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2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, 2.5 million newborns died, mainly from prematurity, infections, and intrapartum events. Preventing these deaths requires health systems to provide routine and emergency care at birth, and quality inpatient care for small and sick newborns. Defined levels of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and standardised measurement of "signal functions" has improved tracking of maternal care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Levels of newborn care, particularly for small and sick newborns, and associated signal functions are still not consistently defined or tracked. METHODS: Between November 2016-November 2017, we conducted an online survey of professionals working in maternal and newborn health. We asked respondents to categorise 18 clinical care interventions that could act as potential signal functions for small and sick newborns to 3 levels of care they thought were appropriate for health systems in LMICs to provide: "routine care at birth", "special care" and "intensive care". We calculated the percentage of respondents that classified each intervention at each level of care and stratified responses to look at variation by respondent characteristics. RESULTS: Six interventions were classified to specific levels by more than 50% of respondents as "routine care at birth," three interventions as "special care" and one as "intensive care". Eight interventions were borderline between these care levels. Responses were more consistent for interventions with relevant WHO clinical care guidelines while more variation in respondents' classification was observed in complex interventions that lack standards or guidelines. Respondents with experience in lower-income settings were more likely to assign a higher level of care for more complex interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Results were consistent with known challenges of scaling up inpatient care in lower-income settings and underline the importance of comprehensive guidelines and standards for inpatient care. Further work is needed to develop a shortlist of newborn signal functions aligned with emergency obstetric care levels to track universal health coverage for mothers and their newborns.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Pacientes Internados , Parto , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 5): e000778, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354979

RESUMO

Emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) can be life-saving in managing well-known complications during childbirth. However, suboptimal availability, accessibility, quality and utilisation of EmONC services hampered meeting Millennium Development Goal target 5A. Evaluation and modelling tools of health system performance and future potential can help countries to optimise their strategies towards reaching Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3: ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. The standard set of indicators for monitoring EmONC has been found useful for assessing quality and utilisation but does not account for travel time required to physically access health services. The increased use of geographical information systems, availability of free geographical modelling tools such as AccessMod and the quality of geographical data provide opportunities to complement the existing EmONC indicators by adding geographically explicit measurements. This paper proposes three additional EmONC indicators to the standard set for monitoring EmONC; two consider physical accessibility and a third addresses referral time from basic to comprehensive EmONC services. We provide examples to illustrate how the AccessMod tool can be used to measure these indicators, analyse service utilisation and propose options for the scaling-up of EmONC services. The additional indicators and analysis methods can supplement traditional EmONC assessments by informing approaches to improve timely access to achieve Universal Health Coverage and reach SDG 3.

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