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1.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorders (OUD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The authors of this study hypothesize that patients who have an OUD will have greater relative risk of implant-related complications, periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs), readmission rates, and will incur greater costs compared to non-opioid use disorder (NUD) patients following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: OUD patients who underwent a THA between 2005 and 2014 were identified and matched to controls in a 1:5 ratio according to age, sex, a comorbidity index, and various medical comorbidities yielding 42,097 patients equally distributed in both cohorts. Pearson's chi-square analyses were used to compare patient demographics. Relative risk (RR) was used to analyze and compare risk of 2-year implant-related complications, 90-day PJIs, and 90-day readmission rates. Welch's t-tests were used to compare day of surgery and 90-day episode-of-care costs between the cohorts. A P value less than .006 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: OUD patients had higher incidences and risks of implant-related complications (11.99% vs 6.68%; RR, 1.74; P < .001), developing PJIs within 90 days (2.38% vs 1.81%; RR, 1.32; P = .001), and 90-day readmissions (21.49% vs 17.35%; RR, 1.23; P < .001). Additionally, the study demonstrated OUD patients incurred greater day of surgery ($14,384.30 vs $13,150.12, P < .0001) and 90-day costs ($21,183.82 vs $18,709.02, P < .0001) compared to controls. CONCLUSION: After controlling for age, sex, a comorbidity index, and various medical complications, OUD patients are at greater risk to experience implant-related complications, PJIs, readmissions, and have greater costs following primary THA compared to non-OUD patients. This study should help orthopedic surgeons counsel their patients of potential complications which may arise following their primary THA.

2.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491795

RESUMO

Several recent intraoperative and wound management techniques have been developed and implemented in the United States over the past decade; however, it is unclear what the effects of these newer modalities have on reducing surgical site infection (SSI) rates. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to track the annual rate and trends of (1) overall, (2) deep, and (3) superficial SSIs following revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all revision TKA cases performed between 2011 and 2016, which yielded 9,887 cases. Cases with superficial and/or deep SSIs were analyzed separately and then combined to evaluate overall SSI rates. After an overall 6-year correlation and trends analysis, univariate analysis was performed to compare the most recent year, 2016, with the preceding 5 years. Correlation coefficients and chi-square tests were used to determine correlation and statistical significance. No significant correlations between combined, deep, and/or superficial SSI rates and year were noted (p > 0.05). The lowest overall SSI incidence was in 2012 (1.16%), while the greatest incidence was in 2014 (1.76%). The deep SSI incidence over the 6 years was 0.67% (66 out of 9,887 cases). Deep SSI rate decreased by 10% in 2016 compared with 2011 (0.50 vs. 0.56%, p > 0.05). In this 6-year period, 94 cases out of 9,887 were complicated by a superficial SSI, an incidence of 0.95%. The lowest superficial SSI incidence occurred in 2015 (n = 17, 0.77%). Overall, the incidence of SSIs in revision TKA has remained fairly low with some annual variance, indicating room for improvement. These variations likely as revision surgeries can be more complex and have several associated confounding factors influencing outcomes, when compared with primary cases. Further research is needed to identify revision-specific strategies to reduce the risk of surgical site infections.

3.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476777

RESUMO

This study performed a health care utilization analysis between robotic arm assisted total knee arthroplasty (rTKA) and manual total knee arthroplasty (mTKA) techniques. Specifically, we compared (1) index costs and (2) discharge dispositions, as well as (3) 30-day (4) 60-day, and (5) 90-day (a) episode-of-care costs, (b) postoperative health care utilization, and (c) readmissions. The 100% Medicare Standard Analytical Files were used for rTKAs and mTKAs performed between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017. Based on strict inclusion-exclusion criteria and 1:5 propensity score matching, 519 rTKA and 2,595 mTKA patients were analyzed. Total episode payments, health care utilization, and readmissions, at 30-, 60-, and 90-day time points were compared using generalized linear model, binomial regression, log link, Mann-Whitney, and Pearson's chi-square tests. The rTKA versus mTKA cohort average total episode payment was US$17,768 versus US$19,899 (p < 0.0001) at 30 days, US$18,174 versus US$20,492 (p < 0.0001) at 60 days, and US$18,568 versus US$20,960 (p < 0.0001) at 90 days. At 30 days, 47% fewer rTKA patients utilized skilled nursing facility (SNF) services (13.5 vs. 25.4%; p < 0.0001) and had lower SNF costs at 30 days (US$6,416 vs. US$7,732; p = 0.0040), 60 days (US$6,678 vs. US$7,901, p = 0.0072), and 90 days (US$7,201 vs. US$7,947, p = 0.0230). rTKA patients also utilized fewer home health visits and costs at each time point (p < 0.05). Additionally, 31.3% fewer rTKA patients utilized emergency room services at 30 days postoperatively and had 90-day readmissions (5.20 vs. 7.75%; p = 0.0423). rTKA is associated with lower 30-, 60-, and 90-day postoperative costs and health care utilization. These results are of marked importance given the emphasis to contain and reduce health care costs and provide initial economic insights into rTKA with promising results.

4.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505700

RESUMO

Considerations of how to improve postoperative outcomes for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have included preservation of the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP). Although the IPFP is commonly resected during TKA procedures, there is controversy regarding whether resection or preservation should be implemented, and how this influences outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate how IPFP resection and preservation impacts postoperative flexion, pain, Insall-Salvati Ratio (ISR), Knee Society Score (KSS), patellar tendon length (PTL), and satisfaction in primary TKA. PubMed, EBSCO host, and SCOPUS were queried to retrieve all reports evaluating IPFP resection or preservation during TKA, which resulted into 488 studies. Two reviewers independently reviewed these articles for eligibility based on pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven studies were identified for final analysis, which reported on 11,996 cases. Patient demographics, type of surgical intervention, follow-up duration, and clinical outcome measures were collected and analyzed. Complete resection was implemented in 3,723 cases (31%), partial resection in 5,458 cases (45.5%), and preservation of the IPFP in 2,815 cases (23.5%). Clinical outcome measures included PTL (5 studies), knee flexion (4 studies), pain (6 studies), KSS (3 studies), ISR (3 studies), and patient satisfaction (1 study). No differences were found following IPFP resection for patient satisfaction (p = 0.98), ISR (p > 0.05), and KSS (p > 0.05). There was mixed evidence for PTL, pain, and knee flexion following IPFP resection versus preservation. Studies of shorter follow-up intervals suggested improved pain following resection, while reports of longer follow-up times indicated that resection resulted in increased pain. Given the mixed data available from the current literature, we were unable to conclude that one surgical technique can definitively be considered superior over the other. More extensive research, including randomized controlled trials, is required to better elucidate potential differences between the surgical handling choices. Future studies should focus on patient conditions in which one technique would be best indicated to establish guidelines for best surgical outcomes in those patients.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the following 30-day outcomes for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty in spinal anesthesia (SA) versus general anesthesia (GA) (1) mortality, (2) major and minor complication rates, and (3) discharge disposition. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database contained 45,871 SA total hip arthroplasties and 65,092 receiving GA. There were 80,077 SA TKAs and 103,003 GA TKAs. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression evaluated associations between anesthesia type and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: Anesthesia modality was not associated with 30-day mortality (P > 0.05). The GA cohorts were at a greater risk for any complication, major complications, and minor complications (P < 0.05). Patients who received GA were at an increased risk for nonhome discharge. CONCLUSION: Patients who undergo total joint arthroplasty with SA experience fewer 30-day complications and are less likely to have a nonhome discharge than those with GA.

6.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 27(17): 659-666, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interplay between degenerative hip and spine conditions (Hip-Spine Syndrome [HiSS]) warrants effective communication between respective surgeons. We identified radiographic parameters to distinguish a subset of patients with HiSS by evaluating hip osteoarthritis (HOA) in patients with and without spinopelvic malalignment, categorizing patients into respective HiSS types, and comparing radiographic parameters. METHODS: All patients with full-body orthogonal radiography from 2013 to 2016 were reviewed (n = 1,389). Using sagittal/coronal hip radiographs, HOA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grade) was noted, and pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch (PI-LL) > 10° was considered spinal malalignment. Patients groups included non-HiSS (PI-LL ≤ 10°/Grade 0/n = 444), Hip (PI-LL ≤ 10°/Grade 3-4/n = 78), Spine (PI-LL > 10°/Grade 0/n = 297), or Hip-Spine (PI-LL > 10°/Grade 3-4/n = 30). Parameters were compared using ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. RESULTS: HiSS Hip type patients had less hip extension capability compared with non-HiSS, Spine, and Hip-Spine type patients, reflected by lowest pelvic tilt (PT)/sagittal retroversion (11.3° versus 16.5°/29.2°/25.2°, respectively) and less hip extension per sacrofemoral angle (10.1° versus 19.5°/28.4°/23.1°, respectively) (P < 0.001), as well as 4.7° increase in anterior tilt/sagittal anteversion compared with age-matched individuals. Hip-Spine type patients had less pelvic retroversion than Spine type patients (P = 0.045); these differences were greater when referenced to age-matched individuals (P < 0.001). Hip-Spine type patients had less hip extension than Spine type patients (P = 0.013). Hip type patients had greater knee flexion than non-HiSS type patients (6.4° versus 2.6°; P < 0.001). Moreover, Hip-Spine type patients had comparable lower extremity alignment compared with Spine type patients, except for greater posterior pelvic shift. CONCLUSION: Our novel HiSS categorization used established classification methods and supported PT use to potentially improve the ability to discern HiSS types/pathologies in a subset of patients with HOA and spinal sagittal malalignment. HOA grade 3 to 4 with PT <15° are categorized as Hip type and those with PT >25° are Hip-Spine type with sagittal malalignment, which may impact acetabular arthroplasty component placement.

8.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is defined as a problematic pattern of opioid abuse and dependency leading to problems or distress. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether OUD patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have higher rates of venous thromboembolisms (VTEs), readmissions, and costs of care. METHODS: Patients undergoing TKA with OUD were identified and matched to controls in a 1:4 ratio according to age, gender, comorbidity index, and comorbidities within the Medicare database. Ninety-day VTEs, 90-day readmissions, and costs of care were compared. A P-value less than .01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The study yielded 54,480 patients with (n = 10,929) and without (n = 43,551) OUD undergoing primary TKA. Matching was successful as there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. OUD patients were found to have greater odds of VTEs (odds ratio 2.27, P < .0001) 90 days following primary TKA. OUD patients were found to have greater odds of 90-day readmissions (odds ratio 1.39, P < .0001) in addition to incurring higher day of surgery ($13,360.73 vs $11,911.94, P < .0001) and 90-day costs ($18,380.89 vs $15,565.57, P < .0001) compared to controls. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for confounders, this analysis of 54,480 patients identified that patients with OUD have higher rates of VTEs, readmissions, and costs following primary TKA. In addition to using these data to help educate and counsel patients, the study should be used to help further regulate and control opioid prescriptions written by healthcare professionals.

9.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461755

RESUMO

The effort to reduce overall healthcare costs may affect more complex patients, as their pre- and postoperative care can be substantially involved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a large nationwide insurance database to compare (1) costs, (2) reimbursements, and (3) net losses of 90-day episodes of care (EOC) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients according to Elixhauser's comorbidity index (ECI) scores. All TKAs performed between 2005 and 2014 in the Medicare Standard Analytic Files were extracted from the database and stratified based on ECI scores, ranging from 1 to 5. ECI 1 patients served as the control cohort, while ECI 2, 3, 4, and 5 patients were considered study cohorts. Each study cohort and control cohort were matched based on age and sex, resulting in a total of 715,398 patients included for analysis. Total EOC costs, reimbursements, and total net losses (defined as total EOC costs minus total EOC reimbursements) were compared between the cohorts. Overall, total EOC costs increased with ECI. For example, compared with the matched ECI 1 cohorts, the total EOC costs for ECI 5 patients ($56,589.19 vs. $51,747.54) were significantly greater (p < 0.01). Although reimbursements increased with increasing ECI, so did net losses. The net losses for ECI 5 patients were greater than that for ECI 1 patients ($42,309.39 vs. $40,007.82). The bundled payments for care improvement (BPCI) and comprehensive care for joint replacement (CJR) are alternative payment models that might de-incentivize treatment of more complex patients. Our study found that despite increasing reimbursements, overall costs, and therefore net losses, were greater for more complex patients with higher ECI scores.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is common and debilitating, in part because it often affects more than one large weightbearing joint. The likelihood of undergoing more than one total joint arthroplasty has not been studied in a heterogeneous, multicenter population in the United States. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We used prospectively collected data of patients with osteoarthritis from the multicenter Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) project to ask (1) What is the likelihood of a subsequent THA or TKA after primary TKA or THA? (2) What risk factors are associated with undergoing contralateral TKA after primary TKA? METHODS: Longitudinally maintained data from the OAI were used to identify 332 patients who underwent primary TKA and 132 patients who underwent primary THA for osteoarthritis who did not have a previous TKA or THA in this retrospective study. OAI was a longitudinal cohort study of knee osteoarthritis conducted at five centers in the United States (Columbus, OH, USA; Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Baltimore, MD, USA; Pawtucket, RI, USA; and San Francisco, CA, USA). In this study, the mean follow-up time was 4.0 ± 2.3 years, with 24% (112 of 464) followed for less than 2 years. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of subsequent arthroplasty calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Age, BMI, gender, and contralateral Kellgren-Lawrence grade, medial joint space width, and hip-knee-ankle angles were modeled as risk factors of contralateral TKA using Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: Using the Kaplan-Meier method, at 8 years the cumulative incidence of contralateral TKA after the index TKA was 40% (95% CI 31 to 49) and the cumulative incidence of any THA after index TKA was 13% (95% CI 5 to 21). The cumulative incidence of contralateral THA after the index THA was 8% (95% CI 2 to 14), and the cumulative incidence of any TKA after index THA was 32% (95% CI 15 to 48). Risk factors for undergoing contralateral TKA were younger age (HR 0.95 for each year of increasing age [95% CI 0.92 to 0.98]; p = 0.001) and loss of medial joint space width with a varus deformity (HR 1.26 for each 1 mm loss of joint space width at 1.6 varus [1.06 to 1.51]; p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent TKA or THA for osteoarthritis had a high rate of subsequent joint arthroplasties in this study conducted at multiple centers in the United States. The rate of subsequent joint arthroplasty determined in this study can be used to counsel patients in similar settings and institutions, and may serve as a benchmark to assess future osteoarthritis disease-modifying interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.

11.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470454

RESUMO

The risk of surgical site infection in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been reduced with the use of prophylactic antibiotics. First or second generation cephalosporins are still recommended as the primary prophylactic choice, but with the rise in the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, evidence has emerged in favor of using dual antibiotics including vancomycin. However, it is unclear whether these combinations of antibiotic regimens further reduce postoperative infection rates. As a result, the objective of this review is to summarize the current literature concerning the use of dual prophylactic antibiotics in TKA. The most common dual prophylactic antibiotic combination is cefazolin (C) and vancomycin (V). In general, when comparing the effectiveness of single versus dual antibiotics, conflicting results have been reported. Three studies demonstrated no substantial decrease in overall postoperative infection rates with the use of dual antibiotics when compared with cefazolin alone. One found a significant decrease only in MRSA infection rates when using cefazolin and vancomycin (CV) (0.8% C alone vs. 0.08% CV, p < 0.05). Another investigation evaluated revision TKA patients who had combined cefazolin and vancomycin prophylaxis and showed a significant decline in both overall infection (7.89% [C] vs. 3.13% [CV]) and MRSA infection rates (4.21% [C] vs. 0.89% [CV]; p < 0.05). Concerning the safety profile of dual antibiotics, particular precautions must be adopted with the use of vancomycin because of the risk of acute kidney injury. Instead of vancomycin, an alternate less nephrotoxic antibiotic option might be teicoplanin. Unfortunately, this latter agent is only available outside of the United States. In conclusion, the value of dual antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of periprosthetic knee infections remains unclear primarily because all comparative studies performed between dual and single antibiotics have been of low evidence with retrospective designs. Larger multicenter randomized controlled trials are warranted.

12.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to improve oxidation resistance, antioxidants such as vitamin-E are added to polyethylene used in the bearing surfaces of orthopedic components. Currently, little is known about the efficacy of this treatment in vivo. This study therefore reports on the reasons for revision, surface damage mechanisms, and oxidation of retrieved vitamin E-stabilized highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) for total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: We examined 103 retrieved knee inserts fabricated from vitamin E (VE)-stabilized HXLPE and 67 fabricated from remelted HXLPE as a control. The implantation times were 1.2 ± 1.3 and 1.5 ± 1.3 years for the VE and control cohorts, respectively. The inserts were evaluated for 7 surface damage mechanisms using a semiquantitative scoring method and analyzed for oxidation using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Reasons for revision were also assessed using operative notes created at time of retrieval. RESULTS: Both groups were revised primarily for instability, infection, and loosening. Burnishing, pitting, and scratching were the most common damage mechanisms observed, with the VE cohort demonstrating less surface damage than the control. Measured oxidation for the cohort was low, with a median oxidation index of 0.09 ± .05 for the articulating surface, 0.05 ± 0.06 for the backside, 0.08 ± 0.06 for the anterior/posterior surfaces, and 0.08 ± 0.05 for the stabilizing post. As compared to the control cohort, oxidation tended to be less for the VE group at the articulating (P < .001) and backside (P = .003) surfaces, although the median differences were minimal and may not be clinically significant. CONCLUSION: The results indicate positive fatigue damage resistance and oxidation resistance for the retrieved VE-stabilized total knee arthroplasty inserts.

13.
Surg Technol Int ; 352019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current value-driven healthcare system encourages physicians to continuously optimize the value of the services they provide. Relative value units (RVUs) serve as the basis of a reimbursement model linking the concept that as the effort and value of services provided to patient's increases, physician reimbursement should increase proportionately. Spine surgery is particularly affected by these factors as there are multiple ways to achieve similar outcomes, some of which require more time, effort, and risk. Specifically, as the trend of spinal interbody fusion has increased over the past decade, the optimal approach to use-posterior versus anterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF vs. ALIF)-has been a source of controversy. Due to potential discrepancies in effort, one factor to consider is the correlation between RVUs and the time needed to perform a procedure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare: 1) mean RVUs; 2) mean operative time; and 3) mean RVUs per unit of time between PLIF and ALIF with the utilization of a national surgical database. We also performed an individual surgeon cost benefit analysis for performing PLIF versus ALIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database was utilized to identify 6,834 patients who underwent PLIF (CPT code: 22630) and 6,985 patients who underwent ALIF (CPT code: 22558) between 2008 and 2015. The mean operative times (in minutes), mean RVUs, and RVUs per minute were calculated and compared using the Student's t-tests. In addition, the reimbursement amount (in dollars) per minute, case, day, and year for an individual surgeon performing PLIF versus ALIF were also calculated and compared. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used as the threshold for statistical significance. RESULTS: Compared to ALIF cases, PLIF cases had longer mean operative times (203 vs. 212 minutes, p<0.001). However, PLIF cases were assigned lower mean RVUs than ALIF cases (22.08 vs. 23.52, p<0.001). Furthermore, PLIF had a lower mean RVU/minutes than ALIF cases (0.126 vs. 0.154, p<0.001). The reimbursement amounts calculated for PLIF versus ALIF were: $4.52 versus $5.53 per minute, $958.66 versus $1,121.95 per case, and $2,875.98 versus $3,365.86 per day. The annual cost difference was $78,380.92. CONCLUSION: The data from this study indicates a potentially greater annual compensation of nearly $80,000 for performing ALIF as opposed to PLIF due to a higher "hourly rate" for ALIF as is noted by the significantly greater RVU per minute (0.154 vs. 0.126 RVU/minutes). These results can be used by spine surgeons to design more appropriate compensation effective practices while still providing quality care.

14.
Surg Technol Int ; 352019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382315

RESUMO

A promising new gene technology has been developed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, utilizing transduced human cells expressing transforming growth factor-ß1. The safety and efficacy of this treatment modality has been demonstrated in laboratory studies, as well as Phase I, II, and current Phase III human clinical trials. Due to a misidentification error, there have been concerns that this cell-based gene therapy is based on a different cell than the one that was initially approved. However, its safety profile has been demonstrated by over 10 years of data revealing no evidence of tumorigenicity or other long-term safety concerns. In all studies to date, there have been no treatment-related serious adverse events. Although the nomenclature of one component of the drug product has changed, the product itself has not. In this review, we will present the technology, history of use (animal and clinical studies), development, efficacy, and, despite the recent misidentification error, the overall safety of this treatment modality.

15.
J Arthroplasty ; 34(9): 1865-1866, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327648
16.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357221

RESUMO

The etiology of failure following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) leading to revision surgery are multifactorial, including infection, instability, loosening, contracture, and wear. Although the majority of patients have successful outcomes following revision TKA, postoperative complications are still increased in these patients when compared to primary patients. For this reason, there has been a continued search to identify options, including prosthesis types, to potentially improve outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if the clinical results achieved following revision TKA are comparatively similar to primaries using the same implant design. Specifically, we compared (1) Knee Society Functional and Range-of-Motion Knee Scores and (2) component survivorship. This was a retrospective analysis of 100 patients undergoing revision TKA due to an aseptic etiology, who were matched to a cohort of 100 patients who underwent primaries with the same prosthesis. There were no differences in the groups with respect to age at surgery, sex, and body mass index. The mean follow-up was 57 months in the revision group (range 24-105 months) and 67 months in the primary TKA group (range 55-123 months). American Knee Society Scores (KSS) and range of motion measurements recorded preoperatively and at the most recent postoperative visit were compared between both cohorts in order to compare postoperative outcomes. A p value of 0.05 was used for significance. The average improvement between the pre- and postoperative KSS function scores in both groups was similar, with both cohorts demonstrating a 28-point improvement. At 2-year follow-up, all-cause survivorship of the aseptic revision surgeries was 87%. Patients undergoing revision TKA for aseptic loosening can potentially expect similar improvements in clinical function scores and survivorship compared to primary TKA when controlling for implant type.

17.
Hip Int ; : 1120700019862977, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304789

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study sought to determine the effect that malnutrition, defined as hypoalbuminemia, has on hip fracture patients treated with total hip arthroplasty (THA). Specifically, we evaluated: (1) demographics and perioperative data; (2) postoperative complications; and (3) re-operation rates. METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was utilised to identify hip fracture patients who underwent THA from 2008 to 2015. Propensity scores were calculated for the likelihood of having a preoperative albumin measurement. Hip fracture patients who underwent THA and had preoperative hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL) (n = 569) were compared to those who had normal albumin levels (⩾3.5 g/dL) (n = 1098) in terms of demographics and perioperative data. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, modified Charlson/Deyo scores, and propensity scores to evaluate complication and re-operation rates. RESULTS: Compared to controls, hypoalbuminemia patients were older (p = 0.006), more likely male (p = 0.024), had higher Charlson/Deyo scores (p = 0.0001), more likely smokers (p < 0.0001), more likely functionally dependent (p < 0.0001), had ASA scores ⩾3 (p < 0.0001) and had longer LOS (p < 0.0001). Compared to controls, hypoalbuminemia patients had 80% higher risk for any complication (OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.43-2.26), 113% higher risk for major complications (OR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.31-3.48), and 79% higher risk for minor complications (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.42-2.26), and 97% increased risk for re-operation (OR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.20-3.23). CONCLUSIONS: The findings in the present study indicate the need to develop better pre- and postoperative medical and nutritional care for malnourished hip fracture patients who undergo THA in order to potentially mitigate their increased risk.

18.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective is to develop and validate an artificial neural network (ANN) that learns and predicts length of stay (LOS), inpatient charges, and discharge disposition before primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The secondary objective applied the ANN to propose a risk-based, patient-specific payment model (PSPM) commensurate with case complexity. METHODS: Using data from 175,042 primary TKAs from the National Inpatient Sample and an institutional database, an ANN was developed to predict LOS, charges, and disposition using 15 preoperative variables. Outcome metrics included accuracy and area under the curve for a receiver operating characteristic curve. Model uncertainty was stratified by All Patient Refined comorbidity indices in establishing a risk-based PSPM. RESULTS: The dynamic model demonstrated "learning" in the first 30 training rounds with areas under the curve of 74.8%, 82.8%, and 76.1% for LOS, charges, and discharge disposition, respectively. The PSPM demonstrated that as patient comorbidity increased, risk increased by 2.0%, 21.8%, and 82.6% for moderate, major, and severe comorbidities, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our deep learning model demonstrated "learning" with acceptable validity, reliability, and responsiveness in predicting value metrics, offering the ability to preoperatively plan for TKA episodes of care. This model may be applied to a PSPM proposing tiered reimbursements reflecting case complexity.

19.
J Arthroplasty ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) continues to be a subject of extensive debate. This is in part due to the lack of a single "gold standard" test, and the marked heterogeneity in the design of studies evaluating the accuracy of different diagnostic modalities. The goal of this review is to critically analyze the evidence cited by the proceedings of the 2013 International Consensus Meeting (ICM) on PJI with regards to the diagnosis of PJI. METHODS: References from the Proceedings of the ICM on PJI related to PJI minor criteria were retrieved and manually reviewed. A total of 25 studies were analyzed using a Validated Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. RESULTS: A large number of studies were determined to have a high risk of bias for flow and timing domains due to the large numbers of exclusions. Studies of synovial white blood cells count and polymorphonuclear neutrophils percentage suffered from threshold optimization and lack of internal validity. Furthermore, due to the lack of homogeneity across studies, index test and reference standard domains showed high risk of bias for white blood cell/polymorphonuclear neutrophil percentage and the utility histological analysis, respectively. Leukocyte esterase testing lacked standardization with regard to the strip reagent used, and the exclusion of bloody samples limited sample sizes. CONCLUSION: The 2013 ICM minor criteria were based on studies with a low quality of evidence. As the committee continues to adjust these guidelines, they should encourage future studies with sound clinical design, patient selection, and testing procedures.

20.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(12): 1093-1101, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Often, differences in length of stay after total knee arthroplasty are solely attributed to patient factors. Therefore, our aim was to determine the influence of patient-related and procedure or structural-related risk factors as predictors of length of stay after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 4,509 patients (54.6% of whom had Medicare for insurance) underwent primary total knee arthroplasty across 4 facilities in a single health-care system (from January 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017). Risk factors were categorized as patient-related risk factors (demographic characteristics, smoking status, Veterans RAND 12 Item Health Survey Mental Component Summary score [VR-12 MCS], Charlson Comorbidity Index, surgical indication, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], deformity, range of motion, and discharge location probability assessed by a nomogram predicting location after arthroplasty) or as procedure or structural-related risk factors (hospital site, surgeon, day of the week when the surgical procedure was performed, implant type, and surgical procedure start time). Multivariable cumulative link (proportional odds logistic regression) models were built to identify significant predictors from candidate risk factors for 1-day, 2-day, and ≥3-day length of stay. Performance was compared between a model containing patient-related risk factors only and a model with both patient-related and procedure or structural-related risk factors, utilizing the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and internally validated concordance probabilities (C-index) for discriminating a 1-day length of stay compared with >1-day length of stay. RESULTS: Patient-related risk factors were significant predictors of length of stay (p < 0.05). A longer length of stay was predicted by older age, higher body mass index (BMI), higher Charlson Comorbidity Index, lower VR-12 MCS, and female sex. However, when the procedure or structural factors were added to the patients' risk factors, the AIC decreased by approximately 1,670 units. This indicates that procedure or structural-related risk factors provide clinically relevant improvement in explaining length of stay in addition to patient-related risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite patient-related factors such as age, sex, and comorbidities providing substantial predictive value for length of stay after total knee arthroplasty, the main driving predictors of single-day length of stay after total knee arthroplasty were procedure or structural-related factors, including hospital site and surgeon. Understanding the risk factors that affect outcomes after total knee arthroplasty provides the opportunity to influence and potentially modify them favorably to optimize care.

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