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2.
Respir Care ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased the number of patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation, either through an endotracheal tube or through a tracheostomy. Tracheomalacia is a rare but potentially severe complication of mechanical ventilation, which can significantly complicate the weaning process. The aim of this study was to describe the strategies of airway management in mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of severe tracheomalacia, and investigate the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study was performed in an Italian teaching hospital. All adult subjects admitted to the ICU between February 24, 2020, and June 30, 2020, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by SARS-CoV-2 were included. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission, whereas information regarding airway management was collected daily. RESULTS: A total of 151 subjects were included in the study. On admission, ARDS severity was mild in 21%, moderate in 62%, and severe in 17% of the cases, with an overall mortality of 40%. A tracheostomy was performed in 73 (48%), open surgical technique in 54 (74%), and percutaneous Ciaglia technique in 19 (26%). Subjects who had a tracheostomy performed had, compared to the other subjects, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer ICU and hospital stay. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 8 (5%). The factors associated with tracheomalacia were female sex, obesity, and tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, approximately 50% of subjects with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 were tracheostomized. Tracheostomized subjects had a longer ICU and hospital stay. In our population, 5% were diagnosed with tracheomalacia. This percentage is 10 times higher than what is reported in available literature, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.

3.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 31, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) are known to be associated with poor outcome. A small number of case series and reports have described cases of myocarditis and ischaemic events, however, knowledge on the aetiology of acute cardiac failure in SARS-CoV2 remains limited. We describe the occurrence and risk stratification imaging correlates of 'takotsubo' stress cardiomyopathy presenting in a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit. An intubated 53-year old patient with COVID19 suffered acute haemodynamic collapse in the intensive care unit, and was thus investigated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial troponins and blood tests, and eventually coronary angiography due to clinical suspicion of ischaemic aetiology. Echocardiography revealed a reduced ejection fraction, with evident extensive apical akinesia spanning multiple coronary territories. Troponins and NT-proBNP were elevated, and ECG revealed ST elevation: coronary angiography was thus performed. This revealed no significant coronary stenosis. Repeat echocardiography performed within the following week revealed a substantial recovery of ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities. Despite requirement of a prolonged ICU stay, the patient now remains clinically stable, and is on spontaneous breathing. CONCLUSION: This case report presents a case of takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy occurring in a critically unwell patient with COVID19 in the intensive care setting. Stress cardiomyopathy may be an acute cardiovascular complication of COVID-19 infection. In the COVID19 critical care setting, urgent bedside echocardiography is an important tool for initial clinical assessment of patients suffering haemodynamic compromise.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 155, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group. RESULTS: Complete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(7): 580-583, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879383

RESUMO

Right ventricular primary graft dysfunction after heart transplant is a serious life-threatening condition. The severe form, refractory to maximal medical therapy, has traditionally required temporary mechanical support through veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or central right ventricular support. The Protek Duo is a dual lumen cannula recently introduced in the market, which allows for the institution of a percutaneous right ventricular support. We present the first promising case series of the use of this novel support in patients with right ventricular primary graft dysfunction after heart transplant.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 122-130, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geographic variations in management and outcomes of individuals supported by continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) between the United States (US) and Europe (EU) is largely unknown. METHODS: We created a retrospective, multinational registry of 524 patients who received a CF-LVAD (either HVAD or Heartmate II) between January 2008 and April 2017. Follow up spanned from date of CF-LVAD implant to post-HTx period with a median follow up of 44.8 months. RESULTS: The cohort included 299 (57.1%) EU and 225 (42.9%) US patients. Although the US cohort was significantly older with a higher prevalence of comorbidities, survival was similar between the cohorts (US 63.1%, EU 68.4% at 5 years, unadjusted log-rank test p = 0.43).Multivariate analyses suggested that older age, higher body mass index, elevated creatinine, use of temporary mechanical circulatory support prior CF-LVAD, and implantation of HVAD were associated with increased mortality. Among CF-LVAD patients undergoing HTx, the median time on CF-LVAD support was shorter in the US, meanwhile US donors were younger. Finally, the pattern of adverse events (stroke, gastrointestinal bleedings, late right ventricular failure, and driveline infection) during support differed significantly between US and EU. CONCLUSIONS: Although waitlisted patients in the US on CF-LVAD have higher risk comorbid conditions, the overall outcome is similar in US and EU. Geographic variations with regards to donor characteristics, duration of CF-LVAD support prior to transplant, and adverse events on support can explain the disparity in the utilization of mechanical bridge to transplant strategy between US and EU.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886428

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury have an increased risk of mortality. It remains to be determined the mechanism of cardiac injury and the identification of specific conditions that affect the heart during COVID-19. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia that developed a takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Although the patient presented normal left ventricular ejection fraction and normal levels of troponin on admission, after 16 days in intensive care unit due to respiratory distress, she suddenly developed cardiogenic shock. Shock occurred few hours after a spontaneous breathing trial through her tracheostomy. Bed-side echocardiographic revealed apical ballooning promptly supporting the diagnosis of TTS. She was successfully treated with deep sedation and low dosage of epinephrine. The relevance of this case is that TTS can occur in the late phase of COVID-19. Awareness of late TTS and bed-side echocardiographic evaluation can lead to prompt identification and treatment.

8.
J Infect ; 81(4): e11-e17, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic occurred, no specific treatment was yet available. Inflammatory response secondary to viral infection might be the driver of severe diseases. We report the safety and efficacy (in terms of overall survival and hospital discharge) of the anti-IL6 tocilizumab (TCZ) in subjects with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center analysis included all the patients consecutively admitted to our Hospital with severe or critical COVID-19 who started TCZ treatment from March 13th to April 03rd, 2020. A 1:2 matching to patients not treated with TCZ was performed according to age, sex, severity of disease, P/F, Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of time between symptoms onset and hospital admittance. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests to compare the groups were applied. Kaplan Meier probability curves and Cox regression models for survival, hospital discharge and orotracheal intubation were used. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients treated with TCZ were matched with 148 matched controls. They were mainly males (81.5%), Caucasian (82.0%) and with a median age of 59 years. The majority (69.8%) showed critical stage COVID-19 disease. TCZ use was associated with a better overall survival (HR 0.499 [95% CI 0.262-0.952], p = 0.035) compared to controls but with a longer hospital stay (HR 1.658 [95% CI 1.088-2.524], p = 0.019) mainly due to biochemical, respiratory and infectious adverse events. DISCUSSION: TCZ use resulted potentially effective on COVID-19 in terms of overall survival. Caution is warranted given the potential occurrence of adverse events. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Some of the tocilizumab doses used in the subjects included in this analysis were provided by the "Multicenter study on the efficacy and tolerability of tocilizumab in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia" (EudraCT Number: 2020-001110-38) supported by the Italian National Agency for Drugs (AIFA). No specific funding support was planned for study design, data collection and analysis and manuscript writing of this paper.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int J Cardiol ; 283: 131-133, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833105

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No data regarding the safety of continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation in patients with previous MitraClip have been reported. Thus, it remains unknown whether an initial treatment strategy with MitraClip therapy might complicate future heart failure management in patients who are also considered for CF-LVAD. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 6 patients (median age of 62 years; 2 women) who had been treated with MitraClip, that were eventually implanted with a CF-LVAD (all Heartware HVAD) in 3 hospitals between 2013 and 2018. RESULTS: Patients were treated in 4 cases with 2 clips, and in 2 cases with 1 clip. Median time from MitraClip implantation to CF-LVAD implant was 282 days (interquartile range 67 to 493), and median time on CF-LVAD support was 401 days (interquartile range 105 to 492 days). Two patients underwent a heart transplant, 3 patients died on support, and 1 is alive on support. In all cases, there was a reduction of functional mitral regurgitation without MitraClip-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this small case series, implantation of a CF-LVAD appears safe in patients with a previously positioned MitraClip system, at least, with 1 or 2 clips in place, with no need for additional mitral valve surgery.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Circulation ; 136(6): 529-545, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested that despite their dramatic presentation, patients with fulminant myocarditis (FM) might have better outcome than those with acute nonfulminant myocarditis (NFM). In this retrospective study, we report outcome and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a large cohort of patients with FM compared with patients with NFM. METHODS: The study population consists of 187 consecutive patients admitted between May 2001 and November 2016 with a diagnosis of acute myocarditis (onset of symptoms <1 month) of whom 55 required inotropes and/or mechanical circulatory support (FM) and the remaining 132 were hemodynamically stable (NFM). We also performed a subanalysis in 130 adult patients with acute viral myocarditis and viral prodrome within 2 weeks from the onset, which includes 34 with FM and 96 with NFM. Patients with giant-cell myocarditis, eosinophilic myocarditis, or cardiac sarcoidosis and those <15 years of age were excluded from the subanalysis. RESULTS: In the whole population (n=187), the rate of in-hospital death or heart transplantation was 25.5% versus 0% in FM versus NFM, respectively (P<0.0001). Long-term heart transplantation-free survival at 9 years was lower in FM than NFM (64.5% versus 100%, log-rank P<0.0001). Despite greater improvement in LVEF during hospitalization in FM versus NFM forms (median, 32% [interquartile range, 20%-40%] versus 3% [0%-10%], respectively; P<0.0001), the proportion of patients with LVEF <55% at last follow-up was higher in FM versus NFM (29% versus 9%; relative risk, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-7.64, P=0.003). Similar results for survival and changes in LVEF in FM versus NFM were observed in the subgroup (n=130) with viral myocarditis. None of the patients with NFM and LVEF ≥55% at discharge had a significant decrease in LVEF at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FM have an increased mortality and need for heart transplantation compared with those with NFM. From a functional viewpoint, patients with FM have a more severely impaired LVEF at admission that, despite steep improvement during hospitalization, remains lower than that in patients with NFM at long-term follow-up. These findings also hold true when only the viral forms are considered and are different from previous studies showing better prognosis in FM.


Assuntos
Miocardite/diagnóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Miocardite/mortalidade , Miocardite/terapia , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 181: 437-42, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25588690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been designed to treat elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis at high risk for surgery. These patients are also often affected by severe iliac-femoral arteriopathy, rendering the trans-femoral approach unusable. We report our experience with the direct-aortic approach to treat these patients. METHODS: From May 2008 to November 2013 two hundred and thirty-two patients (131 female, 56%) with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and no reasonable surgical option due to excessive risk were evaluated for TAVI at our department. Of these patients, 202 were deemed eligible for TAVI. Of this group, 50 underwent CoreValve implantation by the direct aortic approach through a right anterior mini-thoracotmy (28 female, 56%), mean age 81.2±6.9. A combined team of cardiologists, cardiac surgeons with expertise in hybrid procedures, and anesthetists performed all the procedures. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (56%) patients were female and 11 (22%) were redo at TAVI. We used a 23-mm CoreValve Evolute in 3 patients (6%), and the most used valve size was the 29mm in 46% of patients. Mean hemodynamic trans-aortic gradient was less than 5mmHg. The paravalvular regurgitation was ≤ grade 1 in 46 patients as assessed by peri-procedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Seven patients (7/43, 16%) required a permanent pacemaker implantation; 30-day mortality was 6% (3 patients). Seven patients (14.8%) died during follow-up. Actuarial survival at 2years is 84.7±5.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the direct aortic approach is safe and feasible, offering a new attractive option to treat selected high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and peripheral vasculopathy, including those requiring a re-do procedure.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Toracotomia/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 93(1): 329-30, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22186466

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been introduced as a treatment modality applied to high-risk surgery patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis, and it has been demonstrated to be an efficient and safe treatment option. Litzler and colleagues reported a case of a bailout of a transcatheter aortic valve implantation because of severe paravalvular leaks, using a 23-mm Edwards-SAPIEN Valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA), with conversion to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement. The authors reported an easy valve removal despite the impaction of the stent in the cusps of the native valve. Thyregod and colleagues reported a surgical valve replacement in a patient with a dysfunctional CoreValve self-expanding aortic valve bioprosthesis 4 months after implantation.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Reoperação/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese
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