score and sBDNF level of the subjects in arsenic-endemic areas were significantly (p < 0.001 for both) lower than those of the subjects in non-endemic area. Our analyses revealed that both MMSE scores and sBDNF levels were decreased with the increasing concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, hair, and nails in a dose-dependent fashion. In regression analyses, significant associations of arsenic exposure metrics with MMSE scores and sBDNF levels were observed even after adjustment for several variables. Intriguingly, MMSE scores showed a significantly positive correlation with sBDNF levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to arsenic dose-dependently decreases cognitive function in adults, with a concomitant reduction of sBDNF levels. A decreased BDNF level may be part of the biochemical basis of chronic arsenic exposure-related cognitive impairment.

Arsênio/toxicidade , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Arsênio/análise , Bangladesh , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adulto Jovem