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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 330: 59-64, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437847

RESUMO

Gene-specific methylation has been related with transcriptional/translational consequences in different cells; also, this epigenetic modification is affected by environmental exposures. In previous studies, CYP2E1 activity in toluene-exposed workers was decreased compared to controls, however, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels did not show significant differences. Here, we compared gene-specific methylation levels at the 5'UTR region, in a subset of workers whom already participated in two former studies, compared to controls. METHODS: DNA was obtained from whole blood in five different groups: occupationally exposed to a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOC): high levels (n = 19); low levels (n = 19) and very low levels (n = 17), toluene-exposed workers (n = 19) and control group (n = 19). We performed PCR-pyrosequencing at the 5'UTR region from four genes: CYP2E1, IL-6, SOD1 and TNF-α. RESULTS: In participants exposed to high levels of a VOC mixture, we found significant differences: lower methylation levels for IL-6, and higher methylation levels for TNF-α compared to controls. In toluene-exposed workers, we found significant, lower methylation levels for CYP2E1 compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Lower methylation levels at the 5'UTR region from CYP2E1 in toluene exposed-workers, suggests that this epigenetic modification could represent a functional correlate regarding enzymatic activity, as a response to toluene biotransformation.

2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 593-605, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042700

RESUMO

RESUMEN Sólo un 30% de los hogares en México, presentan seguridad alimentaria, es decir, un gran porcentaje de los hogares y por ende de la población no satisfacen las necesidades básicas diarias de macro y micronutrimentos. Los quelites, que se definen como plantas silvestres comestibles (hojas, tallos y flores) son una fuente accesible, continua, económica y adecuada de nutrimentos. Sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido por modificaciones en las preferencias alimentarias, derivadas de los cambios en estilos de vida. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue valorizar a los quelites como fuente de alimento. Los quelites, aportan proteínas, aminoácidos, minerales (Ca, Mg, Zn), vitaminas (E, C) y fibra. Además, son una excelente fuente de compuestos bioactivos, como ácidos fenólicos (ácido cafeico, ferúlico) y flavonoides (quercetina, kaempferol, espinacetina), carotenoides, ácido α-linolénico y betalainas, que presentan elevada actividad antioxidante. Su consumo habitual se ha relacionado con beneficios a la salud, tales como efectos antitumorales, antihiperlipidémicos y antidiabéticos. Los quelites, además de estar disponibles en forma silvestre, forman parte de las tradiciones culinarias de México, incorporados de forma cruda y cocida en los platillos regionales. Por lo tanto, la revalorización y reincorporación de los quelites en la dieta, puede coadyuvar a cubrir las necesidades nutrimentales, en poblaciones con poco acceso o inseguridad alimentaria, además de contribuir a proporcionar efectos adicionales a través de sus compuestos bioactivos.


ABSTRACT Only 30% of households in Mexico present food security, which means a large percentage of households and the population does not meet their needs in terms of macro and micronutrients. Thus, quelites, which are defined as wild edible plants, are an accessible, continuous, economical and adequate source of nutrients. However, quelite consumption in Mexico has been decreasing in response to changes in food preferences and lifestyles, including increased exposure to hypercaloric foods. Therefore, the aim of this work was to discuss the value of quelites as a food source rich in nutrients, proteins, amino acids, minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn), vitamins (E, C) and fiber. We also discuss how quelites are good source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, spinacetin), carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and betalaines. There use have been mainly related to the anti-tumor, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic benefits. We further discuss topics related to the culinary traditions of Mexico and the incorporation of quelites in the raw and cooked form in regional markets. The revaluation and the reincorporation of quelites in the diet can help meet nutritional needs, in addition to possibly providing additional health benefits.

3.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(2): 267-274, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184317

RESUMO

Background: hearing disorders in the premature newborns impact on their development and language and therefore, on their quality of life. Several risk factors have been associated to these conditions, but little is known about socioeconomic, nutrition factors and food security. Objective: to analyze the association between food security and prenatal risk factors in newborns with hearing disorders. Material and methods: study of 35 cases and 105 controls in premature newborns from 30 to 37 weeks of gestation (WG) in a public hospital. The working tool was a questionnaire to collect data about the maternal medical record and the anthropometry of the newborn, as well as the risk factors for the auditory function, sociodemographic aspects, and food security with its respective classification and food habits. Results: the principal perinatal risk factor associated to hearing impairment was the use of gentamycin (ototoxic drug) in 18.1% of the total (OR: 5.61 [1.29-24.50]). Severe food insecurity was associated with auditory disfunctions in 27.2% of cases and in 2.8% of controls (OR: 12.75 [2.89-56.16]). There were differences between the groups regarding the education level (cases: 50% of the mothers finished or interrupted primary education level vs controls with 19%; Ji2 = 0.008). The anthropomorphic variables showed differences in weight, length and cephalic perimeter for the newborns (p < 0.000). Conclusion: severe food insecurity, exposure to gentamycin and low education level of the mother had a significant association with auditory impairments in preterm children. For these newborns, variables like weight, length and cephalic perimeter at the moment of birth were lower than in controls. These initial findings point to the important role that environmental risks, like food insecurity, have in auditory impairments in addition to those previously described


Introducción: las alteraciones auditivas en el recién nacido prematuro impactan en su desarrollo y lenguaje y por ende a la calidad de vida. Se conocen varios factores de riesgo asociados a estas alteraciones, pero poco sobre los aspectos socioeconómicos, nutricionales y de inseguridad alimentaria. Objetivo: analizar la asociación con la inseguridad alimentaria y los factores de riesgo prenatales en prematuros con problemas de audición. Material y métodos: estudio de 35 casos y 105 controles, en prematuros de 30 a 37 SDG de un hospital público, realizado a través de una encuesta donde se recopilaron datos del expediente materno y del recién nacido (antropometría), así como factores de riesgo para alteración auditiva, aspectos sociodemográficos, seguridad alimentaria con sus respectivas clasificaciones y tipo de alimentación. Resultados: el principal factor de riego perinatal asociado a las alteraciones auditivas fue la administración de gentamicina (antibiótico ototóxico) en 18,1% de los casos (OR: 5,61 [IC = 1,29-24,50]). La inseguridad alimentaria severa se asoció con las alteraciones auditivas, en 27,2% de casos y en 2,8% de controles (OR: 12,75 [IC = 2,89-56,16]). Además, se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos para el nivel de escolaridad (casos: 50% de las madres tuvieron primaria terminada o incompleta vs. controles con 19%; Ji2 = 0,008) y Las variables antropométricas presentaron diferencias en peso, longitud y perímetro cefálico (p < 0,000). Conclusión: la inseguridad alimentaria severa, exposición a gentamicina, el nivel de escolaridad de la madre, tuvieron una asociación significativa con las alteraciones auditivas en el prematuro. Variables como el peso, longitud y perímetro cefálico al nacimiento presentaron valores inferiores en el grupo casos. Estos primeros hallazgos, reflejan riesgos ambientales como la inseguridad alimentaria en las alteraciones auditivas además de las ya conocidas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Transtornos da Audição/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Escolaridade , Comportamento Alimentar , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Mães , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(2): 267-274, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868909

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: hearing disorders in the premature newborns impact on their development and language and therefore, on their quality of life. Several risk factors have been associated to these conditions, but little is known about socioeconomic, nutrition factors and food security. Objective: to analyze the association between food security and prenatal risk factors in newborns with hearing disorders. Material and methods: study of 35 cases and 105 controls in premature newborns from 30 to 37 weeks of gestation (WG) in a public hospital. The working tool was a questionnaire to collect data about the maternal medical record and the anthropometry of the newborn, as well as the risk factors for the auditory function, sociodemographic aspects, and food security with its respective classification and food habits. Results: the principal perinatal risk factor associated to hearing impairment was the use of gentamycin (ototoxic drug) in 18.1% of the total (OR: 5.61 [1.29-24.50]). Severe food insecurity was associated with auditory disfunctions in 27.2% of cases and in 2.8% of controls (OR: 12.75 [2.89-56.16]). There were differences between the groups regarding the education level (cases: 50% of the mothers finished or interrupted primary education level vs controls with 19%; Ji2 = 0.008). The anthropomorphic variables showed differences in weight, length and cephalic perimeter for the newborns (p < 0.000). Conclusion: severe food insecurity, exposure to gentamycin and low education level of the mother had a significant association with auditory impairments in preterm children. For these newborns, variables like weight, length and cephalic perimeter at the moment of birth were lower than in controls. These initial findings point to the important role that environmental risks, like food insecurity, have in auditory impairments in addition to those previously described.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Transtornos da Audição/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Escolaridade , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 90(2): 124.e1-124.e11, feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177226

RESUMO

En un mundo cada vez más tecnológico e interconectado, pero también más violento, esquilmado y contaminado, la salud medioambiental pediátrica (SMAP) constituye una de las mejores contribuciones para mejorar la salud global. Pocas zonas del planeta tienen una afinidad tan alta en valores e intereses como la Unión Europea (UE), América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). Las inversiones y actuaciones de la SMAP en periodos pre y posnatales durante las dos primeras décadas de vida generarán incontables beneficios en la salud y en el bienestar general en todas las épocas posteriores de la vida. Detectar, disminuir o eliminar los contaminantes físicos, químicos, biológicos y sociales es una de las principales misiones y acciones de la SMAP. En este artículo especial describimos, actualizamos y divulgamos las amenazas, los desafíos y las oportunidades de cooperación en la SMAP entre los profesionales biosanitarios y restantes sectores sociales implicados de la UE y de ALC. Surgen nuevos perfiles profesionales, estructuras de conocimiento y arquitecturas para el compromiso. Se requerirán liderazgos valientes, nuevos recursos sustanciales, amplios cambios sociales y la necesaria colaboración entre ambas regiones para mejorar la salud de las generaciones presentes y futuras


In a world that is increasingly technological and interconnected, but also more violent, overexploited and polluted, Paediatric Environmental Health (PEH) is one of the best contributions to improve global health. Few areas of the planet have a high affinity with common values and interests, such as the European Union (EU), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The investments and actions of the PEH in pre- and postnatal periods during the first two decades of life will generate countless benefits in the health and well-being during the human life span. Detecting, reducing, or eliminating physical, chemical, biological and social pollutants is one of the main missions and actions of the PEH. In this special article, an update review is presented on the threats, challenges and cooperation opportunities in PEH among bio-health professionals and other social sectors involved, from the EU and LAC. New professional profiles, knowledge structures and architectures for engagement emerge. Courageous leaderships, new substantial resources, broad social changes, and the necessary collaboration between the two regions will be required to improve the health of present and future generations


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Saúde Ambiental , Pediatria , Saúde Global , Consórcios de Saúde
6.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 90(2): 124.e1-124.e11, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587390

RESUMO

In a world that is increasingly technological and interconnected, but also more violent, overexploited and polluted, Paediatric Environmental Health (PEH) is one of the best contributions to improve global health. Few areas of the planet have a high affinity with common values and interests, such as the European Union (EU), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The investments and actions of the PEH in pre- and postnatal periods during the first two decades of life will generate countless benefits in the health and well-being during the human life span. Detecting, reducing, or eliminating physical, chemical, biological and social pollutants is one of the main missions and actions of the PEH. In this special article, an update review is presented on the threats, challenges and cooperation opportunities in PEH among bio-health professionals and other social sectors involved, from the EU and LAC. New professional profiles, knowledge structures and architectures for engagement emerge. Courageous leaderships, new substantial resources, broad social changes, and the necessary collaboration between the two regions will be required to improve the health of present and future generations.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental , Saúde Global , Adolescente , Fortalecimento Institucional , Região do Caribe , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , América Latina , Papel Profissional , Mudança Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905888

RESUMO

Quelites are Mexican wild plants, reported as excellent sources of nutritional compounds such as amino acids (serine, glycine, and cysteine), minerals (Mg, Fe, and Zn), and phytochemicals, as phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid) and flavonoids (phloridzin and naringenin); on the other hand, high biological activity has been shown in these compounds. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of a supplementation with two endemic quelites of Mexico (Chenopodium berlandieri L. and Portulaca Oleracea L.); in addition to supplementation, a nutritional intervention was performed; the biomarkers of hemoglobin (Hb), urinary malondialdehyde (UMDA), and urinary arsenic (UAs) were measured in adolescents exposed to arsenic. A clinical intervention study was conducted in 27 adolescents ages 11 to 12 years for 4 weeks. Weekly anthropometric and dietary evaluations were carried out, as well as the concentration of Hb; the UMDA and UAs were performed by plate-based colorimetric measurement and atomic absorption spectrophotometry with the hydrides generation system, respectively. The results showed that UMDA concentrations had a significant improvement in the supplemented group (SG) vs. control group (CG) (SG = 1.59 ± 0.89 µM/g creatinine vs. CG = 2.90 ± 0.56 µM/g creatinine) in the second week of intervention; on the other hand, the supplemented group showed an increase in Hb levels (15.12 ± 0.99 g/dL) in the same week; finally after the second week, an increase in UAs levels was observed significantly compared to the baseline value (Baseline: 56.85; Week 2: 2.02 µg/g creatinine). Therefore, the results show that the mixture of quelites (a rich source of phytochemicals and nutrients) improved hemoglobin and UMDA levels, and urinary arsenic excretion from the second week in the exposed population.

8.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 24(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178358

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Se entiende por Seguridad Alimentaria cuando todas las personas tienen acceso físico, social y económico a suficientes alimentos para satisfacer sus necesidades alimenticias. El objetivo fue comparar el nivel de seguridad alimentaria de los beneficiarios de Comedores Comunitarios con y sin huerto comunitario pertenecientes al programa de la Cruzada Nacional contra el hambre. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal y comparativo en tres comedores comunitarios, seleccionados con huerto (n=1) y sin huerto (n=2). Se utilizó la Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria, un cuestionario de caracterización y de características del huerto. Se obtuvieron datos sobre el acceso a otros programas sociales, servicios básicos de salud, educación, características del huerto y seguridad alimentaria. Resultados: La frecuencia de seguridad alimentaria de los comedores con y sin huerto fue de 16,67% y 10,00% respectivamente. La inseguridad alimentaria severa se presentó en 10,00% y 25,00% respectivamente. Según la ELCSA, el 48,93% de los hogares beneficiarios de comedores con huerto reportaron tener variedad de alimentos, mientras que en hogares de comedores sin huerto se reportó el 14,28% (p=0,003). Los principales alimentos cultivados fueron frijol, verduras y maíz). Conclusiones: El grupo con huerto reportó mayor seguridad alimentaria y menor inseguridad alimentaria severa en hogares sin menores de 18 años


Background: Food Security is when all people have physical, social and economic access to enough food to meet their dietary needs. The objective was to compare the level of food security of the beneficiaries of community kitchens with and without community orchard belonging to the National Crusade against Hunger program. Methods: A cross sectional and comparative study was carried outin three community kitchens, selected with community orchard (n = 1) and without community garden (n = 2). It was used the Latin American and Caribbean Scale of Food Security, a characterization questionnaire and garden characteristics questionnaire. Data on access to other social programs, basic health services, education, orchard characteristics and food security were obtained. Results: The frequency of food security of the community kitchens with and without orchard was presented in 16.67% and 10.00% respectively. Severe food insecurity was presented in 10.00% and 25.00% respectively. According to the ELCSA, an 48.93% of beneficiary households with garden reported having a variety of food, while households without orchard reported 14.28% (p= 0.003). The main foods grown in the community garden were beans, vegetables and corn. Conclusions: The orchard group reported greater food security and less severe food insecurity in households without children under 18


Assuntos
Humanos , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentação Coletiva , Socorro Alimentar , México/epidemiologia , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Programas de Nutrição , Demanda de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Produção de Alimentos
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(4): 894-902, 2018 Jun 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: adequate nutrition in adolescence is important for growth and development. There are environmental factors that cannot be avoided, such as exposure to heavy metals through natural sources such as water. Arsenic is a metalloid that can cause damage to health (alterations in nutritional status, diabetes, cancer) and it has been found in concentrations higher than those allowed in drinking water. OBJECTIVE: to measure the effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on the nutritional status and urinary excretion of arsenic in adolescents exposed to this metal through drinking water. MATERIAL AND METHODS: an observational, follow-up study of a cohort was conducted to assess the efficacy of vitamin and mineral supplementation on supplementation in 45 adolescents exposed to arsenic in drinking water, who were given a daily multivitamin supplement for four weeks. Weekly nutritional status and arsenic levels in urine and drinking water were evaluated. RESULTS: the basal nutritional intake was low for proteins, fiber, folic acid, vitamin B2, B6, B12, E, C, selenium and iron, increasing their consumption through the supplement during the intervention and with an increase of approximately 1 g/dl of hemoglobin in all participants. At the end of the intervention, there was an increase in fat-free mass and a decrease in the percentage of body fat. In relation to the urinary excretion of arsenic, the biggest elimination of this metalloid was observed from the first week of intervention (35.91 µg/g Cr [IC 95% = 23.2-74.8 µg/g Cr]), which was statistically significant compared to basal levels of urinary arsenic (43.2 µg/g Cr [IC 95% = 30.8-117.6 µg/g Cr]) (p < 0.05), with an average water consumption with As of 96.2 ± 7.5 µg/l. CONCLUSION: four weeks of supplementation with vitamins and minerals in the adolescent population studied improved nutritional status and increased metalloid excretion significantly in the first and second week after intervention.


Assuntos
Arsênico/urina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(4): 894-902, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-179883

RESUMO

Introducción: la adecuada nutrición en la adolescencia es de importancia para el crecimiento y desarrollo. Existen factores ambientales que no pueden evitarse, como la exposición a metales pesados a través de fuentes naturales como el agua. El arsénico es un metaloide que puede causar un daño a la salud (alteraciones del estado nutricio, diabetes, cáncer) y ha sido encontrado en concentraciones superiores a las permitidas en el agua de consumo. Objetivo: medir el efecto de una suplementación de vitaminas y minerales sobre el estado nutricio y la excreción urinaria de arsénico en adolescentes expuestos a este metal a través de agua de consumo. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de intervención y longitudinal para la valorar la eficacia de la suplementación de vitaminas y minerales sobre la suplementación en 45 adolescentes, expuestos a arsénico en agua de consumo, a quienes se dio un suplemento multivitamínico diariamente durante cuatro semanas. De forma semanal se evaluaron el estado nutricio y los niveles de arsénico en orina y en agua de consumo. Resultados: en la población de estudio se observó que el consumo nutrimental basal fue bajo para proteínas, fibra, ácido fólico, vitamina B2, B6, B12, E, C, selenio y hierro, incrementando su consumo a través del suplemento durante la intervención y con un aumento de aproximadamente 1 g/dl de hemoglobina en todos los participantes. Al final de la intervención presentaron incremento de masa libre de grasa y disminución en el porcentaje de grasa corporal. Por otro lado, en cuanto a la excreción urinaria de arsénico, se observó mayor eliminación de este metal (35,91 μg/g Cr [IC 95% = 23,2-74,8 μg/g Cr]) desde la primera semana de intervención, la cual fue estadísticamente significativa en comparación con los niveles basales de arsénico urinario (43,2 μg/g Cr [IC 95% = 30,8-117,6 μg/g Cr]) (p < 0,05), con un consumo promedio de agua con As de 96,2 ± 7,5 μg/l. Conclusión: la suplementación con vitaminas y minerales de cuatro semanas en la población de adolescentes estudiada mejoró el estado nutricio y aumentó la excreción del metaloide de manera significativa en la primera y segunda semana postintervención


Introduction: adequate nutrition in adolescence is important for growth and development. There are environmental factors that cannot be avoided, such as exposure to heavy metals through natural sources such as water. Arsenic is a metalloid that can cause damage to health (alterations in nutritional status, diabetes, cancer) and it has been found in concentrations higher than those allowed in drinking water. Objective: to measure the effect of vitamin and mineral supplementation on the nutritional status and urinary excretion of arsenic in adolescents exposed to this metal through drinking water. Material and methods: an observational, follow-up study of a cohort was conducted to assess the efficacy of vitamin and mineral supplementation on supplementation in 45 adolescents exposed to arsenic in drinking water, who were given a daily multivitamin supplement for four weeks. Weekly nutritional status and arsenic levels in urine and drinking water were evaluated. Results: the basal nutritional intake was low for proteins, fiber, folic acid, vitamin B2, B6, B12, E, C, selenium and iron, increasing their consumption through the supplement during the intervention and with an increase of approximately 1 g/dl of hemoglobin in all participants. At the end of the intervention, there was an increase in fat-free mass and a decrease in the percentage of body fat. In relation to the urinary excretion of arsenic, the biggest elimination of this metalloid was observed from the first week of intervention (35.91 μg/g Cr [IC 95% = 23.2-74.8 μg/g Cr]), which was statistically significant compared to basal levels of urinary arsenic (43.2 μg/g Cr [IC 95% = 30.8-117.6 μg/g Cr]) (p < 0.05), with an average water consumption with As of 96.2 ± 7.5 μg/l. Conclusion: four weeks of supplementation with vitamins and minerals in the adolescent population studied improved nutritional status and increased metalloid excretion significantly in the first and second week after intervention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Arsênico/urina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Água Potável/análise , Seguimentos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo Observacional
11.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 24(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178349

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Se analiza la experiencia en hogares del Estado de Guanajuato, México, que padecen limitaciones en torno al acceso al agua en calidad y cantidad. Métodos: Se aplicó una encuesta de 17 ítems a 352 hogares (jefas de familia) para medir las experiencias en torno al acceso al agua, además de la seguridad alimentaria, escolaridad y aspectos sociodemográficos. Resultados: Un 33,4% de los hogares reportaron preocupación de no tener acceso al agua y el 74,8% no tuvo acceso. El 70,8% tuvo que comprar agua para beber y el 5,7% se enfermó y lo relacionó con el consumo de agua. Un 65,6% de los hogares presentó inseguridad alimentaria. La correlación fue significativa para nivel de escolaridad de las jefas de familia, el número de hogares con niños de 1 y 12 años con el uso de agua de la llave para beber, preparar leche en polvo para los niños, y para los alimentos en casa y agua fresca. Conclusiones: Estas experiencias de los hogares en torno al acceso al agua contribuyen a la discusión y al desarrollo de escalas sobre inseguridad al agua, considerando la seguridad alimentaria


Background: We analyze the experience in households in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico that suffer from limitations regarding access to water in quality and quantity. Methods: A survey of 17 items was applied to 352 households (female heads of household) to measure experiences regarding access to water, in addition to food security, schooling and sociodemographic aspects. Results: Where 33,4% of households reported concern about not having access to water and 74,8% did not have access. 70,8% had to buy water to drink and 5,7% got sick and related it to water consumption. 65,6% of households showed food insecurity. The correlation was significant for the level of education of female heads of household, households with children under 1 and 12 years old with the use of tap water, preparing powdered milk for children, and for food at home and water. Conclusions: These experiences of households around access to water contribute to the discussion and development of scales that insecurity to water, considering food security


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Escassez de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , México/epidemiologia , Demografia , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Arsênico/isolamento & purificação , Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional , Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia
12.
Rev. mex. trastor. aliment ; 9(1): 24-33, ene.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-961340

RESUMO

Resumen El consumo alto de azúcares añadidos (AZA) se asocia a mayor sobrepeso y obesidad; sin embargo, la posesión de un peso corporal adecuado puede no descartar dicho consumo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la asociación de los principales factores de riesgo cardiometabólico con el estado nutricio, el consumo de refresco (CNR) y de otras bebidas con AZA. Participaron 89 adolescentes de 10-15 años de edad (53 con obesidad [OG] y 36 sin obesidad [WOG]). Las medidas recabadas fueron: porcentaje de grasa corporal, índice de masa corporal, presión arterial, ácido úrico y glucosa sanguínea; además de un recordatorio de alimentación (24 hrs) y un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos. Del OG, 31% presentó hipertensión, 71% acantosis nigricans, 13% hiperuricemia y 17% valores altos de glucosa. No obstante, el WOG registró mayor consumo de refresco, así como valores limítrofes en los demás factores de riesgo. Aunque no hubo diferencia entre los grupos en el consumo de carbohidratos, si en la frecuencia y cantidad del consumo de azúcar simple y de bebidas con AZA, entre ellas el refresco. Destaca la importancia de integrar a los factores de riesgo ya conocidos, el análisis pormenorizado del CNR y otras bebidas con AZA.


Abstract A high added sugars (AS) intake is associated with greater overweight and obesity; however, having normal weight does not mean low intake of AS. The objective of this study was to associate the main cardiometabolic risk factors with nutritional status, soft drink intake (SDI) and other beverages with AS. Participants were 89 adolescents 1015 years old (53 with obesity [OG] and 36 without obesity [WOG]). The measures were: body fat percentage, body mass index, blood pressure, uric acid and blood glucose; besides a food reminder of 24 hours and a food intake frequency questionnaire. From the OG, 31% had hypertension, 71% acanthosis nigricans, 13% hyperuricemia and 17% high values of glucose. However, the WOG increased the consumption of soft drinks, as well as the limit values in other risk factors. Although there were no differences between the groups in the consumption of carbohydrates, there were in the frequency and amount of simple sugar and drinks with AS, for instance soft drinks. It is highlighted the importance to include the already known risk factors and a detailed analysis of SDI and other soft drinks with AS.

13.
CienciaUAT ; 12(2): 148-157, ene.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001733

RESUMO

Resumen La exposición prolongada al arsénico (As), a través de los alimentos y el agua de consumo, incrementa el riesgo de padecer cáncer, diabetes e hipertensión arterial, entre otras enfermedades. Las familias marginadas, que reemplazan el agua potable comercial por agua de pozo o de la llave, en zonas contaminadas con As, presentan mayores riesgos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los principales factores de riesgo toxicológico por exposición a la contaminación con arsénico presente en agua, en población que habita en zonas donde se han detectado altos niveles de este metaloide, del estado de Guanajuato. Se realizó un estudio analítico y transversal. Se aplicó una encuesta a 30 jefas de familia encargadas de la alimentación. La seguridad alimentaría se midió con la aplicación de la escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña. El 93 % de las familias tenía acceso a agua de la llave no potable. En relación a la preparación de alimentos, el 26.7 % de las familias utilizaba agua de la llave, el 13.3 % agua de pozo y el 43.3 % agua de pipa. El 70 % de las familias estudiadas presentaron algún nivel de inseguridad alimentaria. Otro factor de riesgo a considerar fue el nivel de escolaridad de la jefa de familia. La identificación de los principales factores de riesgo, incluyendo ausencia de seguridad alimentaria, permitirá diseñar una escala de validación, con la cual se obtendrá un tamizaje oportuno para prevenir posibles intoxicaciones por arsénico en comunidades en donde el agua del subsuelo está contaminada.


Abstract Prolonged exposure to arsenic (As), through food and drinking water, increases the risk of cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure, among others diseases. Marginalized families, who replace commercial drinking water with well water or tap water, in areas contamina ted with As, present greater risks. The objective of this work was to identify the main toxicological risk factors due to exposure to arsenic contamination of water. An analytical and transversal study was carried out in two populations from the state of Guanajuato that live in an area where high levels of this metalloid have been detected. A survey was administered to 30 heads of households responsible for feeding their families. Food security was measured with the application of the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA). Findings indicate that 93 % of the families had access to non-potable tap water. In relation to food preparation, 26.7 % of the families used tap water, 13.3 % well water, and 43.3 % water delivered by tanker trucks. 70 % of the surveyed families showed some level of food insecurity. Another risk factor to consider was the educational level of household heads. The identification of the main risk factors, including the absence of food safety, will allow the design of a validation scale, with which timely screening will be obtained to prevent possible arsenic poisoning in communities where subsoil water is contaminated.

14.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 36(2): 140-149, 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153516

RESUMO

Introducción: La contaminación de agua con arsénico en un problema de salud pública. Estado nutricio, hábitos de consumo y fuente de exposición al metaloide se sabe pueden atenuar su toxicidad. Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las prácticas de alimentación y nutrición en comunidades del estado de Guanajuato expuestas a arsénico y poder identificar algunos indicadores de riesgo nutricional que coadyuven con los efectos a la salud del metal. Métodos: Con un diseño transversal, se aplicó una encuesta a 30 jefas de familia, que fueron seleccionadas de un estudio previo, donde se analizó la presencia de arsénico en niños; se evaluaron las prácticas de culinarias, consumo de alimentos, características sociodemográficas. Resultados: El promedio de integrantes por familia fue de seis, y el ingreso mensual promedio por familia fue de 259 USD. Los recipientes que principalmente se usaron para preparar alimentos como sopas fueron a base de peltre, aluminio y barro vidriado. El consumo de frutas y verduras fue bajo y con poca variedad, con un alto consumo de refresco y otros alimentos que no aportan nutrimentos como los antioxidantes. Además de que desde el primer año de vida se ofrecen alimentos no adecuados a la edad. Conclusión: Se detectaron a las prácticas culinarias y alimentarias como indicadores de riesgo en una población expuesta al arsénico, donde el consumo de nutrimentos que promueven la detoxificación del metal fueron bajos. Por lo que se deberían considerar estas prácticas como indicadores en la evaluación de los efectos a la salud de la exposición al metaloide y a otros contaminantes (AU)


Introduction: The contamination of water with arsenic is a public health problem. Nutritional status, foods habits and exposure source of this metalloid, can reduce its toxicity. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess feeding and nutrition practices into communities in the state of Guanajuato exposed to arsenic and to identify some nutritional risk indicators that contribute to the health effects of metalloid. Methods: A cross seccional study, a survey was applied to 30 heads of household, who were selected from a previous study, where the presence of arsenic in children was analyzed; culinary practices, food consumption, sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated. Results: The average of integrants per family was of six and the average monthly income per household was 259 USD. Containers mainly used to prepare foods, such as soups, were based pewter, aluminum and glazed earthenware. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was low, with little variety, with a high consumption of soda and other foods that do not add nutrients like antioxidants. In addition to food offered from the first year of life is not age appropriate. Conclusion: We detected the culinary and dietary practices as risk in a population exposed to arsenic, where the low consumption of nutrients that promote the detoxification of metal were low. As these practices should be considered as indicators in assessing the health effects of exposure to metalloid and other contaminants (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Alimentar , Arsênico/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
15.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 21(4): 396-402, jun. 2015. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-777701

RESUMO

El nacimiento pretérmino, de acuerdo con la Organización Mundial de la Salud, es el producto que nace antes de la semana 37 de gestación y, debido a la madurez de varios órganos y sistemas, aunado a un mayor requerimiento energético, incrementa el riesgo de presentar mayores riesgos metabólicos e infecciosos. Así, la mayoría de los neonatos requerirán ser hospitalizados y alimentados por otra vía diferente a la oral, como la terapia nutricional o soporte nutricio (TN). La TN es un procedimiento que permite cubrir los requerimientos energéticos y de nutrimentos por diferentes vías: enteral, parenteralo mixta. Pero este procedimiento, como cualquier otro, presenta riesgos y beneficios, por lo que se cuenta con guías y lineamientos para su prescripción adecuada y, por ende, su vigilancia. Un estudio de la autora, en prematuros hospitalizados y alimentados con TN, encontró mayores riesgos metabólicosy una deficiente ganancia de peso; algunas de las causas fue la nula vigilancia y supervisión de la TN. Los resultados permitieron buscar estrategias de mejores prácticas, que llevó a generar un protocolo estandarizado de manejo de la TN. Las buenas prácticas de alimentación y la vigilancia nutricia durante la hospitalización de los neonatos prematuros son clave para mejorar la supervivencia, la ganancia de peso y el adecuado desarrollo fetal, traducido en menores riesgos y complicaciones metabólicas.


Preterm birth, according to the World Health Organization, is defined as childbirth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation. Due to an immaturity of various organs and systems, coupled with greater energy requirements, these newborns are at a greater risk of metabolic and infectious complications. Because of this, the majority of preterm infants require hospitalization and feeding by routes other than orally, such as nutritional support or nutritional therapy (NT). NT is a procedure that allows energy and nutri-tional requirements to be covered by different routes: enteral, parenteral or mixed. However, this pro-cedure, like any other, has risks and benefits, so there are guidelines for its prescription and consequent surveillance. A study by the author in hospitalized preterm infants receiving NT found higher metabolic risks and poor weight gain; some of the causes were null surveillance and monitoring of NT. The results and evidence gathered by the author led to a search for better management practices. This generated a standardized management protocol for NT. Adequate feeding practices and nutritional care during hos-pitalization for preterm infants are key to improving survival, adequate weight gain and development, resulting in lower metabolic risks and complications.


Assuntos
Humanos , Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nutrição Parenteral , Hiperglicemia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 14: 111, 2014 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25000942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of air pollution on the respiratory system has been estimated on the basis of respiratory symptoms and lung function. However; few studies have compared lung inflammation in healthy and asthmatics children exposed to high levels of air pollution. The aim of the study was to elucidate the modulatory effect of air pollution on Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) among healthy and asthmatic children. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study. Children between 7-12 years of age, asthmatics and non-asthmatics, residents of a city with high levels of PM10 were included. In all cases, forced spirometry, Cys-LTs levels in EBC, and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire were evaluated. We also obtained average of PM10, CO, SO2 and O3 levels during the period of the study by the State Institute of Ecology. RESULTS: We studied 103 children (51 asthmatics and 52 non-asthmatics). Cys-LTs levels were higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (77.3 ± 21.6 versus 60.3 ± 26.8 pg/ml; p = 0.0005). Also, Cys-LTs levels in children with intermittent asthma were lower than in children with persistent asthma (60.4 ± 20.4 versus 84.7 ± 19.2 pg/ml; p = 0.0001). In the multiple regression model, factors associated with levels of Cys-LTs were passive smoking (ß = 13.1, p 0.04) and to be asthmatic (ß = 11.5, p 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Cys-LTs levels are higher in asthmatic children than in healthy children in a contaminated city and its levels are also associated with passive smoking.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Asma/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Material Particulado , Pneumonia/metabolismo , População Urbana , Asma/complicações , Asma/fisiopatologia , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Leucotrieno C4/análise , Leucotrieno D4/análise , Leucotrieno E4/análise , Masculino , Pneumonia/complicações , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Capacidade Vital
17.
Rev Invest Clin ; 64(6 Pt 1): 521-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23513608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality rates are higher among preterm infants due to physiological immaturity and greater growth demands. Nutritional intervention contributes to proper weight gain, which translates into better growth and neurological development, and prevents the onset of metabolic complications. The effect of breastfeeding duration was studied in the analytic profile at the end of the first six months of life. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nutritional and metabolic markers effect in preterm infants at the end of the first semester of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed an analytical, transversal and comparative study in 100 preterm infants, 30 to 36 weeks gestational age. Measures for weight, length and head circumference at birth were taken from the subjects' clinical files. A follow-up conducted at 6 to 9 months of age evaluated the same nutritional indicators (weight, length, head circumference) and compared them with values at birth and recommendations. Metabolic indicators (glucose, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, urea, creatinine, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and alkaline phosphatase) were compared with the recommendations. Follow-up study in 100 preterm infants (30 to 36 weeks gestational age). Weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth and 6 to 9 months later. We measured analytic parameters related to metabolic syndrome (glucose, hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, urea, creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase). Confusing factors like income level and access to public services were also studied. RESULTS: The mean age at follow-up was 7.3 +/- 1.4 months. Levels of hemoglobin, creatinine and urea showed significant differences with regard to reference values (Wilcoxon ranks test, < 0.05). The average duration of breastfeeding was 4.3 months. The mean age at follow-up was 7.3 +/- 1.4 months. Risk factors for hypercholesterolemia, as well as levels of hemoglobin, creatinine and urea showed significant differences with regard to reference values (Wilcoxon ranks test, < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Premature infants showed deficiencies in weight gain. Biochemical parameters could reflect metabolic risk, therefore we recommend prolonging breastfeeding as well as extending the follow-up of these infants for monitoring their growth and development once out of the hospital.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México
18.
Rev Invest Clin ; 63(3): 244-52, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21888288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the weight gain and to describe the metabolic complications in preterm newborns with nutritional support (NS) and to describe nutritional practices in the first month of hospitalization for 52 preterm newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive and prospective study of preterm infants (30-36 gestational weeks), with birth weight > 1 kg, hospital stay > 12 days, without respiratory support or complications, conducted at a public hospital in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico from January to November 2006. Weight, serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, urea nitrogen, type of NS (parenteral PN, enteral EN, mixed MN), energy content, and macronutrient intake were measured weekly. To obtain representative data, nutritional practices were not altered by the study protocol. One way ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests were used in data analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 52 newborns were included, averaging 33 gestational weeks and 1,590 g of weight. The NS was started by the fourth day on average. Parenteral nutrition was the most frequent NS during the first 2 weeks (75%). Energy and macronutrient supply was 50% less than the recommended. Weight gain ranged from -100 to 130 g/week. Parenteral nutrition showed better weekly weight gain, followed by EN. The metabolic complication rate per person-day was greater for MN (0.56), than for EN (0.16) or PN (0.09). Routine surveillance of weight and metabolic complications was deficient. CONCLUSIONS: Late onset of NS, insufficient energy supply, and deficient surveillance were obstacles to weight gain and to prevent the metabolic complications in these newborns.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/etiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Apoio Nutricional , Peso ao Nascer , Cefalometria , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/metabolismo , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/metabolismo , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/metabolismo , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , México/epidemiologia , Apoio Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral , Ganho de Peso
19.
Rev Invest Clin ; 62(2): 121-7, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20597391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare five curves routinely used for growth evaluation in preterm newborns in a public hospital in Leon, Guanajuato, and to identify those with similar diagnosis according to the reference curve (Williams) in order to determine their usefulness in the clinical practice. METHODS: Analytical, prospective, comparative and cross sectional study in 100 preterm infants, of both sexes, 30 to 36 weeks of gestation without congenital malformations. We obtained the weight and length for their interpretation and to compare the nutritional diagnosis, between five curves routinely used for growth evaluation in preterm newborns: Babson-Benda, Fenton, Jurado-Garcia, Battaglia-Lubchenco and Williams, subsequently, four of the curves were compared against the reference curve (Williams). To analyse the proportions, the chi2 statistic was used. RESULTS: The average age of the preterm infants was 34 +/- 2 gestation weeks, with birth weight 1932 +/- 699 g. When the combination between them were, it was noted that Babson and Benda-Fenton showed similar distribution for the diagnosis of small for gestional age by 50%. Small for gestational age was diagnosed with the Jurado-Garcia, Williams, Battaglia-Lubchenco curves in 43, 38 and 29% respectively. The comparison showed that the curves of Jurado-Garcia and Battaglia-Lubchenco rendered a similar diagnosis, respect to the curve of Williams. CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, the curves of Jurado-Garcia and Battaglia- Lubchenco are recommended for evaluating the extra uterine and intrauterine growth of preterm infants.


Assuntos
Gráficos de Crescimento , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 48(1): 59-75, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21883058

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study measures the arsenic level in school children exposed to contaminated well water in a rural area in México. Arsenic was measured in hair by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Overall, 110 children were included (average 10 years-old). Among 55 exposed children, mean arsenic level on hair was 1.3 mg/kg (range <0.006-5.9). All unexposed children had undetectable arsenic levels. The high level of arsenic in water was associated to the level in hair. However, exposed children drank less well water at school or at home than unexposed children, suggesting that the use of contaminated water to cook beans, broths or soups may be the source of arsenic exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cabelo/química , Poluição da Água/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Abastecimento de Água/normas
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