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1.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642515

RESUMO

AIMS: As the proportion of visceral (VAT) to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) development, we examined this relation in a cross-sectional design within the Multiethnic Cohort that includes Japanese Americans known to have high VAT. The aim was to understand how ectopic fat accumulation differs by glycemic status across ethnic groups with disparate rates of obesity, T2D, and propensity to accumulate VAT. METHODS: In 2013-16, 1,746 participants aged 69.2 (2.7) years from five ethnic groups completed questionnaires, blood collections, and whole-body DXA and abdominal MRI scans. Participants with self-reported T2D and/or medication were classified as T2D, those with fasting glucose >125 and 100-125 mg/dL as undiagnosed cases (UT2D) and prediabetes (PT2D), respectively. Using linear regression, we estimated adjusted means of adiposity measures by T2D status. RESULTS: Overall, 315 (18%) participants were classified as T2D, 158 (9%) as UT2D, 518 (30%) as PT2D, and 755 (43%) as normoglycemic (NG) with significant ethnic differences (p<0.0001). In fully adjusted models, VAT, VAT/SAT, and percent liver fat increased significantly from NG, PT2D, UT2D, to T2D (p<0.001). Across ethnic groups, the VAT/SAT ratio was lowest for NG participants and highest for T2D cases. Positive trends were observed in all groups except African Americans, with highest VAT/SAT in Japanese Americans. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that VAT plays an important role in T2D etiology, in particular among Japanese Americans with high levels of ectopic adipose tissue, which drives the development of T2D to a greater degree than in other ethnic groups.

2.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134820

RESUMO

Background: People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, it is unclear whether diabetes-related complications are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A nested matched case-control analysis was conducted among the fee-for-service Medicare participants of the prospective Multiethnic Cohort (n = ∼123 000). Between 2001 and 2014, 433 incident cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were matched to 1728 controls by birth year, sex, race and ethnicity, and age at cohort entry. Participants were linked to data from the California and Hawaii cancer registries and Medicare claims. We used the diabetes complications severity index (DCSI) for the presence of 7 complications within 2 years prior to the diagnosis date of the index case. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association of DCSI with pancreatic cancer incidence. Results: Diabetes was present among 45.4% of cases and 34.1% of controls. Cases had higher DCSI score compared with controls (score ≥4: 32.8% in cases; 21.2% in controls). The most prevalent diabetes-related complications for cases were cardiovascular disease (61.2%), nephropathy (31.2%), and cerebrovascular disease (21.7%). Individuals with diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14 to 1.91), nephropathy (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.33), cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.45 to 2.44), and metabolic complications (OR = 6.61, 95% CI = 2.49 to 17.50) were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer. For every 1-unit increase in DCSI score, participants had 18% greater risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.25). Conclusions: Participants with diabetes-related complications have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer. Identifying diabetes-related complications may help identify high-risk groups who can be studied for development of early markers for this fatal cancer.

3.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(8): 1112-1123, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766472

RESUMO

The global rise in fatty liver is a major public health problem. Thus, it is critical to identify both global and population-specific genetic variants associated with liver fat. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of percent liver fat and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 1,709 participants from the population-based Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study. Our participants comprised older adults of five U.S. racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 277), Japanese Americans (n = 424), Latinos (n = 348), Native Hawaiians (n = 274), and European Americans (n = 386). The established missense risk variant rs738409 located in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) at 22q13 was confirmed to be associated with percent liver fat (P = 3.52 × 10-15) but more strongly in women than men (P heterogeneity = 0.002). Its frequency correlated with the prevalence of NAFLD across the five ethnic/racial groups. Rs738409 was also associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (beta = 0.028; P = 0.009) and circulating levels of insulin (beta = 0.022; P = 0.020) and alanine aminotransferase (beta = 0.016; P = 0.030). A novel association of percent liver fat with rs77249491 (located at 6q13 between limb region 1 domain containing 1 [LMBRD1] and collagen type XIX alpha 1 chain [COL19A1] (P = 1.42 × 10-8) was also observed. Rs7724941 was associated with HOMA-IR (beta = 0.12; P = 0.0005), insulin (beta = 0.11; P = 0.0003), triglycerides (beta = 0.059; P = 0.01), high-density lipoprotein (beta = -0.046; P = 0.04), and sex hormone binding globulin (beta = -0.084; P = 0.0012). This variant was present in Japanese Americans (minor allele frequency [MAF], 8%) and Native Hawaiians (MAF, 2%). Conclusion: We replicated the PNPLA3 rs738409 association in a multiethnic population and identified a novel liver fat risk variant in Japanese Americans and Native Hawaiians. GWASes of percent liver fat in East Asian and Oceanic populations are needed to replicate the rs77249491 association.

4.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(6): e517-e528, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer survival are well documented, but the influence of health care institutions is unclear. We therefore examined the effect of hospital characteristics on survival. METHODS: Harmonized data pooled from 5 case-control and prospective cohort studies within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium were linked to the California Cancer Registry and the California Neighborhoods Data System. The study included 9,701 patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2007. First reporting hospitals were classified by hospital type-National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated cancer center, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Cancer Program, other-and hospital composition of the neighborhood socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity of patients with cancer. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinical and patient-level prognostic factors were used to examine the influence of hospital characteristics on survival. RESULTS: Fewer than one half of women received their initial care at an NCI-designated cancer center (5%) or ACS program (38%) hospital. Receipt of initial care in ACS program hospitals varied by race/ethnicity-highest among non-Latina White patients (45%), and lowest among African Americans (21%). African-American women had superior breast cancer survival when receiving initial care in ACS hospitals versus other hospitals (non-ACS program and non-NCI-designated cancer center; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.83). Other hospital characteristics were not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: African American women may benefit significantly from breast cancer care in ACS program hospitals; however, most did not receive initial care at such facilities. Future research should identify the aspects of ACS program hospitals that are associated with higher survival and evaluate strategies by which to enhance access to and use of high-quality hospitals, particularly among African American women.

5.
Ethn Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508127

RESUMO

Objective: While cardiometabolic abnormalities are associated with elevated risk of morbidity, they may not occur in all individuals with obesity. Less is known about associations with mortality, especially cancer mortality. This study examined associations between cardiometabolic-weight categories and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all causes. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regressions of time to all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortalities were used to examine associations with cardiometabolic-weight status, in the Multiethnic Cohort (n=157,865). Cardiometabolic-weight status categories were: Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight, Metabolically Healthy Obese, Metabolically Healthy Overweight, Metabolically Unhealthy Normal Weight, Metabolically Unhealthy Obese, and Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight. Results: Higher mortality, especially for all-cause and CVD, was found for all metabolically unhealthy groups no matter the weight classification when compared to the Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight category across sex-ethnic groups. For all-cause mortality, a reduction in mortality was seen for males in the Metabolically Healthy Overweight category (HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93), especially for African American, Native Hawaiian, and Latino males. Mortality was elevated in the Metabolically Healthy Obese category for all-cause and CVD mortality in both sexes (HRrange: 1.08-1.93). Few associations were seen with cancer mortality. Conclusions: Past examinations of cardiometabolic-weight status and mortality have been hampered by a lack of diversity. In a racially/ethnically diverse population, metabolically unhealthy groups exhibited a substantially higher risk of death from all causes and CVD than metabolically healthy groups. A reduction in all-cause mortality was seen for some males classified as Metabolically Healthy Overweight; however, being classified as Metabolically Healthy Obese elevated mortality risk for males and females compared to Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight. Future research is needed to examine how sex-ethnic differences in body fat distribution and changes in weight over time influence associations between cardiometabolic-weight status and mortality.

6.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(12): 1743-1747, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286532

RESUMO

This study investigated the relation of diet quality indexes (DQI) with breast cancer incidence among women from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Participants completed a questionnaire with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Scores for Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) were divided into quintiles (Q1-Q5). Cox regression was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for DQIs and breast cancer risk adjusted for known risk factors. The respective HRs for Q5 vs. Q1 were: 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98-1.14) for HEI-2015, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.90-1.04) for AHEI-2010, 1.01 (95% CI, 0.94-1.09) for aMED, and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.88-1.02) for DASH (ptrend > 0.05 for all). However, overweight and obesity were significantly associated with breast cancer incidence. Despite the null association for DQIs, diet quality may lower breast cancer risk through its positive influence on weight status.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 966-973, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may play a greater role than subcutaneous fat in increasing cancer risk but is poorly estimated in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We developed a VAT prediction score by regression equations averaged across 100 least absolute shrinkage and selection operator models in a cross-sectional study of 1,801 older adults in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). The score was then used as proxy for VAT in case-control studies of postmenopausal breast (950 case-control pairs) and colorectal (831 case-control pairs) cancer in an independent sample in MEC. Abdominal MRI-derived VAT; circulating biomarkers of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammation dysfunctions; and ORs for incident cancer adjusted for BMI and other risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: The final score, composed of nine biomarkers, BMI, and height, explained 11% and 15% more of the variance in VAT than BMI alone in men and women, respectively. The area under the receiver operator curve for VAT >150 cm2 was 0.90 in men and 0.86 in women. The VAT score was associated with risk of breast cancer [OR (95% confidence interval [CI]) by increasing tertiles: 1.00, 1.09 (0.86-1.39), 1.48 (1.16-1.89); P trend = 0.002] but not with colorectal cancer (P = 0.84), although an association [1.00, 0.98 (0.68-1.39), 1.24 (0.88-1.76); P trend = 0.08] was suggested for this cancer after excluding cases that occurred within 7 years of blood draw (P heterogeneity = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The VAT score predicted risks of postmenopausal breast cancer and can be used for risk assessment in diverse populations. IMPACT: These findings provide specific evidence for a role of VAT in breast cancer.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1226-1234, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a compound derived from diet and metabolism by the gut microbiome, has been associated with several chronic diseases, although the mechanisms of action are not well understood and few human studies have investigated microbes involved in its production. OBJECTIVES: Our study aims were 1) to investigate associations of TMAO and its precursors (choline, carnitine, and betaine) with inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers; and 2) to identify fecal microbiome profiles associated with TMAO. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data collected from 1653 participants (826 men and 827 women, aged 60-77 y) in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Plasma concentrations of TMAO and its precursors were measured by LC-tandem MS. We also analyzed fasting blood for markers of inflammation, glucose and insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs), and further measured blood pressure. Fecal microbiome composition was evaluated by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene V1-V3 region. Associations of TMAO and its precursors with disease risk biomarkers were assessed by multivariable linear regression, whereas associations between TMAO and the fecal microbiome were assessed by permutational multivariate ANOVA and hurdle regression models using the negative binomial distribution. RESULTS: Median (IQR) concentration of plasma TMAO was 3.05 µmol/L (2.10-4.60 µmol/L). Higher concentrations of TMAO and carnitine, and lower concentrations of betaine, were associated with greater insulin resistance (all P < 0.02). Choline was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, TGs, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and lower HDL cholesterol (P ranging from <0.001 to 0.03), reflecting an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile. TMAO was associated with abundance of 13 genera (false discovery rate < 0.05), including Prevotella, Mitsuokella, Fusobacterium, Desulfovibrio, and bacteria belonging to the families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, as well as the methanogen Methanobrevibacter smithii. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma TMAO concentrations were associated with a number of trimethylamine-producing bacterial taxa, and, along with its precursors, may contribute to inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk pathways.


Assuntos
Betaína/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Carnitina/sangue , Colina/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metilaminas/sangue , Adiposidade , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(10): 1434-1441, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: As dietary intake and endocrine metabolism are vastly different by sex, we evaluated differences in the association of diet quality with body composition between men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Close to 2000 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort completed calibrated quantitative food frequency questionnaires at cohort entry (1993-96) and clinic visit (2013-16), from which the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) was computed. Adiposity measures were obtained through DXA and MRI at clinic visit. Multivariable-adjusted mean adiposity measures were estimated by tertiles of HEI-2010 scores using general linear regression. The associations of diet quality with high visceral fat (VAT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were examined by logistic regression. To assess sex differences, cross-product terms with the HEI-2010 were added to the models. RESULTS: Mean HEI-2010 scores were higher for women than men at cohort entry (67.4 vs. 64.0) and clinic visit (73.6 vs. 71.0). Past and current diet quality was inversely associated with adiposity measures in men and women. Although interaction terms were not significant, the magnitude of the slopes and differences in adjusted means across tertiles suggested a stronger association for women than men. When comparing individuals who maintained a high vs. poor quality diet over 20 years, women but not men showed significantly lower risks for high VAT, whereas high HEI-2010 scores predicted a lower risk of NAFLD in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse association of diet quality with adiposity was similar in both sexes, but diet quality appeared to have a stronger influence on VAT in women than men.

11.
SSM Popul Health ; 10: 100532, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909167

RESUMO

Background: Neighborhood environment has been associated with health behaviors. Despite the evidence of the influence of neighborhood social and physical factors on cancer risk, no research has evaluated whether changes in the neighborhood obesogenic environment, either by physical moves to different neighborhoods or experiencing neighborhood redevelopment or neglect, affect cancer risk. Methods: The association of change in neighborhood environment attributes (socioeconomic status, population density, restaurant and retail food environments, numbers of recreational facilities and businesses, commute patterns, traffic density, and street connectivity) with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was examined among 95,472 Los Angeles, CA, Multiethnic Cohort participants, including 2295 invasive CRC cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2010 using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, other risk factors including BMI and physical activity, and baseline levels of neighborhood attributes. Stratified analyses were conducted by racial/ethnic group and moving status. Results: 40% of participants moved (changed physical residence) during follow-up. Across all races/ethnicities, upward change in population density was statistically significantly associated with higher CRC risk among male and female non-movers (HR: 1.35 and 1.41, respectively). The same association was also observed separately among female African American and Japanese American non-movers, male Latino non-movers, female African American and male White movers. Downward change in population density was significantly related to higher CRC risk among female non-movers (HR: 1.33). Downward change in traffic density was associated with lower CRC risk among male non-movers but with higher CRC risk among female movers (HR: 0.66 and 1.43, respectively). Downward changes in street connectivity or the number of recreational facilities were associated with higher CRC risk (HR: 1.34 and 1.54, respectively). Upward change in the number of recreational facilities was associated with lower CRC risk among female non-movers (HR: 0.70). Changes in the other neighborhood attributes did not exhibit significant associations with CRC risk within more than one racial/ethnic group. Conclusion: Changes over time in neighborhood attributes have an effect on the risk of colorectal cancer, which is separate from the baseline levels of the same attributes and individual-level risk factors, and differs between sexes, movers and non-movers and across racial/ethnic groups.

12.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(1): 87-96, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: γ-Tocopherol has unique properties that protect against nitrogen oxide-mediated cellular damage. To elucidate the potential role of γ-tocopherol in the aging process, we examined the associations of serum γ-tocopherol levels with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among participants in the biorepository subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, pre-cancer diagnostic serum γ-tocopherol levels were measured in a subset of 3904 men and 4461 women. Of these, 22.7% of men and 13.5% of women died during a mean follow-up time of 9.6 ± 2.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for mortality associated with γ-tocopherol were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Positive associations of serum γ-tocopherol with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality (CVD) (Ptrend < 0.05) were detected after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and serum cholesterol levels. The respective HRs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest sex-specific γ-tocopherol quartile were 1.43 (1.17-1.74), 1.79 (1.22-2.64), and 1.52 (1.10-2.11) for men and 1.58 (1.25-2.00), 1.59 (1.05-2.41), and 1.59 (1.07-2.37) for women. Associations remained significant for all-cause mortality among women after further adjusting for smoking variables and history of cancer, CVD, diabetes, and hypertension at cohort entry (highest vs. lowest γ-tocopherol quartile: HR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.08-1.75; Ptrend = 0.005). Overall, associations with all-cause mortality were consistent across race/ethnicity and were significant in three of ten sex-specific racial/ethnic groups in the fully adjusted models, with no interactions between ethnicity and γ-tocopherol. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between γ-tocopherol and mortality suggests a potential physiological role for γ-tocopherol in response to pathological conditions.

13.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 39(3): 216-223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291155

RESUMO

Objective: To understand how diet quality affects chronic disease etiology, the associations of 4 a priori diet quality indices with blood levels of lipid-soluble micronutrients and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid, and glucose metabolism were examined in 5 ethnic groups.Methods: In a cross-sectional design, the Adiposity Phenotype Study, a subset of the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, recruited participants of white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino ancestry. A total of 896 men and 910 women completed a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and anthropometric measurements and donated a fasting blood sample. Using general linear models, covariate-adjusted mean levels of lipid-soluble micronutrients (total carotenes, lycopene, total tocopherols, total lutein, cryptoxanthins), biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text]), adipokines (adiponectin, leptin), lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides), and glucose metabolism (glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) were computed across tertiles of 4 a priori dietary indices Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010, Alternative HEI (AHEI)-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); trends were evaluated in models with diet quality scores as continuous variables.Results: With better diet quality, levels of carotenes, lutein, cryptoxanthin, adiponectin, and HDL-C were significantly higher (ptrend < 0.01), whereas levels of CRP, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR were inversely associated (ptrend < 0.05) with diet quality. With the exception of cryptoxanthins and triglycerides, the associations were consistent across ethnic groups.Conclusions: These findings confirm the association between diet quality and nutrition-related biomarkers and support the idea that a high-quality diet positively influences biologic pathways involved in chronic disease etiology across different ethnic groups.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 352-358, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the stronger association of obesity with postmenopausal breast cancer in Asian than white women may be due to body fat distribution, we examined the relation of adiposity measures with percent mammographic density (PMD), a strong predictor of breast cancer incidence. METHODS: A total of 938 women from five ethnic groups (69.1 ± 2.7 years) in the Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS) underwent DXA and MRI imaging. PMD was assessed in routine mammograms using a computer-assisted method. Spearman correlation coefficients were computed and general linear models were applied to estimate regression coefficients (ß) for PMD per 0.5 SD units of adiposity measures while adjusting for known confounders, including DXA total body fat. RESULTS: For 701 (75%) of the participants (69.1 ± 2.7 years), valid mammograms were obtained. Whereas total body fat, the trunk-to-periphery fat ratio (TPFR), visceral fat (VAT), and subcutaneous fat (SAT) were inversely correlated with PMD (P < 0.0001), the VAT/SAT ratio correlated positively (r spearman = 0.10; P = 0.01). In fully adjusted models, PMD remained inversely related to TPFR and SAT and disappeared for VAT, while it was strengthened for VAT/SAT (ß = 0.51; P = 0.009). This relation was stronger in Japanese Americans than other ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show an association of a high VAT/SAT ratio with greater PMD, a marker of breast cancer risk after taking into account total body fat. IMPACT: The results indicate a link between the propensity to accumulate VAT and the amount of fat in the breast (1-PMD), which may influence the relation of obesity with breast cancer incidence.

15.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1575-1584, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in gut microbial community structure is partly attributed to variations in diet. A priori dietary indexes capture diet quality and have been associated with chronic disease risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association of diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial, with measures of fecal microbial community structure assessed in the Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), an ethnically diverse study population with varied food intakes. METHODS: Multiethnic Cohort Study members completed a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) at cohort entry (1993-1996) and, for the APS subset, at clinic visit (2013-2015), when they also provided a stool sample. DNA was extracted from stool, and the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Dietary index scores were computed based on the QFFQ and an extensive nutritional database. Using linear regression adjusted for relevant covariates, we estimated associations of dietary quality with microbiome measures and computed adjusted mean values of microbial measures by tertiles of dietary index scores. RESULTS: The 858 men and 877 women of white, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian, and African American ancestry had a mean age of 69.2 years at stool collection. Alpha diversity according to the Shannon index increased by 1-2% across tertiles of all 4 diet indexes measured at clinic visit. The mean relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was 13-19% lower with higher diet quality across all 4 indexes (difference between tertile 3 and tertile 1 divided by tertile 1). Of the 104 bacterial genera tested, 21 (primarily from the phylum Firmicutes) were positively associated with at least 1 index after Bonferroni adjustment. CONCLUSION: Diet quality was strongly associated with fecal microbial alpha diversity and beta diversity and several genera previously associated with human health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(12): 1263-1278, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Med ; 8(7): 3592-3603, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066497

RESUMO

While disparity in pancreatic cancer incidence between blacks and whites has been observed, few studies have examined disparity in other ethnic minorities. We evaluated variations in pancreatic cancer incidence and assessed the extent to which known risk factors account for differences in pancreatic cancer risk among African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latino Americans, and European Americans in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Risk factor data were obtained from the baseline questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer associated with risk factors and ethnicity. During an average 16.9-year follow-up, 1,532 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified among 184,559 at-risk participants. Family history of pancreatic cancer (RR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58), diabetes (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14-1.54), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08-1.46), current smoking (<20 pack-years RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.73; ≥20 pack-years RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.46-2.12), and red meat intake (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00-1.36) were associated with pancreatic cancer. After adjustment for these risk factors, Native Hawaiians (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.30-1.98), Japanese Americans (RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.54), and African Americans (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42), but not Latino Americans (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.07), had a higher risk of pancreatic cancer compared to European Americans. Interethnic differences in pancreatic cancer risk are not fully explained by differences in the distribution of known risk factors. The greater risks in Native Hawaiians and Japanese Americans are new findings and elucidating the causes of these high rates may improve our understanding and prevention of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891604

RESUMO

We performed a hypothesis-generating phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to identify and characterize cross-phenotype associations, where one SNP is associated with two or more phenotypes, between thousands of genetic variants assayed on the Metabochip and hundreds of phenotypes in 5,897 African Americans as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. The PAGE I study was a National Human Genome Research Institute-funded collaboration of four study sites accessing diverse epidemiologic studies genotyped on the Metabochip, a custom genotyping chip that has dense coverage of regions in the genome previously associated with cardio-metabolic traits and outcomes in mostly European-descent populations. Here we focus on identifying novel phenome-genome relationships, where SNPs are associated with more than one phenotype. To do this, we performed a PheWAS, testing each SNP on the Metabochip for an association with up to 273 phenotypes in the participating PAGE I study sites. We identified 133 putative pleiotropic variants, defined as SNPs associated at an empirically derived p-value threshold of p<0.01 in two or more PAGE study sites for two or more phenotype classes. We further annotated these PheWAS-identified variants using publicly available functional data and local genetic ancestry. Amongst our novel findings is SPARC rs4958487, associated with increased glucose levels and hypertension. SPARC has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and is also known to have a potential role in fibrosis, a common consequence of multiple conditions including hypertension. The SPARC example and others highlight the potential that PheWAS approaches have in improving our understanding of complex disease architecture by identifying novel relationships between genetic variants and an array of common human phenotypes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Metagenômica , Fenômica , Idoso , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 154-162, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement reliability and biological stability need to be considered when developing sampling protocols for population-based fecal microbiome studies. METHODS: Stool samples were collected biannually over a 2-year period and sequenced for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene in 50 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. We evaluated the temporal stability of the fecal microbiome on a community level with permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), as well as on taxa and diversity measures with intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Interindividual differences were the predominant source of fecal microbiome variation, and variation within individual was driven more by changing abundances than by the complete loss or introduction of taxa. Phyla and diversity measures were reliable over the 2 years. Most genera were stable over time, although those with low abundances tended to be more dynamic. Reliability was lower among participants who used antibiotics, with the greatest difference seen in samples taken within 1 month of reported use. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal microbiome as a whole is stable over a 2-year period, although certain taxa may exhibit more temporal variability. IMPACT: When designing large epidemiologic studies, a single sample is sufficient to capture the majority of the variation in the fecal microbiome from 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while multiple samples may be needed for rare or less-abundant taxa.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Variação Biológica da População , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fatores de Tempo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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