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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081470

RESUMO

AIMS: Pacing/cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant training currently lacks a common system to objectively assess trainee ability to perform required tasks at predetermined performance levels. The purpose of this study was to primarily examine construct validity and reliability, secondarily discriminative validity of novel intraoperative performance metrics, developed for a reference approach to training novice CRT implanters. METHODS: Fifteen novice and eleven experienced CRT implanters performed a 3-lead implant procedure on a virtual reality simulator. Performances were video-recorded, then independently scored using predefined metrics endorsed by an international panel of experts. First, Novice and Experienced group scores were compared for steps completed and errors made. Secondly, each group was split in two around the median score of the group and subgroup scores were compared. RESULTS: The mean number of scored metrics per performance was 108 and the inter-rater reliability for scoring was 0.947. Compared with novices, experienced implanters completed more procedural Steps correctly (mean 87% vs. 73%, p = 0.001), made fewer procedural Errors (6.3 vs. 11.2, p = 0.005), Critical Errors (1.8 vs. 4.4, p = 0.004), and total errors (8.1 vs. 15.6, p = 0.002). Furthermore, the differences between the two Novice subgroups were 25% for steps completed correctly and 94% for total errors made (p < 0.001); the differences between the two Experienced subgroups were respectively 16% and 191% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The procedure metrics used in this study reliably distinguish novice and experienced CRT implanters' performances. The metrics further differentiated performance levels within a group with similar experience. These performance metrics will underpin quality-assured novice implanter training.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957087

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ablation with second-generation cryoballoon technology evolves as an effective and safe alternative to radiofrequency for atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Nevertheless, the optimal freezing strategy remains unknown. Our objective was to identify the procedural cryoablation parameters predicting successful peri-pulmonary vein (PV) lesions by directly analyzing Postablation gaps in late-gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-nine consecutive patients (196 PVs) undergoing ablation with second-generation cryoballoon at our center were included. The number and duration of cryoballoon application to achieve PV isolation were left to operator discretion. Gap number and length were quantified in all patients with a LGE-CMR performed 3 months postablation. Application time (420 ± 217 seconds), number of applications (2.1 ± 1.2), application time after electrical isolation (311 ± 194 seconds) and minimum temperature (-45.8 ± 6.5°C) were similar in the 4 PVs. Gaps were observed in 148 PVs (76%), averaging 1.3 ± 1 gaps per vein. Gaps were longer and more frequent in the right PVs (91% vs 59% in left PVs, P < .001). Neither the number, total duration of applications, nor postisolation application time predicted relative length or number of gaps. CONCLUSIONS: After successful PV isolation was achieved in patients undergoing cryoablation, increasing the number of applications, the total application time or application time postisolation did not result in a reduction in the number or the relative length of gaps.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944978

RESUMO

Two-dimensional representation of 3D anatomical structures is a simple and intuitive way for analysing patient information across populations and image modalities. While cardiac ventricles, especially the left ventricle, have an established standard representation (bull's eye plot), the 2D depiction of the left atrium (LA) remains challenging due to its sub-structural complexity including the pulmonary veins (PV) and the left atrial appendage (LAA). Quasi-conformal flattening techniques, successfully applied to cardiac ventricles, require additional constraints in the case of the LA to place the PV and LAA in the same geometrical 2D location for different cases. Some registration-based methods have been proposed but surface registration is time-consuming and prone to errors when the geometries are very different. We propose a novel atrial flattening methodology where a 2D map of the LA is obtained quickly and without errors related to registration. The LA is divided into 5 regions which are then mapped to their analogue two-dimensional regions. 67 human left atria from magnetic resonance images (MRI) were studied to derive a population-based template representing the averaged relative locations of the PVs and LAA. The clinical application of our methodology is illustrated on different use cases including the integration of MRI and electroanatomical data.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micra transcatheter pacemaker system (TPS) usually achieves low implant pacing threshold (IPT). However, IPT may increase in some patients during follow-up. AIM: To apply implant parameters in predicting long-term occurrence of very high pacing threshold (VHPT) in patients with Micra-TPS. METHODS: A cohort of 110 consecutive patients implanted with a Micra-TPS from 2014 to 2018 was evaluated at discharge and at 1, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months follow-up. VHPT was defined as greater than 2 V/0.24 ms. VHPT predictors were identified. RESULTS: Micra-TPS was implanted successfully in 108 patients (98.2%). During a mean follow-up of 24 ± 16 months, 18 patients (16.7%) died of causes nonpacemaker-related, and 4 (3.8%) developed VHPT. Patients with VHPT had higher IPT and lower implant impedance than patients with non-VHPT: 1 ± 0.31 vs 0.55 ± 0.29 V/0.24 ms (P = .003) and 580 ± 59 vs 837 ± 232 Ω (P = .03), respectively. IPT and impedance had excellent discriminative power to predict VHPT (area under the curve: 0.85 ± 0.07 and 0.91 ± 0.05, respectively). Negative predictive value (NPV) of IPT ≤ 0.5 V/0.24 ms was 100%; positive predictive value (PPV) was 8% throughout follow-up. Implant impedance ≤ 600 Ω had NPV of 99% throughout follow-up, whereas PPV varied: 16%, 21%, 16%, and 28% at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Sequential combination of IPT greater than 0.5 V/0.24 ms and impedance ≤ 600 Ω improved PPV to 25%, 35%, 27%, and 44%, respectively, whereas NPV remained 99% throughout follow-up. CONCLUSION: Despite favorable long-term electrical performance of Micra-TPS, a small percent of patients developed VHPT during follow-up. A sequential combination of IPT and impedance could allow the implanter to identify patients who will develop VHPT during long-term follow-up.

5.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(1): 94-106, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study reports on the performance of a leadless ventricular pacemaker with automated, enhanced accelerometer-based algorithms that provide atrioventricular (AV) synchronous pacing. BACKGROUND: Despite many advantages, leadless pacemakers are currently only capable of single-chamber ventricular pacing. METHODS: The prospective MARVEL 2 (Micra Atrial tRacking using a Ventricular accELerometer 2) study assessed the performance of an automated, enhanced accelerometer-based algorithm downloaded to the Micra leadless pacemaker for up to 5 h in patients with AV block. The primary efficacy objective was to demonstrate the superiority of the algorithm to provide AV synchronous (VDD) pacing versus VVI-50 pacing in patients with sinus rhythm and complete AV block. The primary safety objective was to demonstrate that the algorithm did not result in pauses or heart rates of >100 beats/min. RESULTS: Overall, 75 patients from 12 centers were enrolled; an accelerometer-based algorithm was downloaded to their leadless pacemakers. Among the 40 patients with sinus rhythm and complete AV block included in the primary efficacy objective analysis, the proportion of patients with ≥70% AV synchrony at rest was significantly greater with VDD pacing than with VVI pacing (95% vs. 0%; p < 0.001). The mean percentage of AV synchrony increased from 26.8% (median: 26.9%) during VVI pacing to 89.2% (median: 94.3%) during VDD pacing. There were no pauses or episodes of oversensing-induced tachycardia reported during VDD pacing in all 75 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometer-based atrial sensing with an automated, enhanced algorithm significantly improved AV synchrony in patients with sinus rhythm and AV block who were implanted with a leadless ventricular pacemaker. (Micra Atrial Tracking Using a Ventricular Accelerometer 2 [MARVEL 2]; NCT03752151).

6.
Am Heart J ; 220: 213-223, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic syncope in Brugada syndrome (BrS) increases the risk of major events. Nevertheless, clinical differentiation between cardiogenic and vasovagal syncope can be challenging. We characterized the long-term incidence of major events in a large cohort of BrS patients who presented with syncope. METHODS: From a total of 474 patients, syncope was the initial manifestation in 135 (28.5%) individuals (43.9 ±â€¯13.9 years, 71.1% male). The syncope was classified prospectively as cardiogenic, vasovagal, or undefined if unclear characteristics were present. Clinical, electrocardiographic, genetic, and electrophysiologic features were analyzed. Cardiogenic syncope, sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death were considered major events in follow-up. RESULTS: In 66 patients (48.9%), the syncope was cardiogenic; in 51 (37.8%), vasovagal and in 18 (13.3%); undefined. The electrophysiology study (EPS) inducibility was more frequent in patients with cardiogenic syncope and absent in all patients with undefined syncope (28 [53.8%] vs 5 [12.2%] vs 0 [0%]; P < .01). During follow-up (7.7 ±â€¯5.6 years), only patients with cardiogenic syncope presented major events (16 [11.9%]). Among patients with inducible EPS, 7 (21.2%) presented major events (P = .04). The negative predictive value of the EPS for major events was 92.4%. The incidence rate of major events was 2.6% person-year. Parameters associated with major events included cardiogenic syncope (hazard ratio [HR] 6.3; 95% CI 1.1-10.4; P = .05), spontaneous type 1 electrocardiogram (HR 3.7; 95% CI 1.3-10.5; P = .01), and inducible EPS (HR 2.8; 95% CI 1.1-8.8; P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: An accurate syncope classification is crucial in BrS patients for risk stratification. In patients with syncope of unclear characteristics, the EPS may be helpful to prevent unnecessary implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

7.
Europace ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821484

RESUMO

AIMS: Cryoballoon (CB) ablation has emerged as a reliable modality to isolate pulmonary veins (PVs) in atrial fibrillation. Ablation lesions and the long-term effects of energy delivery can be assessed by delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (DE-CMR). The aim of the study was to compare the number, extension, and localization of gaps in CB and radiofrequency (RF) techniques in pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients submitted to PVI with CB in whom DE-CMR images were available (n = 30) were matched (1:1) to patients who underwent PVI with RF (n = 30), considering age, sex, hypertension, and diabetes. Delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance was obtained at 3 months post-procedure, and images were processed to assess the mean number of gaps around PV ostia, their localization, and the normalized gap length (NGL), calculated as the difference between total gap length and total PV perimeter. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The CB and RF procedures did not differ in the mean number of gaps per patient (4.40 vs. 5.13 gaps, respectively; P = 0.21) nor NGL (0.35 vs. 0.32, P = 0.59). For both techniques, a higher mean number of gaps were detected in right vs. left PVs (3.18 vs. 1.58, respectively; P = 0.01). The incidence of recurrences did not differ between techniques (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 0.66-4.97; P = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Location and extension of ablation gaps in PVI did not differ between CB and RF groups in DE-CMR image analysis.

8.
J Electrocardiol ; 58: 113-118, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816563

RESUMO

AIMS: One third of ischemic strokes are of unknown etiology. Interatrial block (IAB) is a marker of atrial electromechanical dysfunction that may predispose to the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that IAB, especially in its advanced form, could be a marker of covert AF in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). METHODS: We reviewed a single center cohort of ESUS patients with no prior history of AF. According to P-wave analysis of baseline ECG we distinguished 3 groups: normal P-wave duration (P-wave < 120 ms), partial IAB (P-IAB, P-wave ≥ 120 ms) and A-IAB (A-IAB, P-wave ≥ 120 ms with biphasic morphology in inferior leads). Follow-up was done 1, 6 and 12 months after discharge; then every 6 months. AF episodes, frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs) (>1%) and atrial tachyarrhythmias (runs of >3 consecutive PACs) were detected on 24 h Holter. The primary endpoint was new-onset AF detection on follow-up by any means. RESULTS: A high prevalence of both P-IAB (n = 30, 40%) and A-IAB (n = 23, 31%) was found in 75 ESUS patients. After a 521 day mean follow-up, 14 patients (19%) were diagnosed of AF. A-IAB independently predicted AF diagnosis (p =0.042) on follow-up. 24 h Holter analysis showed greater frequency of PACs and atrial tachyarrhythmia episodes in patients with IAB (p = 0.0275). CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating study, A-IAB in the setting of ESUS is an independent risk predictor of covert AF. Although additional randomized clinical trials are warranted, A-IAB identifies ESUS patients with advanced atrial disease that could potentially benefit from early oral anticoagulation in secondary prevention.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 40(46): 3793-3799c, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755940

RESUMO

Recent innovations have the potential to improve rhythm control therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Controlled trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness and safety of rhythm control therapy, particularly in patients with AF and heart failure. This review summarizes evidence supporting the use of rhythm control therapy in patients with AF for different outcomes, discusses implications for indications, and highlights remaining clinical gaps in evidence. Rhythm control therapy improves symptoms and quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF and can be safely delivered in elderly patients with comorbidities (mean age 70 years, 3-7% complications at 1 year). Atrial fibrillation ablation maintains sinus rhythm more effectively than antiarrhythmic drug therapy, but recurrent AF remains common, highlighting the need for better patient selection (precision medicine). Antiarrhythmic drugs remain effective after AF ablation, underpinning the synergistic mechanisms of action of AF ablation and antiarrhythmic drugs. Atrial fibrillation ablation appears to improve left ventricular function in a subset of patients with AF and heart failure. Data on the prognostic effect of rhythm control therapy are heterogeneous without a clear signal for either benefit or harm. Rhythm control therapy has acceptable safety and improves quality of life in patients with symptomatic AF, including in elderly populations with stroke risk factors. There is a clinical need to better stratify patients for rhythm control therapy. Further studies are needed to determine whether rhythm control therapy, and particularly AF ablation, improves left ventricular function and reduces AF-related complications.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748945

RESUMO

The use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging left atrial late gadolinium enhancement (LA LGE) is increasing for fibrosis evaluation though the use is still limited to specialized centres due to complex image acquisition and lack of consensus on image analyses. Analysis of LA LGE with image intensity ratio (IIR) (pixel intensity of atrial wall normalized by blood pool intensity) provides an objective method to obtain quantitative data on atrial fibrosis. A threshold between healthy myocardium and fibrosis of 1.2 has previously been established in 3T scans. The aim of the study was to reaffirm this threshold in 1.5T scans. LA LGE was performed using a 1.5T magnetic resonance scanner on: 11 lone-AF patients, 11 age-matched healthy volunteers (aged 27-44) and 11 elderly patients without known history of AF but varying degrees of comorbidities. Mean values of IIR for all healthy volunteers +2SD were set as upper limit of normality and was reproduced to 1.21 and the original IIR-threshold of 1.20 was maintained. The degree of fibrosis in lone-AF patients [median 9.0% (IQR 3.9-12.0)] was higher than in healthy volunteers [2.8% (1.3-8.3)] and even higher in elderly non-AF [20.1% (10.2-35.8), p = 0.001]. The previously established IIR-threshold of 1.2 was reaffirmed in 1.5T LA LGE scans. Patients with lone AF presented with increased degrees of atrial fibrosis compared to healthy volunteers in the same age-range. Elderly patients with no history of AF showed significantly higher degrees of fibrosis compared to both groups with younger individuals.

12.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(10): 127, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520271

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review present knowledge regarding preventive and antitachycardia pacing algorithms, aimed to reduce atrial fibrillation (AF) burden in patients when pacing is indicated. RECENT FINDINGS: Reactive antitachycardia pacing (ATP), the new generation of ATP, is significantly associated with a reduced risk of AF. In patients with indication for pacing and history of AF, pacemakers endowed with atrial preventive pacing and atrial ATP combined with managed ventricular pacing proved superior to standard dual-chamber pacing. Managed ventricular pacing is an algorithm that minimizes unnecessary right ventricular pacing. Progression to persistent AF is prevented by ventricular pacing minimization in patients with normal PR interval. The synergistic effect of pacemakers that combine atrial preventive pacing with reactive ATP and with algorithms that minimize ventricular pacing can reduce AF incidence and decrease the combined endpoint of permanent AF, hospital admissions, and mortality.

14.
Europace ; 21(10): 1459-1467, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377792

RESUMO

Self-terminating atrial arrhythmias are commonly detected on continuous rhythm monitoring, e.g. by pacemakers or defibrillators. It is unclear whether the presence of these arrhythmias has therapeutic consequences. We sought to summarize evidence on the prevalence of atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) and their impact on risk of stroke. We performed a comprehensive, tabulated review of published literature on the prevalence of AHRE. In patients with AHRE, but without atrial fibrillation (AF), we reviewed the stroke risk and the potential risk/benefit of oral anticoagulation. Atrial high-rate episodes are found in 10-30% of AF-free patients. Presence of AHRE slightly increases stroke risk (0.8% to 1%/year) compared with patients without AHRE. Atrial high-rate episode of longer duration (e.g. those >24 h) could be associated with a higher stroke risk. Oral anticoagulation has the potential to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE but is associated with a rate of major bleeding of 2%/year. Oral anticoagulation is not effective in patients with heart failure or survivors of a stroke without AF. It remains unclear whether anticoagulation is effective and safe in patients with AHRE. Atrial high-rate episodes are common and confer a slight increase in stroke risk. There is true equipoise on the best way to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE. Two ongoing trials (NOAH-AFNET 6 and ARTESiA) will provide much-needed information on the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulation using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with AHRE.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11443, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391506

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) promotes aortic dilatation, increased stiffness and accelerated atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms of vascular remodelling are not known. We aimed to assess vascular remodelling, its mechanisms, and the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) infusions in a clinically relevant rat model of chronic OSA involving recurrent airway obstructions leading thoracic pressure swings and intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia (OSA-rats). Another group of rats were placed in the same setup without air obstructions (Sham-rats) and were considered controls. Our study demonstrates that chronic, non-invasive repetitive airway obstructions mimicking OSA promote remarkable structural changes of the descending thoracic aorta such as eccentric aortic hypertrophy due to an increased wall thickness and lumen diameter, an increase in the number of elastin fibers which, in contrast, get ruptured, but no changes in tunica media fibrosis. As putative molecular mechanisms of the OSA-induced vascular changes we identified an increase in reactive oxygen species and renin-angiotensin system markers and an imbalance in oxide nitric synthesis. Our results also indicate that MSC infusion blunts the OSA-related vascular changes, most probably due to their anti-inflammatory properties.

16.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 67(5): 411-424, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343147

RESUMO

Exercise is, together with diet, a powerful health-promoting habit. However, an association of intense physical activity with the onset of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death has been described. Although initially questioned, the atrial pro-arrhythmic role of endurance physical activity is now well accepted in the scientific community. Atrial fibrillation is common among endurance athletes, being a source of morbidity in otherwise healthy young and middle-aged individuals. The mechanisms for its development are still poorly understood, but likely involve some components of the athlete's heart (e.g., bradycardia, atrial enlargement) and some clearly pathological factors (e.g., atrial fibrosis). Its management must be a careful balance between exercise moderation and cessation, as extremes in exercise practice have both been related to atrial fibrillation. In this article, we review the current knowledge on exercise-induced atrial fibrillation through different perspectives, each focusing on the epidemiological evidence, the associated risk, the identification of individuals at risk, the potential approach to reduce its impact and how should these athletes be informed.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217926, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been related to kidney and vascular disorders. Heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction have higher AXL in serum than controls. No information about Axl expression with HF progression is available. METHODS: Thoracic transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was successfully performed on male Wistar rats (n = 25) with different constriction levels. Controls underwent sham surgery (n = 12). Echocardiography measurements were performed 4-8 weeks after surgery. Collagen deposition was measured with picrosirius red staining. Axl mRNA levels in left ventricle (LV), left kidney (LK) and ascending aorta (aAo) and the LV expression of cardiac remodeling and fibrogenic factors were quantified with real-time PCR. AXL LV protein levels were quantified with western blot and localization was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Soluble AXL levels in plasma were assayed with ELISA. RESULTS: Successful TAC rats were classified into LV hypertrophy (LVH) or heart failure (HF), modeling the progressive cardiac changes after pressure overload. Collagen deposition was increased only in the HF group. LV Axl mRNA levels were higher in LVH and HF than in Sham rats, and correlated with LVHi, and hypertrophic and fibrogenic mediators. However, no association was found with LV systolic function. AXL was expressed in LV myocytes and other cell types. Concentration of circulating sAXL in plasma was increased in the LVH group compared to Sham and HF rats. Axl mRNA levels were similar in all groups in the LK and aAo. CONCLUSIONS: Axl expression pattern suggests a role in the early progression of LV remodeling in HF but not in the later systolic dysfunction. The higher levels of circulating AXL found in HF patients most probably shed from the heart.

19.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(12): 1849-1854, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Micra transcatheter pacing system (Micra TPS) is often implanted in patients with atrial fibrillation and thus with increased thromboembolic risk. It is unknown whether the use of anticoagulants, associated with the use of a large venous introducer, implies an increased risk of bleeding in this group of patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of bleeding and thromboembolic complications after Micra TPS implantation with and without therapeutic anticoagulation. METHODS: This single-center observational study included 107 consecutive patients receiving the Micra TPS from 2014 to 2018. At procedure completion, a figure-of-eight suture was placed at the femoral puncture site after sheath withdrawal and was maintained for 24 hours. In patients receiving enoxaparin or new oral anticoagulants, treatment was discontinued 12 or 24 hours before the procedure, respectively, and was reinitiated 4-6 hours postprocedure. In those receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), dosing was not discontinued and the procedure was performed if the international normalized ratio was less than 3. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients (60%) did not receive anticoagulants. Of the 43 (40%) who did, 29 (67%) received VKAs, 8 (19%) received new oral anticoagulants, and 6 (14%) received enoxaparin. Two patients presented hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications during short-term follow-up: 1 woman receiving VKAs presented hemorrhagic pericardial effusion without tamponade and 1 woman not receiving anticoagulants presented thrombosis of the ipsilateral saphenous vein. CONCLUSION: Bleeding and thromboembolic complications after receiving Micra TPSs are infrequent. The use of anticoagulant therapy, regardless of the type, does not increase the complications associated with the procedure.

20.
Europace ; 21(9): 1286-1296, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038177

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a cornerstone of therapy for patients with heart failure, reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and a wide QRS complex. However, not all patients respond to CRT: 30% of CRT implanted patients are currently considered clinical non-responders and up to 40% do not achieve LV reverse remodelling. In order to achieve the best CRT response, appropriate patient selection, device implantation, and programming are important factors. Optimization of CRT pacing intervals may improve results, increasing the number of responders, and the magnitude of the response. Echocardiography is considered the reference method for atrioventricular and interventricular (VV) intervals optimization but it is time-consuming, complex and it has a large interobserver and intraobserver variability. Previous studies have linked QRS shortening to clinical response, echocardiographic improvement and favourable prognosis. In this review, we describe the electrocardiographic optimization methods available: 12-lead electrocardiogram; fusion-optimized intervals (FOI); intracardiac electrogram-based algorithms; and electrocardiographic imaging. Fusion-optimized intervals is an electrocardiographic method of optimizing CRT based on QRS duration that combines fusion with intrinsic conduction. The FOI method is feasible and fast, further reduces QRS duration, can be performed during implant, improves acute haemodynamic response, and achieves greater LV remodelling compared with nominal programming of CRT.

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